CONTAINS

1951 MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE SESSIONS 2
July 1 to December 31, 1951

Studio Session for Howlin' Wolf, July/August 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Rosco Gordon, July 1951 / RPM Records
Studio Session for Harmonica Frank Floyd, July 15, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Willie Nix, July 1951 / RPM Records
Studio Session for Jackie Brenston, Probably July 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Billy Love, Probably June/July 24, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Jackie Brenston, Probably July/August 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Rosco Gordon, August 1951 / Duke/Chess Records
Studio Session for The Evangelist Gospel Singers of Alabama,
Probably August/September 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for The Brewsteraires, September 26, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Howlin' Wolf, September 1951 / RPM Records
Studio Session for Howlin' Wolf, October 2, 1951 / RPM Records
Studio Session for Rufus Thomas, October 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Lafayette Jerl Thomas, October 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Bobby Bland, November 1951 / Modern Records
Studio Session for Doctor Ross, November 29, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Billy Love, October/November 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Bob Price, December 2, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Rosco Gordon, December 3, 1951 / RPM Records
Studio Session for Rosco Gordon & Bobby Bland, December 4, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Harmonica Frank Floyd, December 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Gospel Tones, December 10, 1951
Studio Session for Jackie Brenston, December 15, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for Howlin' Wolf, December 18, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for The Southern Jubilee Singers, December 19, 1951 / Chess Records
Studio Session for L.B. Lawson & James Scott Jr., Probably 1951
Studio Session for J.C. Cole, Probably 1951/1952
Studio Session for Arbee Stidham, Unknown Date(s) 1951/1952

For Biographies of Artists (See: The Sun Biographies)
Most Sun tracks can be heard on the playlists from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on YouTube < click

JULY 1951

Sam Phillips purchases the rights to "Rocket 88" from Jackie Brenston for $910. Chess Records sells the publishing to Hill and Range for exploitation in the country music field. The first country cover version by Bill Haley's and His Saddlemen was recorded on June 14, and was released a few weeks later.

Sam Phillips buys the rights to Billy Love's "Juiced". Love's recording is rush-released under Jackie Brenston's name on Chess 1472. Brenston's originally planned follow-up "My Real Gone Rocket" is assigned a catalogue number (Chess 1469), but held back until October 1951.

Chess releases Harmonica Frank's ''Swamp Root'' (Chess 1475), This is one of Chess's first ventures into the country market. Initially the record is backed with ''Goin' Away Walkin''' but this is replaced with ''Step It Up And Go'', a minor hit at the time for Big Jeff on Dot.

Walt Disney’s 13th animated feature film “Alice in Wonderland” is released during July of 1951. Disney had been trying to create the film adaptation of the classic Lewis Carroll novel since the 1930s but was unhappy with it until after the end of World War II. When the film was finally finished and released in 1951 it was considered a flop and received negative reviews from film critics. “Alice in Wonderland” soon became a cult favorite film and was re-released in the 1970s to a more favorable critical response.

JULY 1951

Studio session with Rosco Gordon at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee. More details unknown.

Probably studio session with Willie Nix at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee, and Sam Phillips sends the dubs to Modern Records. These are believed to be the last recordings that Sam made for the Biharis, who were annoyed at his successful liaison with Chess Records. More details unknown.

Chess Records released the first of two disc by the Evangelist Gospel Singers of Alabama, probably recorded by Sam Phillips.

JULY 1, 1951 SUNDAY

Four weeks after he started working for the company, Precision Tools fires Elvis Presley because he's underage.

JULY 3, 1951 THUESDAY

The Carlisles recorded ''Too Old To Cut The Mustard'' in Nashville.

JULY 5, 1951 THURSDAY

Hank Williams renews his agreement with MGM Records for two more years.

JULY 9, 1951 MONDAY

Columbia released Lefty Frizzell's double-sided hit ''Always Late (With Your Kisses)'' and ''Mom And Dad's Waltz''.

Rosco Gordon's ''Rosco's Boogie'' (RPM 322) enters the local charts in Oak land, California.

JULY 10, 1951 TUESDAY

Singer/songwriter Cheryl Wheeler is born in Timonium, Maryland. She writes Dan Seals' 1988 hit ''Addicted'' and Suzy Bogguss' 1992 recording ''Aces''.

JULY 11, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Bonnie Pointer, of The Pointer Sisters, is born in Oakland, California. Though primarily a rhythm and blues act, The Pointers win a Grammy award in 1975 for Best Country Vocal Performance by a Duo or Group, for ''Fairytale''.

JULY 14, 1951 SATURDAY

Harry Choates, a Cajun fiddler best known for ''Jole Blon'', is arrested in Austin, Texas, for failure to pay child support. He dies in jail three days later. The death report blames cirrhosis of the liver, although some believe he was beaten to death.

JULY 15, 1951 SUNDAY

The Jay-Cees in Montgomery, Alabama, sponsor a Hank Williams Homecoming that includes performances by Hank Snow, The Carter Family and Chet Atkins, who's billled as the ''Teenage Tantalizer''.

''Rodeo King And The Senorita'' appears in movie theaters with Rex Allen and Buddy Ebsen in the starring roles.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

They kept fooling around in the studio, working not so much to refine the music, really, as to bore down into its molten core. Sam Phillips could experiment with mike placement, he could improve the engineering, and he did. He switched to an omni-directional mike because of the way Howlin' Wolf constantly moved his head from side to side, and he kept cranking up the sound to the point where it was just on the edge of distortion, sometimes past it, so that the music could jump right out of the jukebox but the needle would still stay in the groove, if only barely. He tried to give the piano player more confidence, the piano part may at this point have been merely filling out the sound, but it still didn't have the muscularity that the music called for. He tried to get the band to forget his presence in the studio, hanging back behind the glass as they just jammed, coming out only to indicate approval or make a slight mike adjustment that might be accompanied by an equally unobtrusive suggestion. But most of all, he knew he needed to get the Wolf so comfortable in the studio that he could just kick off his shoes, both figuratively and literally, and reach down for that part of him that was buried somewhere deep within.

Sam sent auditions to both Modern and Chess, even as he continued to work with the band. He had no intention of stopping before he reached a point that declared, this is the core of what you are looking for. This is the pure essence. For the first time he felt as if he had in Marion Keisker a full partner in his enthusiasm for the music. Despite the indifference she had always shown toward not just the music but its practitioners (they were for the most part, in her view, an ill-behaved lot who trucked in mud on the linoleum floor without the slightest regard for all the effort she put in to keep things clean), she was utterly charmed by Wolf, by the spontaneity of his style and the gentleness of his demeanor. Marion put it down initially to the single-mindedness of Sam's focus. ''Sam played Wolf over and over. I have some marvelous old discs of Howlin' Wolf that have maybe fourteen sets of lyrics to ''How Many More Years''. You couldn't be in the presence of Sam's intense motivation and drive and hear him making all these comments about, the music, without picking something up. But Sam's favorite Wolf story was my Wolf story. I was over at the studio, one night, either painting the floor or woodwork, totally absorbed in what I was doing, and all of a sudden I heard this voice, sounding like it was coming down from the sky. 'Miss Marion, what you doing down there on the floor?''', according Marion Keisker. She was scared to death at first, of course, but then she realized Wolf had been passing by and, when he saw the lights on in the studio, had come in out of concern for her. And she retained her fondness for both him and his music all her life.

STUDIO SESSION FOR HOWLIN' WOLF
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY TWO SESSIONS JULY/AUGUST 1951
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

MOST OF THE REPERTOIRE ON THIS SESSION WAS DUBBED
FROM ACETATE OR DISC SOURCE
MANY OF THE ORIGINAL MASTER TAPES HAVE BEEN LOST

''I was totally blinded by the sound of his voice'', Sam Phillips told Peter Guralnick many years later. ''I'm not sure I heard anything in the way of instrumentation''. Those are the words of someone attuned to every aspect of recording, and that alone speaks to Howlin' Wolf's authority. Even a list of all Wolf's obvious and not-so-obvious influences, like Tommy Johnson, Charley Patton, and Jimmie Rodgers, doesn't half-way explain the ageless wonder of his debut. He was so much more than the sum of those parts. This is one of those records that could have come from nowhere but Mississippi. There's a piano on ''How Many More Years'', suggesting that it might have been recorded at a different time from ''Moanin' At Midnight''. And there were earlier versions of ''How Many More Years'' suggesting that it was the presumed A-side until Wolf suddenly cut loose with ''Moanin' At Midnight''. One possibility is that the pianist thought ''Moanin''' was a run-through and sat it out. The identity of the pianist has never nailed beyond doubt, but there seems to be common assent that it's Ike Turner, even though Phillips didn't recall Turner ever working with Wolf. Guitarist Willie Johnson later insisted that he had a hand in writing the song on the way to the studio. ''I'm the one (who)... printed it and put the words in his mouth'', he said. Wolf disputed that claim, but it was a moot point at first because the putative composer of both sides was Carl Germany, who was also credited with writing several other songs on Chess, including some of Sax Mallard's records and one of Jackie Brenston's song, ''Hi Ho Baby''. It wasn't unknown for Chess to use composer credits to repay favors. Alan Freed was often thus rewarded, and Russ Fratto, who ran a Chicago stationery company, received one third of Chuck Berry's ''Maybellene'' in return for who knows what. Rufus Thomas's first single, ''Night Walkin' Blues'', was credited to Marty Witzel, who'd introduced Leonard Chess to his wife. Carl Germany, a mid-western dance promoter and Chicago disc jockey, was similarly blessed. These days, though, the composer credit reads as it always should: Chester Burnett.

01(1) - "HOW MANY MORE YEARS"* – B.M.I. - 2:41
Composer: - Carl Germany-Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 83 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - July/August 1951
Released: - August 31, 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm standard single Chess 1479-B mono
HOW MANY MORE YEARS / MOANIN' AT MIDNIGHT
Reached at number 4 at the Billboard's Rhythm and Blues charts
Reissued: - 1990 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15500-2 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 2

On "How Many More Years", in contrast to Willie Johnson's striding, intricate guitar riff on "Moanin' At Midnight", the mood is set by Williams stomping double-fisted piano style, as irresistible as anything by Jerry Lee Lewis. On top of them all, the icing on the cake, is the deepest, most reverberating howl ever yet heard on record, a voice that audibly sent all the needles in the control room jerking over into the red danger zone. It was an extraordinary debut, 40-years in the making.

01(2) - "HOW MANY MORE YEARS"* – B.M.I. - 2:33
Composer: - Carl Germany-Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - None - Chess Alternate Take - Presto Acetate
Recorded: - July/August 1951
Released: - 1973
First appearance: - Redita Records (LP) 33rpm RLP-105 mono
VARIOUS - MEMPHIS BLUES AT SUNSHINE - MEMPHIS BLUES AT SUNRISE

Many words have been devoted to unraveling just how and why this is among the truly seminal recordings in the almost 100-year history of recorded blues. Some have written elegantly about is, some inelegantly, but all have been transfixed by the emotional impact of the eerie, wordless moan and the one-chord vamp over which Wolf sings his song. The sub-par recording quality only enhances the enigma. It's as if you're hearing voices of the dead rising through a miasma of sound. Musicologist Ted Giola made a detailed analysis of the song, exploring Wolf's uncertain tonality and guitarist Willie Johnson's ability to shuttle between ''a predictable rhythmic figure and acerbic interjections that push and prod Wolf in his bristly vocal''. Even parsed and analyzed, it retains its inscrutability.

Later in life, Sam Phillips would sometimes place a retrospective spin on what he'd done, but he was clearly high on Howlin' Wolf from the beginning. Writing to Nashville disc jockey Gene Nobles on September 3, 1951... three days after this record was released, Phillips said, ''Moanin' At Midnight'' is the side... I know I'm partial, but it is the most different record I ever heard''. Wolf still had his radio show on KWEM and was probably plugging the record heavenly. Phillips told Nobles that it was already the top-selling blues record in Memphis. On November 10, it entered the national Rhythm and Blues charts, the first of Wolf's six charted hits.

02 - "MOANIN' AT MIDNIGHT" – B.M.I. - 2:53
Composer: - Carl Germany-Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Arc Music Incorporated - Charly International
Matrix number: - U 84 Take 1 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - July/August 1951
Released: - August 31, 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm standard single Chess 1479-A mono
MOANIN' AT MIDNIGHT / HOW MANY MORE YEARS
Reissued: - 1990 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15500-3 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 2

Although the Wolf will always be remembered in tandem with his later Chicago guitarist Hubert Sumlin, it is clear that the younger man learned much from Willie Johnson's belligerent, driving guitar style. There is little to suggest that, if Johnson had been willing to travel north a couple of years later, the Wolf catalogue would be any the weaker. Musically, that is - though one of them might well have killed the other before too long. "Willie and Wolf would just argue all the time like cat and dog", said James Cotton. "Willie could be pretty mean, too. It just got to be too much trouble for the old man".

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Howlin' Wolf - Vocal and Harmonica
Willie Johnson - Guitar
Willie Steele - Drums
James Cotton - Harmonica
Possibly Ike Turner - Piano* or
Billy ''Red'' Love - Piano

The tape of the Howlin' Wolf sessions went to Chess Records in Chicago, but a next second version, produced on a session in September by Ike Turner over KWEM radio in West Memphis, Arkansas, also included a version of "Moanin' At Midnight" (''Morning At Midnight'') (RPM 333) and was sent to the Biharis, appearing on RPM Records. This situation could clearly not last, and by the following year all Howlin' Wolf sides were going to Chess, and Sam Phillips had burned his boats as far as the Biharis were concerned.

Summarize, it was only after the Bihari brothers had indicated a final and irrevocable break with their Billboard announcement that they had signed all of Sam's discoveries to exclusive contracts at the end of July that Sam at last turned in a record to Leonard Chess that he felt did full justice to Wolf's talents. This time he got Rosco Gordon's mentor, Billy ''Red'' Love, for the piano chair. Fair-skinned, freckle-faced, and barely twenty-one, Billy was comfortable in every style, and it was his distinctive piano figure that served as the intro to ''How Many More Years'' before Willie Johnson's thunderous guitar chords and Wolf's inexorable vocal took over the play. The other side, oddly enough, was not ''Baby Ride With Me'', the track they had been working on all these weeks May 14, 15, but an entirely different number, which dispensed with piano altogether and led off with a feature not present in either of the other songs, Wolf's howl. In this case it took the form of an almost unearthly moan, starting low and gathering force over the first eight bars of the song, until it coalesced in a single focused blast that seemed capable of ripping the innards out of Sam's prized omni-directional mike.

''Moanin' At Midnight'' was the very embodiment of all the loneliness and all the ferocity implicit in Wolf's music. The howl came from the ''blue yodel'' of Jimmy Rodgers, the so-called father of Country Music, whom Wolf always acknowledged as a direct influence, and Crystal Springs, Mississippi bluesman Tommy Johnson, whose delicate filigreed style, punctuated with wordless falsetto ululations, was the point of origin for much of the subtle lyricism underlying Wolf's otherwise extroverted approach. But the performance itself was inimitable, with the same hypnotic power that Sam himself had experienced from the very first time he had heard the Wolf but imbedded now in the grooves of a record in a way that the world itself could fully apprehend it. There may never have been a more powerful example of blues committed in the pure Mississippi style, not by Wolf's mentor, Charley Patton, widely acknowledged as the progenitor of Delta blues, nor by anyone else who has arrived on the scene before or since. ''I can take one damn record like 'Moanin' At Midnight''', Sam told Wolf co-biographer James Segrest, ''and forget every damn thing else that the man ever cut''. Not that he ever would. As far as Sam was concerned, there was no question at that moment that he was going to go on recording Wolf until the day that one of them died. But there was equally little question that they had achieved something together that would be around for the ages. No less than if it had been carved in marble, in granite. It would be there, Sam Phillips was convinced. It would be there. As big as life itself.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR ROSCO GORDON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR RPM RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE JULY 1951
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

01 - "WOMEN, WOMEN, WOMEN (DIME A DOZEN)"* – B.M.I. - 2:35
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - 1639 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - July 1951
Released: - Fall 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm standard single RPM 336-A mono
DIME A DOZEN / A NEW REMEDY FOR LOVE
Reissued: - November 24, 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm Ace CDCHD 694-6 mono
ROSCO GORDON - BOOTED - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

02 - "A NEW REMEDY FOR LOVE"* – B.M.I. - 2:16
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - 1640 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - July 1951
Released: - Fall 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm standard single RPM 336-B mono
A NEW REMEDY FOR LOVE / DIME A DOZEN
Reissued: - November 24, 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm Ace CDCHD 694-7 mono
ROSCO GORDON - BOOTED - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

03 – ''KICKIN' THE BOOGIE'' – B.M.I.
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date April 1951
Released: - 1982
First appearance: - Ace Records (LP) 33rpm Ace CH51-1-7 mono
ROSCO GORDON - THE MEMPHIS SESSIONS - VOLUME 2

04 – ''A MISERABLE FEELING'' – B.M.I. - 3:05
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date April 1951
Released: - 1980
First appearance: - Ace Records (LP) 33rpm Ace CH26-2-5 mono
THE BEST OF ROSCO GORDON - VOLUME ONE
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CD 213-11 mono
ROSCO GORDON - LET'S GET HIGH

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Rosco Gordon - Vocal & Piano
Probably Ray Jones - Alt Saxophone
Probably Man Son or Murry Daley - Drums
More Details Unknown

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Frank Floyd was not the first white musician to record for Sam Phillips; that distinction goes to Slim Rhodes or Buck Turner. However, he was the first white musician who had a real dash of blues in his style. Sam Phillips sold two cuts to Chess, "Swamp Root" and "Goin' Away Walkin". Two weeks later, the single was withdrawn and "Goin' Away Walkin'" was replaced with "Step It Up And Go". Despite the confusion, the new coupling appears to have sold quite respectable. Frank received $100 from Chess and the label placed an advertisement in Billboard (August 25, 1951) announcing that the record was The newest country smash... Spreading Like Wildfire.

STUDIO SESSION FOR HARMONICA FRANK FLOYD
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: SUNDAY JULY 15, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

On May 15, 1981 there was a press conference-cum-reception honouring the participants in the forthcoming Memphis Music in May festival. Over in the corner, looking for all the world as though he should be standing in the Farm Credit Bureau, was an elderly gentleman downing a respectable quantity of wine. There was a decal on his overalls which, on closer inspection, read Harmonica Frank - King Of Harps. Aside from a few patronising comments from the media types and hangers-on, Frank was being ignored, which did not seem to bother him a great deal, perhaps because of the limitless supply of wine and cheese. He pulled his guitar from its case, ran through a few numbers that he intended to use the next day, and spoke of days long passed.

The fact we know anything at all about Frank Floyd is entirely due to the perseverance of blues researcher Steve LaVere who followed up the skimpiest of leads and finally tracked down the elusive Harmonica Frank in rural Tennessee. LaVere recounts his exploits in Blues Unlimited No. 99.

Harmonica Frank opened the May festival. He walked on stage colourfully attired in red trousers, red shoes, a multicolored jacket, psychedelic tie and shirt, all topped with a red baseball cap. He ran through his repertoire of old time music which he had extended to include a couple of Hank Williams songs. His guitar playing was proficient but, in the man's own words, "I'm not a guitarist. Don't claim to be".

However, when he started pulling harmonicas from various pockets and pouches in his jacket he suddenly became very special. He really could hold a harmonica in one side his mouth and sing out of the other side. It wasn't just a gimmick, it was his style. He was also clutching a bootleg Dr. Ross EP that he hoped to sell and, for the benefit of those who had never heard of him, he reiterated his claim to be the founding father of rock and roll.

Of course, that claim is a little far fetched but if we can allow Jelly Roll Morton to assert that he invented jazz one day in 1902 then we can live with Frank's claim. At the very least, he was playing a mix of blues and hillbilly music years before most people thought that the two could, or should, be combined.

Frank became a rambler. He joined a carnival and played for nickels and dimes in town squares and on street corners. He had already reached a high level of virtuosity on the harmonica but did not take up the guitar until he heard Jimmie Rodgers, perhaps the first popular artist to blend black and white musical styles. Frank Floyd became so enamoured of Rodgers' style that he even made a pilgrimage to Rodgers' home in Kerrville, Texas, to meet his idol.

01 - "SWAMP ROOT" – B.M.I. - 2:36
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 80 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - July 15, 1951
Released: - August 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1475-B mono
SWAMP ROOT / GOIN' AWAY WALKIN'
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-1 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-19 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

After hearing ''Swamp Root'', it is impossible to imagine how record collectors could ever have thought that Harmonica Frank was black. This song bears some similarity to Buddy Jones' 1937 recording ''Hunting Blues'' *reworked in 1950 by Joe Stewart on Star Talent), although it was probably a medicine show or vaudeville routine dating back much further. Chris Bouchillon was the first to record in this talking blues style, but that doesn't mean he originated it. Frank was the master of pastiche. A bit from here, a bit from there; some definitely from Bouchillon. Water from an ancient well perhaps, but it was idiosyncratically his own. The title comes from a patent medicine: Dr. Kilmer's Swamproot: Kidnet, Liver, and Bladder Cure. Frank probably sold it somewhere along the way. And along that way, he picked up couplets like ''The wine goes in, the truth comes out / Two more shots and I'll tell it all...'' Every verse has noises that most of us renounced at the age of five, but no matter, it adds to the sloppy drunk charm of the tune.

02 - "GOIN' AWAY WALKIN'" – B.M.I. - 2:33
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 81 Master
Recorded: - July 15, 1951
Released: - August 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1475-Alternate B mono
GOIN' AWAY WALKIN' / SWAMP ROOT
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-2 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-20 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

On ''Goin' Away Walkin'' out comes the harmonica, and here comes the blues. Now this could have fooled some folks into thinking they were hearing a black guy. ''Goin' Away Walkin''' is basically a crazy-quilt of blues cliches, but it proves that Frank had a genuine feel for blues cadences and rhythms. Probably no more than a few lines were freshly minted for the recording but Frank delivers it all with real conviction. It is not hard to see the delight that Phillips must have taken in recording the man because there is a real intuitive musically underlying every performance.

"Frank Floyd - now here was a musician I was very much into", recalled Sam Phillips. "He was what I call a modern-day hobo. He didn't stay anywhere for very long. He was unique, and he fascinated me. It was a little difficult to find a market for Frank, because people appreciated what he did without really buying his records that much. He was really out of the old school. Frank was a one-man-band. He played harmonica out of one side of his mouth and sang through the other side. He didn't use a harmonica bracket. He picked guitar and did a lot of those old narrative type songs. You have to keep in mind along that time, music was getting somewhat less pure that it had been - had I been able to spend the money on Frank Floyd I think, because of the sheer fact that he was so different, he could have become an institution here. It would have been more a classification of a novelty kind of act compared to most of the artists we had".

03 - "STEP IT UP AND GO" – B.M.I. - 2:21
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 82 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - July 15, 1951
Released: - August 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1475-A mono
STEP IT UP AND GO / GOIN' AWAY WALKIN'
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-3 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-21 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

When the first incarnation of Chess 1475A was snatched off the market after a few weeks, it was replaced by ''Step It Up And Go'' as a new partner for ''Swamp Root''. Like many blues songs, its lineage begins with the first recorded version, even if the original wasn't necessarily by the original writer. Charlie Burse recorded an unissued song called ''Oil It Up And Go'' on July 8, 1939. Blind Boy Fuller was almost certainly around when that song was cut, on March 5, 1940, recorded ''Step It Up And Go''. In between, on November 22, 1939, Tommy McClennan recorded ''Bottle It Up And Go''. The first hillbilly version was by Blue Friday & His Daniel Boone Ramblers on Rich-R-Tone in 1949. Big Jeff's Dot recording appeared at rougly the same time as the Maddox Brothers and Rose's ''New Step It Up And Go'', and both became juke box favorites. The Maddoxes' record was notified to Billboard in April 1951 and Big Jeff's in May. Frank recorded it in July. His version features some spirited interchanges between the guitar and harmonica and possesses a wonderful drive. Frank Floyd was a tight little rhythm section. He sounds like both Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee rolled into one.

At the end of July 1951 Chess Records released Harmonica Frank's "Swamp Root" (Chess 1475), one of their first ventures into the country market. Initially, the disc is backet with "Goin' Away Walkin'", which is later replaced by "Step It Up And Go", a minor hit at that time for Big Jeff on Dot Records.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Harmonica Frank Floyd - Vocal, Guitar and Harmonica

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR WILLIE NIX
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR RPM RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE JULY
OR PROBABLY JUNE 18, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

01 - "LONESOME BEDROOM BLUES" – B.M.I. - 2:29
Composer: - Willie Nix-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - 1608 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date July 1951
Released: - Fall 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 327-A mono
LONESOME BEDROOM BLUES / TRY ME ONE MORE TIME
Reissued: - 2004 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDCHD 1003-2 mono
THE MODERN DOWNHOME BLUES SESSIONS VOLUME 3 - MEMPHIS ON DOWN

02 - "TRY ME ONE MORE TIME" – B.M.I. - 2:41
Composer: - Willie Nix-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - 1609 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date Probably July 1951
Released: - Fall 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 327-B mono
TRY ME ONE MORE TIME / LONESOME BEDROOM BLUES
Reissued: - 2004 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDCHD 1003-1 mono
THE MODERN DOWNHOME BLUES SESSIONS VOLUME 3 - MEMPHIS ON DOWN

03 - "FINE AND MELLOW BABY" – B.M.I. - 2:41
Composer: - Willie Nix-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date Probably July 1951
Released: - Japan 1994
First appearance: - P-Vine Records (CD) 500/200rpm P-Vice PCD 3036 mono
ANTHOLOGY OF THE BLUES - VOLUME 1

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Willie Nix - Vocal & Drums
Willie Johnson - Guitar
Billy Love - Piano
More Details Unknown

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

If there were any real doubts that Phillips' recordings with Jackie Brenston presaged rock and roll, then this should bury them for good. Ike Turner's piano is mixed way up front as Brenston continues the "Rocket 88" saga: a wild recording which almost veers off the road, out of control, Turner's thunderous left hand once again drives the beast along, ably supported by guitarist Willie Kizart.

This is indeed quintessential good-time music, riddled with contagious energy and a couple of memorable lines, viz: "When I cruise through your town/Like that great Northwestern/You can tell everybody/that was mighty Jackie Brenston'. Yes, indeed!".

STUDIO SESSION FOR JACKIE BRENSTON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY JULY 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

01 - "MY REAL GONE ROCKET" – B.M.I. - 2:26
Composer: - Jackie Brenston
Publisher: - B.L.P.C.
Matrix number: - U 66A Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - Probably July 1951
Released: - October 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1469-A mono
MY REAL GONE ROCKET / TUCKERED OUT
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-12 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

The identity of the group on this session is unclear. Brenston seems to identify the saxophonenist as Clint, and the presence of a trumpet suggests that we're hearing the Steinberg outfit. The neatly executed section work similarly seems to imply skilled musicians, not honkers and screamers.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Jackie Brenston - Vocal
Willie Kizart – Guitar
Ike Turner - Piano
Willie Sims - Drums
Raymond Hill - Tenor Saxophone
Unknown - Trumpet

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

JULY 17, 1951 TUESDAY

Cajun-fiddler Harry Choates dies while incarcerated in Austin, Texas. Though the cause of death was listed as cirrhosis of the liver, a jail beating might have been the actual cause. Choates earned acclaim with ''Jole Blon''.

JULY 19, 1951 THURSDAY

Mary Carlson is born. She is destined to marry Merrill Osmond, of The Osmonds.

JULY 21, 1951 SATURDAY

Lefty Frizzell joins the Grand Ole Opry, at the Ryman Auditorium in Nashville, Tennessee.

JULY 22, 1951 SUNDAY

Guitarist and record producer Richard Bennett is born in Chicago. He works with George Strait, Neil Diamond, Steve Early, Conway Twitty, Hal Ketchum, Travis Tritt and Emmylou Harris, among others.

JULY 23, 1951 MONDAY

George Jones' first wife, Dorothy, files for divorce.

JULY 24, 1951 TUESDAY

Sam Phillips and his assistant Marion Keisker opened a file on the man who told them his name was Milton Billy Love, and they noted that Love was living at 172 Person Street. The City Directory for that year lists Milton Love, a musician, living at the rear of 159 Majuba Avenue.

Both addresses were located in South Memphis below Beale Street and near to Riverside Park, as too was Florida Street. Milton Love was listed as living with a wife or girlfriend named Carrie at that time, though no trace of a marriage registration can be found.

Phillips noted a telephone number for Love but then crossed it out and added seven more in the period 1951 to 1954 and so it is probable that Love moved house again more than once. The last number was described as being that of 'Harvey'.

It may have been that of saxophonist Harvey Simmons but equally it could have been bandleader Bill Harvey with whom Love is known to have played at one time. Harvey put a band together for B. B. King, who said: "Bill was one of the greatest bandleaders and one of the worst guys ever - he was one of the best people but he loved to drink." We can also imagine Billy Love falling in with the drinking and dice crowd at this time if he had not already done so with the Rosco Gordon crowd.

That July day in 1951 Sam Phillips paid Milton Billy Love a hundred dollars for performance and rights to Chess 1472 for Brenston to be deducted from Brenston royalties. Saxophonist and singer Jackie Brenston was a member of a band led by Ike Turner, known as the Kings of Rhythm, who had recorded for Phillips in March 1951. By that summer they were riding high on the rhythm and blues charts with a storming rhythm and blues number Phillips had recorded and sold to Chess Records, Rocket 88. Phillips had credited the record to Jackie Brenston's Delta Cats, to Turner's displeasure, and the Delta Cats were soon in demand for personal appearances. On 7 May Sam Phillips bought Brenston a complete PA-system' for $165. By August 15, Phillips had made the down payment on a $1000 tour bus for Brenston and his band. Jackie Brenston and Ike Turner had a falling out over who was the real mover and leader of the band and that summer Brenston toured first with Turner's band and then with the Steinberg band, then the Newborn brothers who put a band together to tour the big cities - Los Angeles, Chicago, New York and Philadelphia.

A follow-up disc by Brenston was in demand as much as personal appearances were and Brenston recorded a second disc in April and May 1951. Its release was delayed and then it did not hit, and Phillips was soon under pressure to produce a better follow-up and one that could be issued quickly. Brenston made another session early in July 1951 having been in Memphis briefly to sign a contract about royalties on June 28.

Phillips decided, however, that only one song was worthy of release and that this would be a B-side. He badly needed another storming performance, and this was where Billy Love came in. Brenston was a better sax player than a singer and he did not have a strong original song. Besides, he was in demand on the road. Billy Love, in contrast, was in town playing sessions for Sam, was a better singer, wrote his own songs, and played a storming piano too. He played Sam a song that fit the bill exactly, Juiced. Sam Phillips told me: "Ike Turner took Jackie Brenston's band away from us, and so we had a problem. At that time Chess was screaming for some more top notch product so I recorded Billy Love singing 'Juiced' and we used that as the follow up song. It was the best song around and I bought it off Billy for release as Jackie."

Released around October 1, 1951 as Chess 1472 by Jackie Brenston, ''Juiced'' was the finest record Jackie Brenston never made - and that Billy Love was never credited with making. It is likely that the song was recorded after Brenston's session at the end of June and before Phillips paid Love for the song on July 24. ''Juiced'' is a drinking song of the first order and features Love's enthusiastic shouts and edgy vocal about getting loose and drinking some juice. Love plays a rolling piano boogie punctuated by rocking guitar figures and solos by Calvin Newborn. There is an excellent sax solo by Charles Walker and the storming track is carried along by drummer Phineas Newborn senior. It would have made sense if Phineas's son were also there playing piano, but the style is clearly that of Billy Love. On the strength of his session work so far and the promising cut on Juiced, Sam Phillips signed Billy Love to a personal services contract dated July 31, 1951. On August 29, Phillips noted he gave Love a personal loan of $15 and that, unusually, this was 'not checked against royalties. Years later Phillips confirmed to me his liking for Billy Love's music saying, "Billy was a super good musician".

Here is a photograph (above) of Billy Love sitting at a piano on the corner of the stage of what may well be the Palace Theater on Beale Street in Memphis and behind him is an advertising poster for the Johnny Otis Show due to appear in Memphis for four nights from 9 -12 of a month and year that are not visible. It is known that the Otis show featuring the same singers and guests as listed in the poster was in Memphis at the Palace on November 9-12, 1950, and it just may be that Billy Love played that show too as part of the local support.

The Otis revue made regular visits to Memphis over the next two or three years and so Love's promotional photograph could date from as early as 1950 or as late as 1953.

ABOUT BILLY RED LOVE - Billy Love was a massive talent, becoming the Sun label's best session pianist in black music and the leader of Rosco Gordon's road band for some years. But he spent his life in and out of the armed forces, in and out of employment, in and out of jazz clubs, and in and out of the attention of law enforcement officers. Billy Love led a full, short, frustrating and strange life.

Until now Billy Red' Love was a name on a record label, a name in a recording company's files, someone several of his contemporary musicians remembered - but the information, though intriguing, was sparse at best and contradictory at worst. Billy Love was never featured in any music publications or promotional blurbs, and he was never interviewed.

According to the files kept between 1951 and 1954 by Sam Phillips and Marion Keisker at the Memphis Recording Service, where Love made all his known recordings, his real name was Milton Billy Love. But Love is quite a familiar surname in and around Memphis and parts of Mississippi, in both the black community and the white, and it was not immediately clear and straightforward whether we should be looking to trace a man named Billy or William or Milton.

In the official registers of births, no-one named Billy or William seemed to fit the bill. A little research soon revealed that our man was not the same Billy Love who was famous around Greenville, Mississippi, for buying and selling cotton. Equally he was not the same Milton Love who recorded as lead singer of The Solitaires for Old Town Records in New York in the mid-'50s. Some contemporaries and writers have confused him with Willie Love, another blues pianist and singer associated with Trumpet Records in Jackson, Mississippi, Others have speculated some connection with harmonica player Coy Love but research along those lines led to nothing. Eventually, it became possible to identify our man through the records of the U S Army; these revealed that he was named Milton Love and that he had first signed on for the Army in 1946 in Memphis. With that information, it was possible to find his July 1944 application for a social security number - and there it finally transpired that his real full name was Milton Morse Love junior.

But the Memphis of the late 1940s and early 1950s was full of good pianists, both local fixtures and those passing through, professional and amateur, dedicated and not. Pianist Roosevelt Sykes came through Memphis to play for many years and remembered: "I played at the Palace Theater. I had me a band in there. The Palace was awful popular,, they'd bring all the leading names in." Along Beale Street the Palace was vying for business with the Daisy Theater, Pee Wee's Saloon, Robert Henry's, and other establishments, both large and small. Sykes described how he, played all over Memphis, out there in Boxtown, on Kansas Street, at Trigg and Florida for 'Tobacco George I played at LaFonza's (Joe Ruffanti's Midway Cafe) on Fourth and Beale. Pianist Memphis Slim got his start in there... Them places they had a restaurant in the front, but you go through the back, that's the big part, that's where the action is, card tables and dice tables, and the bandstand was back there... (The pianists) all them guys, they'd only play if they got broke. Then they'd say 'I'm going to play the blues' and start playing because somebody would give 'em a stake to get back in the game. Then too, they could get the women. B. B. King said, "I think that area around Beale Street and Fourth Avenue would have been my community college, because they had a lot going on. Guys would be out there, professional guys, practicing their horns, shooting craps, or dancing. I mean the best.... They would play amongst each other, they would learn from each other... and late Fridays and Saturdays, people would come from the surrounding area, so it would be almost like Times Square on a Saturday there."

Meanwhile Billy Love's contemporaries and friends from Florida Street were all finding their way over to Beale Street, once known as the Main Street of Negro America, where the action lay in the theatres and bars and night clubs there. They probably also made their way across the river to the other area of night clubs and bars in West Memphis, Arkansas.

Emerging blues singer and guitarist B. B. King had found his way onto radio and onto records and formed a band that included pianist Johnny Ace, drummer Earl Forest, and sax player Richard Sanders, Billy Love's friend and Lillie's brother, to play clubs in the local area. Rosco Gordon, too, was making some moves after his various attempts to get out of Memphis as a teenager. Rosco said: "When I got back to Memphis, I had these two friends. We were inseparable. We liked to drink Mogen David wine, and on this particular Wednesday night we had no wine money, so we went, to the amateur night that they had every Wednesday on Beale Street, where Rufus Thomas was the emcee. They coaxed me to go up on stage to make the wine money: Whether or not Billy Love was one of these friends, and whether or not he, too, played the amateur shows, or even the professional shows, is unknown. What is clear is that Rosco started to win amateur prizes, then appeared on radio WDIA as part of one prize, and then gained an introduction to Sam Phillips at the Memphis Recording Service over on Union Avenue. Sam was looking to make blues and rhythm and blues records to lease to big city record companies, Phillips recorded Gordon in February 1951, and on five more occasions that year. The liaison bore fruit with Gordon's chaotic and unusual 'big-handed' piano style that had emerged from Billy Love's teachings. Sam dubbed this 'Rosco's Rhythm' and before long Gordon's recording of Rosco's Boogie was making significant sales on RPM Records. Another pianist and former Florida street player, Johnny Ace, soon followed and briefly eclipsed Rosco's success with ''My Song'' and other recordings for Duke Records before his early and much reported demise while playing with a hand gun.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR BILLY LOVE
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: POSSIBLY TUESDAY JULY 24, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

Billy Love was a massive talent, becoming the Sun label's best session pianist in black music and the leader of Rosco Gordon's road band for some years. But he spent his life in and out of the armed forces, in and out of employment, in and out of jazz clubs, and in and out of the attention of law enforcement officers. Billy Love led a full, short, frustrating and strange life. His music was not strange though. In his singing, song writing, arranging and piano playing he was up there with the best.

01 – "JUICED" – B.M.I. - 2:30
Composer: - Milton Morse Love
Publisher: - Hill and Range Songs Incorporated
Matrix number: - U 7349 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - Possibly July 24, 1951
Released: - July 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1472-A mono
JUICED / ROCKET 88
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-11 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

This track is most certainly deserving of more than a passing footnote in the annals of rhythm and blues. A cryptic entry in Phillips own session files states that Billy Love was paid $100 for the composition, session piano, and vocal, but the irony was, of course, that this track was released under Jackie Brenston's name as a follow-up to "Rocket 88". An uproarious performance from start to finish, Love mimics Brenston's habit of yelling the soloist's name and whooping continually throughout. There is indeed a prodigious amount of energy in these grooves: Love's left hand is rock solid and fairly drives the session along, playing in unison with the bass. Guitarist Calvin Newborn fills incessantly around the vocal and takes a mean. extended solo: he's playing Jazz with lethal attacks, and that dirty rhythm & blues tone which Sam Phillips so loved. The sax is buried until the solo initially, but then assumes control in fine style. It should a been a biggie - in fact, perhaps if "Juiced" been issued under Billy Love's own name he could have afforded to kill himself on a better brand of liquor.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Billy Love - Vocal and Piano
Charles Walker - Saxophone
Calvin Newborn - Guitar
Phineas Newborn Sr. - Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR JACKIE BRENSTON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY JULY/AUGUST 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

Songwriter Larry Meeks is a white, Colorado-based lounge pianist and tunesmith who worked at one time or another with Benny Goodman, Les Elgart, and Tennessee Ernie Ford. In 1951, he was in the Navy, based in Millington, Tennessee... just north of Memphis. ''I was a pianist with the Navy band'', Meeks said recently. ''I wrote this song for the score of a musical comedy titled 'Prairie Navy' which had only two performances at the Auditorium in Memphis. I wrote it for me to sing in the show and I made a demo recording of the song at Sun studio and later learned it was recorded at Sun with a group or performer whom I didn't know''. As far as we know, this is the only show tune , and one of just a handful of songs written by white composer... if you discount the appearance of label owners in the composer credits. ''Prairie Navy'' ran in March 1951, so Phillips must have sat on the song for a few months.

01 - "TUCKERED OUT" – B.M.I. - 2:28
Composer: - Larry Meeks
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 85 Master - Click > 1458-1485 Series
Recorded: - Probably July/August 1951
Released: - October 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1469-B mono
TUCKERED OUT / MY REAL GONE ROCKET
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-15 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

It isn't known how Sam Phillips or Jackie Brenston stumbled across this number, but its clearly a rather better - crafted song than Brenston's own loose, good-time rockers. The riffing horns are mixed way down, upstaged by the band chanting the refrain, whilst Calvin Newborn's guitar solo evinces distinct jazz leanings. Although recorded a month or so after the rather meatier "My Real Gone Rocket" Brenston himself recalled that this one was touted as the A-side, and he felt that this career lost momentum as a result. Nonetheless, this remains a magnificent performance, as tight and organized as "Real Gone Rocket" is loose and unbridled.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Jackie Brenston - Vocal
Unknown - Saxophone
Unknown - Bass
Phineas Newborn Jr. - Piano
Calvin Newborn - Guitar
Phineas Newborn Sr. - Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

JULY 25, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Hank Williams recorded ''Lonesome Whistle'' and ''Crazy Heart'' at Nashville's Castle Studio. He also takes a swipe at ''Baby, We're Really In Love'', though he records it again the following month.

JULY 26, 1951 THURSDAY

The Abbott & Costello comedy ''Comin' Round The Mountain'' appears in movie theaters, with ''Freudin' And Fightin'''singer Dorothy Shay co-starring.

JULY 27, 1951 FRIDAY

George Jones is slapped with a court order to stay away from his wife, Dorothy, who has filed for divorce.

JULY 28, 1951 SATURDAY

''Modern Inks Seven Artists to Packs, was the headliner in Billboard, with Ike Turner, Jackie Brenston, Phineas Newborn, and Walter Horton included, and the stipulation that Jackie, and presumably all others from Memphis, had now joined the American Federation of Musicians in Atlanta. ''Tho Rocket 88'' has been a top seller, Chess, has, no pact with Brenston'', the press release unhesitatingly declared, essentially positing union membership as the only basis for a legitimate contractual relationship.

''I had a deal with Phillips to pick up all the stuff he made'', Jules Bihari declared in an interview nearly twenty years later. When ''Rocket 88'' hit, he said, ''that sure blew the deal''. Which as far as Sam Phillips was concerned didn't match the facts in any way, shape, or form. There was no way in hell it was an exclusive deal. And if it was, the Bihari brothers hadn't lived up to it from the start. Of all the recordings he had sent them in the eight months between the time they had first met and Leonard Chess' arrival in Memphis, the only record they had actually put out was the Joe Hill Louis single that they had sat on forever. From Sam's point of view, it was all just a bunch of bullshit, to the Bihari brothers it was all about the money, pure and simple, they would just as soon ruin him as look at him. But he was not about to acquiesce. And besides, by now he had seen it, he had heard it, he had found what he had been seeking all along, that magical meeting of flesh and spirit, where, as he would later say, ''the soul of man never dies''. He had over the past month met and recorded the music of the man he would consider the greatest talent, the most profound artist he ever encountered, the Howlin' Wolf.

JULY 29, 1951 SUNDAY

Songwriter Ed Hunnicutt is born in Troy, New York. He authors Mickey Gilley's 1986 hit ''Doo-Wah Days''.

JULY 30, 1951 MONDAY

Decca released Ernest Tubb's ''Hey La La''.

Decca released The Weaver's pop hit ''Kisses Sweeter Than Wine''. Six years later, Jimmie Rogers lauches a new version into the pop and country charts.

AUGUST 1951

The Biharis complain to the American Federation of Musicians that they have Jackie Brenston under contract. Jules and Saul Bihari leave Los Angeles on a tour of Southern distributors. On their return, they announce that they have signed Willie Nix.

The wrangling begins over Howlin' Wolf, who had been in the process of establishing himself as a radio personality at KWEM in West Memphis. Sam Phillips signs him to an AFM contract, and possibly to a Chess Records contract.

Someone cuts a session on Wolf for RPM Records - possibly the Biharis during their field trip, or perhaps Ike Turner, on their behalf.

AUGUST 1951

Sam Phillips sees his first country music recordings issued on Chess. Harmonica Frank's ''Swamp Root'' b/w ''Goin' Away Walkin'''(Chess 1475 A) is announced in Billboard on August 4. Only two weeks later, Billboard carries the announcement of ''Swamp Root'' b/w ''Step It Up And Go'' (also Chess 1475 A). The switch was perhaps made because Big Jeff & The Radio Playboys had successfully released ''Step It Up And Go'' on the Dot label and Chess hoped to sell their version in competition. Alternatively, the very bluesy ''Goin' Away Walkin'''may not have been well received by country disc jockeys.

AUGUST 1951

Around the time that ''Juiced'' was released, Billy Love's friend Rosco Gordon was going from hot to hotter on the rhythm and blues charts. That October he recorded a novelty song called ''Booted'' for RPM Records and quickly recorded the same song for Chess too. There was a significant wrangle between the labels but the upshot was that the Chess version became a number one rhythm and blues hit in the spring of 1952. Rosco was in demand touring behind that record and, remembering those days, he told John Floyd: "So the first thing I know, I'm a big act ... my first job (was) B. B. Beeman's auditorium in Atlanta. I had never been on no professional gigs before. That Atlanta show was miserable.

Little Esther and Mel Walker were on the show and I think Johnny Otis had the band". Rosco went on to explain how he had to do three shows and sing ''Booted'' all the time until he was fed up with it, and how Johnny Otis had told him to get on with it or get his own band. So Rosco did just that and by the time Otis was next touring in the South things were different: "By then I'd added Billy Love to the band ... I had one band I recorded with and another band I travelled with. I put my local band together - the band I recorded with. But they had jobs in Memphis so they couldn't leave, so I let Billy Love put another band together." Rosco expanded on this to Peter Guralnick: "See, we had a rehearsal every Tuesday. That's where these ideas would come up. Because I got the band right there.... The piano player, he was such a great pianist, Billy 'Red' Love. Now that was my man. I learned everything about the piano mostly from him and my own ideas. But the structure, it came from Billy. He was my bandleader. He could call a strike anytime, man"!

AUGUST 1951

Ike Turner defected to the Biharis, for whom he assumed Phillips' role, cutting sessions in Memphis and the vicinity. Meanwhile, Jackie Brenston recruited a new set of Delta Cats, featuring Phineas Newborn, Jr. But Brenston's flirtation with fame was short-lived. The follow-ups failed, and Brenston later reunited with Ike Turner and took refuge in drink.

Sam Phillips cut himself loose from the Biharis and WREC, was now free, and obligated, to serve but one master: Chess Records. With Brenston and Turner gone and the need to find new talent ever pressing, he turned to a precocious young piano player named Rosco Gordon, who had first come to see him in February 1951.

Sam Phillips had succeeded in placing Gordon with the Biharis, and now he moved him to Chess after the fallout from ''Rocket 88''.

For the first Chess session Phillips secured a sloppy-drunk song called ''Booted'', which he encouraged Gordon to deliver with slurred diction and an appropriately booting tenor sax solo. The record was underpinned by a primitive, loping shuffle that Phillips later dubbed ''Roscoe's Rhythm''. Released on Chess at the end of 1951, ''Booted'' rose quickly up the rhythm and blues charts and eventually captured the top slot. The only problem was that the Biharis considered Gordon to be still under their contract. Ike Turner, in his new role as the Biharis A&R representative in Memphis, hastily rerecorded Gordon singing ''Booted'' for RPM.

The complexities mounted when Phillips signed another artist to Chess whom the Biharis considered theirs, a singer who was perhaps the greatest of Phillips' discoveries during the years he recorded rhythm and blues.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR ROSCO GORDON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE 1951 FOR DUKE/CHESS RECORDS

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE AUGUST 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

In an interview with John Floyd, Rosco Gordon said that WDIA's David James Mattis set up the meeting for him at Sam Phillips' studio. In some biographical entry, Rosco gave two other accounts of how he came to the Memphis Recording Service, but the account given to Floyd seems more plausible. ''The only reason I did it was for the wine money'', said Rosco. ''I didn't have sense enough to be nervous. Sam was very nice and he had this song that Courtney Harris wrote called ''Booted'', and he asked if I could play it''. Turns out he could. The mystery of Courtney Harris's identity has never been solved. The original composer credit said T. Courtney and R. Henry, the latter being a Beale Street bar owner, Robert Henry. Today, the song is registered to J. Courtney and David Henry. It's also registered as a Rosco Gordon composition. If it's ever featured in a movie, some lawyers will doubtless figure it out. The song itself, and with its cheerful celebration of the pleasures of alcohol, seemed just right for Rosco's breezy, boozy style. Sam Phillips told Rosco to put himself in the spirit of the song, which Rosco conceded, ''by me being already halfway raunchy'', he had no trouble doing, and they got a take that everybody was pleased with in no time.

01 – "BOOTED" – B.M.I. - 3:04
Composer: - J. Courtney-David Henry
Publisher: - Arc Music Corp
Matrix number: - U 7375 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - August 1951
Released: - December 15, 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm standard single Chess 1487-A mono
BOOTED / LOVE YOU TILL THE DAY I DIE
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-14 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

Many of Rosco Gordon's records from this era give the impression that you've arrived midway through a party and the band's already seen off the first jug of moonshine. This ramshackle masterpiece is no exception, from John Murry Daley's machine-gun snare at the beginning, to his lapse onto the on-beat during Willie Sims' increasingly psychotic sax solo, to the Keith-Moon-are-you-listening? confusion at its end. In between is Rosco's tale of being jilted and his planned revenge, delivered in a lazy vocal style which is in fact a wicked parody of the Charles Brown school of singing. Sam Phillips thought it was so good, he leased versions to both Chess and RPM Records. The resulting furore raged over Christmas 1951 and was resolved early in the New Year, when Chess Records got Howlin' Wolf and RPM got Rosco Gordon. No guessing who got the better deal.

02 - "LOVE YOU TILL THE DAY I DIE"* – B.M.I. - 3:17
Composer: - Bobby Bland
Publisher: - Burton LTD
Matrix number: - U 7376 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - August 1951
Released: - December 15, 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1487-B mono
LOVE YOU TILL THE DAY I DIE / BOOTED
Reissued: - 2010 Jasmine Records (CD) 500/200rpm JASCD 564-1 mono
BOBBY BLAND - IT'S MY LIFE, BABY

Rosco Gordon volunteered that his chauffeur's cousin, Robert Bland, himself a singer, whose mother had a popular restaurant on Third just off Beale Street, had recently driven him to a gig in Arkansas, and when Rosco got caught up in a dice game in the back room, had filled in very effectively with a set of his own, featuring Rosco's ''Love You Till The Day I Die''. Sam Phillips recorded the young man, Bobby Bland, doing that song, and, although all of Rosco's records to date had been released on Modern, sent off both Rosco's and Bobby's acetates to Leonard Chess. It was one of the last sessions that Sam cut on acetate, as he prepared to convert to tape, a process he had held off on until they were able to eliminate some of the high-frequency hiss endemic to the size of the magnetic particles used to make the tape. But now at a time when he had no idea if he was even going to survive, let alone succeed in this difficult business, he went out and bought a top-of-the-line 900-P Presto tape recorder. He never wavered in his belief that if he failed, he would at least know that he had given it his all.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Rosco Gordon - Vocal and Piano
Bobby Bland - Vocal*
Willie Wilkes - Saxophone
Adolph Duncan - Saxophone
Unknown - Bass
John Murry Daley - Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

AUGUST 1951

Probably studio sessions for Howlin' Wolf and Joe Hill Louis at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee.

Pee Wee (Brad) Suggs, guitarist with the Slim Rhodes Band but currently in the Army, recorded for 4-Star while on furlough from Fort Ord.

AUGUST 2, 1951 THURSDAY

Andrew Gold is born in Burbank, California. Known for his pop hit ''Lonely Boy'' and for writing the theme to ''The Golden Girls'', Gold plays guitar and/or sings background on hits by Linda Ronstadt and Wynonna Judd, and writes Judd;s ''I Saw The Light''.

AUGUST 4, 1951 SATURDAY

Carl Smith recorded ''Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way'' in the afternoon at the Castle Studio in Nashville's Tulane Hotel.

AUGUST 10, 1951 FRIDAY

Hank Williams recorded ''Half As Much'' and ''Baby, We're Really In Love'' during an evening session at Nashville's Castle Studio. He also cuts ''I'm Sorry For You, My Friend'', a song he re-recorded it in December this year.

AUGUST 11, 1951 SATURDAY

Following his performance on the Grand Ole Opry, Lefty Frizzell is arrested for contributory delinquency, stemming for a dalliance with an under-age girl in Little Rock on April 1.

Hank Williams hits number 1 in Billboard's country chart with ''Hey, Good Lookin'''.

AUGUST 13, 1951 MONDAY

Webb Pierce recorded ''Wondering'' in an evening session at Nashville's Castle Recording Studio in the Tulane Hotel.

Dan Fogelberg is born in Peoria, Illinois. His 1985 album ''High Country Shows'' features Ricky Skaggs, Vince Gill and Doc Watson, and his supporting tour leads to the formation of The Desert Rose Band.

Fiddler Hubert Dwane ''Hoot'' Hester is born in Louisville, Kentucky. A member of the Grand Ole Opry house band, he appears on hits by Conway Twitty, Dan Seals, Steve Wariner and Rocky Van Shelton.

AUGUST 14, 1951 TUESDAY

''Cyclone Fury'' appears in movie theaters, with Charles Starrett, the Durango Kid protecting an orphaned Indian boy. Smiley Burnette and Merle Travis also appear.

Columbia released Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs' ''Don;t Get Above Your Raisin''', destined to become a hit 30 years later for Ricky Skaggs.

AUGUST 15, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Hank Williams begins a concert tour, sponsored by the Hadacol medicinal company, that teams him with comedians Bob Hope, Milton Berle, Minnie Pearl, Jack Benny and Jimmy Durante.

Fourteen-year-old Merle Haggard is picked up for robbing a liquor store in a case of mistaken identity. Released five days later when the real criminals are caught, he expects to be tried as an adult: he was carrying a fake I.D. that said he was 18.

Sam Phillips had become embroiled in yet another business misunderstanding, this time with Leonard Chess. On this day, just before Howlin' Wolf's epochal single came out (Chess 1479), Sam put down $1,000 for a bus for Jackie Brenston. He had argued long and loud against it. He kept telling Leonard that Jackie didn't need a bus, Jackie couldn't afford a bus, Jackie didn't even have a band to carry around in a bus at this point. But Leonard Chess was under constant pressure from his biggest star. Sam could understand, Jackie wanted a bus. And Leonard just said, ''Find him a damn bus. I'll pay''.

Sam Phillips found a guy named Perry Little, who piddled around on the edges of show business and drove for the black county schools. He had an old Flexible passenger bus for sale, it looked pretty sharp, but when Sam asked him about it, Little said, ''Well, I have to tell you, Mr. Phillips, the reason I'm getting rid of it is that it don't get any mileage on it''. So Sam got back to Leonard, and by this time Leonard was so committed he couldn't have backed out even if he had wanted to. Sam took Jackie out to see the bus, ''and, boy, you would've thought it was a Rolls-Royce or something'', Jackie was so excited. Leonard told him to go ahead and make the deal, Leonard would send a cashier's check the next day. As Sam recalled, he put the money down, but then the check didn't arrive, ''and so here I was with Perry Little, I had promised him he had a deal. And I'm trying to think where to get the money. I got some of it from, Hoyt Wooten's brother, S.D. I rounded up the rest some way or the other. But do you know, I never got the money out of Leonard Chess for the bus''.

It remained a thorn in his side all through the fall, as he continued to make payments on a bus that, as Sam had predicted, was never really fit to be on the road. Each time it broke down Sam was out a little more money, and the last time, it had to be towed back to Memphis, where it sat on the street just off Hernando until Sam finally had it towed to his own driveway at 1928 Vinton Avenue, Memphis.

AUGUST 17, 1951 FRIDAY

Ralph Stanley is seriously injured in an auto accident near Raleigh, North Carolina. During his recovery, Bill Monroe drops plans to bring The Stanley Brothers on as members of his backing band.

Columbia released Lefty Frizzell's ''Travellin' Blues''.

AUGUST 18, 1951 SATURDAY

Rosco Gordon's ''Saddled The Cow'' (RPM 324) enters the local charts in Oakland, California.

AUGUST 19, 1951 SUNDAY

Bass player John Deacon is born in Leicester, England. He joins Queen, whose 1980 pop hit ''Crazy Little Thing Called Love'' becomes a country success when remade by Dwight Yoakam in 1999, two years before the band takes its place in the Rock And Roll Hall of Fame.

AUGUST 22, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Hank Snow is injured in a serious automobile accident in Nashville. He flips the car twice, hitting a parked car and a telephone pole. He is taken to General Hospital with a skull fracture and multiple lacerations.

AUGUST 24, 1951 FRIDAY

George Jones is jailed for failing to make support payments to his wife, Dorothy, who had filed for divorce a month earlier.

AUGUST 28, 1951 TUESDAY

Wayne Osmond is born in Ogden, Utah. The brother act The Osmonds becomes a major pop group during the 1970s, then moves into country for the hit ''I Think About Your Lovin'''. They sing harmony on Conway Twitty's ''Heartache Tonight'' in 1983.

AUGUST 30, 1951 THURSDAY

''Al Morgan'' is broadcast for the last time on the DuMont TV network, concluding a two-year run. During the variety series', first season, the host earned his only country hit with ''Jealous Heart''.

AUGUST 31, 1951 FRIDAY

Five-year-old Neil Young wakes up at his home in Omemee, Ontario, in pain. He is taken to a Toronto hospital, where he is diagnosed with polio.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR THE EVANGELIST GOSPEL SINGERS OF ALABAMA
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: POSSIBLY AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

This recording session is not logged in the MRS files, but the Chess Records archives indicate that the masters were purchased from Sam Phillips.

This time the quartet turns to the classic from the dusty hymnal on the table. Credited to a Georgia-born white Baptist minister, James C. Moore, ''Where We'll Never Grown Old'' has been recorded by a Who's Who of gospel performers, including Smith's Sacred Singers, the Vaughn Quartet and Aretha Franklin as well as a wide range of country singers including Jim Reeves, Johnny Cash, George Jones and Eddy Arnold. This is one of the first black gospel recordings of the song. On this version you keep waiting for the boys to shake loose of the slow, free tempo, as they did on ''Leaving On The Lord'', but they never do it. That they do offer, however, is a narration that includes a passing plea for world peace. You can be certain that the hymnal version of the song didn't include any such words.

01 - "NEVER GROW OLD" – B.M.I. - 2:58
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U-7377 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - Possibly August/September 1951
Released: - December 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1486-A mono
NEVER GROW OLD / WALK IN THE LIGHT
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-21 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

On ''Walk In The Light'' the Evangelists are back for another of their Chess outings of indeterminate provenance. If the source is Sam Phillips, then this is almost certainly from a different session than the one producing the first Evangelist disc. The piano is buried more deeply in the mix and there is a driving bass sound throughout. Is it a partial drum kit? Somebody's foot on the floor? There is no pitch to that bass sound so it can't have been sung or provided by a stringed instrument. In any case, it fills in a hole in the sonic range quite effectively. Likewise, handclapping helps to drive the record. All told, this is a good example of jubilee style in full flower. If you listen carefully, you'll hear the ''baser'' singing the wordless part that a Fender bass would play in just a few short years.

02 - "WALK IN THE LIGHT" – B.M.I. - 3:11
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U-7377 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - Possibly August/September 1951
Released: - December 1951
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1486-B mono
WALK IN THE LIGHT / NEVER GROW OLD
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-20 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

03 - "JESUS (IS MY FRIEND)" – B.M.I. - 1:58
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Possibly August/September 1951
Released: - 2010
First appearance: - Macomba Records (CD) 500/200rpm Macomba 3905 mono
WINDY CITY WONDERS ON SOUTH COTTAGE GROVE

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Evangelist Gospel Singers of Alabama consisting of:
Willie McInstry - Lead Vocal
Leroy Terry - Tenor and Piano
Willie Banks - Baritone Vocal
John Davis - Bass Vocal
Unknown - Drums and Vocal Effect

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

SEPTEMBER 1951

The Biharis announce that they have signed Howlin' Wolf, and the first RPM single "Mornin' At Midnight" b/w ''Riding In The Moonlight'' (RPM 333) is released. "Mornin'" may have been a misprint on the label, or it may have been a deliberate misspelling because Sam Phillips had already registered "Moanin' At Midnight" with the AFM. Under AFM regulations at that time, the same song could not be re-recorded for another record label for five years.

"Rocket 88" finally drops off the rhythm and blues charts after an 18-week run. Brenston has now relocated in Chicago and is touring the West Coast, playing a stint at the Elks Club in Hollywood.

The classic science-fiction film “The Day the Earth Stood Still” debuted during September of 1951 in New York. The film told the story of an alien and his robot who traveled to Earth to deliver an important message to humankind. “The Day the Earth Stood Still” was praised by critics and considered to be one of the best movies to be released that year. It was directed by Robert Wise who is also known for directing popular films like 1961’s “West Side Story” and 1965’s “The Sound of Music.” In 1995 the film was chosen for preservation by the Library of Congress.

SEPTEMBER 1, 1951 SATURDAY

Hank Williams purchases a farm in Williamson County, Tennessee.

Lefty Frizzell's ''Always Later (With Your Kisses)'' ascent to number 1 in Billboard magazine.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1951 MONDAY

''Moanin' At Midnight'' backed with ''How Many More Years'' (Chess 1479) by Howlin' Wolf came out at the end of August 1951 and hit almost immediately on the regional charts. ''Under separate cover I am sending you the number by the Howlin' Wolf that I told you about'' Sam Phillips wrote to his old colleague WLAC disc jockey Gene Nobles on this day. ''It was released in Memphis last Friday and is already the biggest number in town...no bulls, it is, according to Buster Williams, owned distributor Music sales. 'Moanin' At Midnight' is the side, I know I'm partial but it is the most different record I ever heard''. didn't doubt for a moment that both sides were masterpieces, and both made the national rhythm and blues charts, with ''How Many More Years'' reaching number 4. But it was ''Moanin' At Midnight'' on which Sam bestowed his ultimate accolade, ''the most different record I ever heard''. Of all the superlatives that he could, and often did, bestow, this was the greatest in his multifarious vocabulary. To Sam Phillips if you weren't doing something different, you simply weren't doing anything at all.

SEPTEMBER 5, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Drummer Jamie Oldaker is born in Tulsa, Oklahoma. A part of Eric Clapton's band for much of the 1970s and 1980s, he joins The Tractors, whose 1994 hit ''Baby Likes To Rock It'' makes them the first country act to earn a gold debut album with touring.

SEPTEMBER 6, 1951 THURSDAY

Five-year-old Neil Young is discharged from a Toronto hospital after six-weeks stay with polio. As andult, he writes the country hit ''Are You Ready For The Country'' and ''Love Is A Rose''.

SEPTEMBER 9, 1951 SUNDAY

''Dukes Of Hazzard'' star Tom Wopat is born in Lodi, Wisconsin. He writes earl Thomas Conley's ''Shadow Of A Doubt'', becomes a temporary host of TNN's ''Prime Time Country'', and co-stars opposite Reba McEntire when she appears in Broadway's ''Annie Get Your Gun''.

Bass player and record producer Buddy Killen moves to Nashville from Florence, Alabama. He goes on to direct hits for Exile, T.G. Sheppard and Ronnie McDowell, among others.

SEPTEMBER 14, 1951 FRIDAY

MGM released Hank Williams' ''Lonesome Whistle'' and ''Crazy Heart''.

SEPTEMBER 15, 1951 SATURDAY

Rosco Gordon's second RPM single "Saddled The Cow (And Milked The Horse)" b/w "Ouch! Pretty Baby" (RPM 334) enters the Billboard National Rhythm and Blues chart and peaks at number 9 in a five-week stay.

SEPTEMBER 17, 1951 MONDAY

Hank Williams' Hadacol-sponsored tour, with comedians Bob Hope, Minnie Pearl, Milton Berle, Jack Benny and Jimmy Durante, comes to a screeching halt one month early when Hadacol is sold.

SEPTEMBER 19, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Record producer Daniel Lanois is born in Hull, Quebec. Noted for his work with such rock artists as U2, Peter Gabriel and Bob Dylan, he also oversees session for Emmylou Harris and Willie Nelson.

SEPTEMBER 21, 1951 FRIDAY

Cowboy Copas recorded ''Tis Sweet To Be Remembered'' in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Red Foley recorded ''Alabama Jubilee'' in Nashville, Tennessee.

Hawkshaw Hawkins recorded ''Slow Poke'' in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Columbia released Carl Smith's ''Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way''.

SEPTEMBER 22, 1951 SATURDAY

Lefty Frizzell headlines one of country music's first stadium shows, at Griffith Park in Washington, D.C. The lineup also features Ernest Tubb, Flatt & Scruggs, Moon Mullican, Carl Smith and the Duke of Paducah, drawing 14,000 fans.

SEPTEMBER 24, 1951 MONDAY

Dinah Washington recorded a hit jazz of Hank Williams' ''Gold, Cold Heart'' in New York City.

SEPTEMBER 25, 1951 TUESDAY

Bluegrass bass player Bessie Lee Mauldin and Nelson Gann are separated. Later in the decade, she appears on ''Gotta Travel On'' by Bill Monroe.

SEPTEMBER 26, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Red Foley recorded ''Midnight'', partially penned by Chet Atkins, at the Castle Studio in Nashville's Tulane Hotel.

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

 STUDIO SESSION FOR THE BREWSTERAIRES
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

 MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: WEDNESDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

 Reverend Brewster was a kingpin of the Memphis gospel scene. The quartet bearing his name was formerly known as the Mt. Pisgah Gospel Singers and dates back to 1943. The Brewsteraires that appear on this recording they performed widely on Memphis stage and radio. In fact, Reverend Brewster had his own program on WHBQ, further evidence that he was the man in black gospel in Memphis.

 It is likely that Reverend Brewster had already employed the service of The Memphis Recording Service for special events at his church and their relationship simply evolved from there. In any case, arrangements were made for Sam Phillips to record.

 The hymn ''Where Shall I Be'' was an old one, written by African American hymnodist Charles P. Jones back in 1899, and first recorded, as far as we can tell, by the Missouri-Pacific Diamond Jubilee Quartet in 1927.

01 - "WHERE SHALL I BE (WHEN THAT FIRST TRUMPET SOUNDS)" – B.M.I. - 2:43
Composer: - Charles P. Jones
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1008 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - September 26, 1951
Released: - April 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1502-A mono
WHERE SHALL I BE / WINGS FOR MY SOUL
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-17 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Compared to its original flipside, ''Wings For My Soul'' is a far conventional, less adventurous performance. Again, the roots of 1960s soul music are plainly in evidence here, especially during the final segment. In all respects, this is a solid, tense gospel quartet performance. Both the lead and vocal support are intense and although the arrangement features no rhythmic changes or vocal simulations of musical instruments, it remains memorable.

02 - "(THE LORD GAVE ME) WINGS FOR MY SOUL'' – B.M.I. - 2:36
Composer: - Reverend W.H. Brewster
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1009 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - September 26, 1951
Released: - April 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1502-B mono
WINGS FOR MY SOUL / WHERE SHALL I BE
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-18 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Following the session, Sam Phillips sent samples of four tracks to the Chess Brothers in Chicago, who accepted two titles for release on Chess 1502. This track reveals everything you need to know about the power, passion and musically of a capella black gospel from its golden age.

The first time through, the quartet offers an emotional free-meter reading rich in the kind of mannerisms that soul singers would be taking to the bank in ten years. The second time through, the syncopation kicks in and a really brilliant and varied arrangement ensues. The vocal trumpet solo is an unexpected pleasure, borrowing from a well established tradition regularly employed by secular groups such as The Mills Brothers and Four Vagabonds.

Prior to their recordings for Sam Phillips, The Brewsteraires had recorded for Gotham. Following their lone Chess single, they went on to record for Dot, while enjoying their own regular show over WDIA in Memphis.

03 - "IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT''
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued
Recorded: - September 26, 1951

03 - "MORE OF JESUS, LESS OF ME'' – B.M.I. - 3:10
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - September 26, 1951
Released: - February 2013
First appearance: - Dotted Eighth Records (MP3) Internet Sample mono
WHAT WOULD JESUS DO? - CLASSIC GOSPEL FOR EASTER
Reissued: April 4, 2002 JSP Records (CD) 500/200rpm 77154 mono
MEMPHIS MARRELS - MEMPHIS GOSPEL 1927 - 1960

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
The Brewsteraires consisting of:
Solomon Ouston – Lead Tenor
Odell Rice - Baritone
Nathaniel Peck - Tenor
Henry Reed - Bass

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Dr. Brewster is one of the foremost song writers of the day, having written, "somewhere between 200 and 500," by his own estimation.

WILLIAM HERBERT BREWSTER - (born on July 2, 1897 in Somerville, Tennessee and died on October 14, 1987 in Memphis, Tennessee) was an influential African American Baptist minister, composer, dramatist, singer, poet and community leader. A 1922 graduate of Roger Williams College in Nashville, Tennessee, Brewster settled in Memphis in the 1920s; he served as the pastor of the East Trigg Avenue Baptist Church in South Memphis from 1930 until his death in 1987.

The Brewsteraires were well-known and originally formed in 1943, they were known as the Mt. Pisgah Gospel Singers before Reverence Brewster took them under his wing.

Brewster was a prolific songwriter and his radio show ''Old Camp Meeting Of The Air'' broadcast over WHBQ, meant certain exposure in the mid-South gospel market. In addition to their sides for Sam Phillips the Brewsteraires recorded some memorable work for Dot in Gallatin, Tennessee and for Gotham in Philadelphia. Later the Brewsteraires broadcast regularly over WDIA. In other words, they were a Memphis institution. In 1 1981 interview with Doug Seroff, Nathaniel Peck indicated that most of the group's material was arranged by either or Reverence Brewster.

His lasting fame, however, is through his musical composition. Among his more than 200 published songs are the gospel standards "Move On Up A Little Higher" (Mahalia Jackson's first hit in 1948) and "Surely, God Is Able" (a 1950 hit for The Ward Singers). These songs hold the distinction of being the first million-selling black gospel records. Other Brewster songs that were hits included "Lord I've Tried" (The Soul Stirrers), "I'll Go" (Queen C. Anderson), "I'm Climbing Higher And Higher" (Marion Williams), and a favorite of African-American gospel choirs, "The Old Landmark," among many others.

Though there are several available recordings of Reverent Brewster's gospel groups The Brewster Singers and The Brewsteraires, there are only two vocal recordings of Reverent Brewster himself. Both recordings credited to "Rev. W.H. Brewster And His Camp Meeting Of The Air" appeared on the Gotham single "Give Me That Old Time Religion"/"So Glad I've Got Good Religion". Each song features a narration by Rev. Brewster followed by vocals.

Brewster was also the composer of more than fifteen gospel music dramas, including From Auction Block to Glory (1941) which was the first nationally-staged African American religious drama that featured gospel songs written specifically for the production. He was honored by the Smithsonian Institution in 1982 for his music when it presented his musical drama Sowing in Tears, Reaping In Joy.

Apart from his vast legacy in the genre of black gospel music, Brewster also had a formative influence on a young Elvis Presley. Elvis occasionally attended services at East Trigg Avenue Baptist Church and listened to Brewster's sermons which were broadcast on Sunday nights on the "Camp Meeting Of The Air" over Memphis radio station WHBQ. According to Presley biographer Peter Guralnick, "Dr. Brewster constantly preached on the theme that a better day was coming, one in which all men could walk as brothers, while across Memphis Sam Phillips listened on his radio every Sunday without fail''.

In February 2007, the Memphis City Schools named a new school in the Binghampton community in Brewster's honor as the Dr. William Herbert Brewster Elementary School. Dr. Brewster is buried in the New Park Cemetery in Memphis.

AND AGAIN - THE BREWSTERAIRES – Although they recorded little, the Brewsteraires were one of the most influential local gospel quartets because their patron was the influential Baptist minister, Dr. William Brewster, a preacher, community leader and composer of many well-known gospel songs.

Members of Brewster's church were formed into a number of choirs and gospel quartets over the years, of which the Brewster Singers and the Brewsteraires were foremost. Brewster' main protege was Queen C. Anderson, who took the lead in singing many of Brewster's new gospel songs.

In 1950 and 1951, the Gotham label of Philadelphia recorded four discs credited variously to the Brewster Singers led by Queen C. Anderson, the Reverent Brewster himself narrating Camp Meeting introductions to songs like ''Give Me That Old Time Religion'', and the Brewstenaires of Memphis singing ''When Shall I See Him Face To Face''.

Sam Phillips has said that he listened to Brewster and his groups on the radio frequently and by 1951 when he was looking for music to record for Chess Records, the Brewsteraires would have been a natural choice.

When they recorded for Sam Phillips in September 1951 the Brewsteraires comprised lead tenor Solomon Ouston, Nathaniel Peck, second tenor, Odell Rice, baritone, and Henry Reed, bass singer. Their ''Where Shall I Be When The First Trumpet Sounds'' was released on Chess but Phillips did not call them back for further sessions, possibly because the Chicago-based label found the group had limited appeal beyond the mid- South. The Brewsteraires were recorded on a dozen acetates by radio WDIA in the following year and they remained on Memphis radio for many years. Both B.B. King and Elvis Presley admitted to attending Brewster's church to listen to his singers. After Chess, the Brewsteraires only other commercial recording was a single made in Memphis in 1972 for Sariron Records shortly before the quartet broke up.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Session Published for Historical Reasons

STUDIO SESSION FOR HOWLIN' WOLF
FOR RPM RECORDS 1951

KWEM RADIO STUDIO,
231 BROADWAY STREET, WEST MEMPHIS, ARKANSAS
RPM SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE SEPTEMBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER - IKE TURNER
RECORDING ENGINEER - UNKNOWN

Coincidentally, Modern Records owners, the Bihari brothers from Los Angeles, had been leasing recordings from Sam Phillips and were mightly displeased that Jackie Brenston ''Rocket 88'' hit had been placed with Chess rather than them. They were also wrangling with the Chess brothers over Howlin' Wolfs' contract.

Sam Phillips could understand it. Leonard Chess was clearly preoccupied with building his own label, not with feathering Sam Phillips' nest. The Bihari brothers meanwhile had flung down yet another gauntlet, coming into Memphis just two weeks before Wolf's Chess sides began to chart and recording first Howlin' Wolf, then B.B. King with a portable Magnecord tape recorder. Their first release on Wolf, cut at the radio station in West Memphis where Ike Turner worked, was ''Baby Ride With Me'', one of the two songs Sam Phillips had been working on with him from the start. It was retitled ''Riding In The Moonlight'', Turner there again, hammering the keys, and had been effectively realized in the studio, as Wolf brought all of his energy to the performance, overriding any sonic defects in the recording.

01 - ''RIDING IN THE MOONLIGHT'' - B.M.I. - 3:04
Composer: - Chester Burnett-J.L. Sanders
Publisher: - Universal Music Publishing
Matrix number: - MM 1674 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date September 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 333 mono
RIDING IN THE MOONLIGHT / MOANIN' AT MIDNIGHT
Reissued: - 2010 Secret Records (CD) 500/200rpm SECBX025-1-8 mono
THAT KAT SURE COULD PLAY! - THE SINGLES 1951 - 1957

02 - "DOG ME AROUND'' – B.M.I. - 2:43
Composer: - Chester Burnett-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date September 1951
Released: - 1962
First appearance: - Crown Records (LP) 33rpm CLP-5240-8 mono
HOWLING WOLF SINGS THE BLUES
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm Virgin 86295-4 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF - HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

03 - "MORNING AT MIDNIGHT" – B.M.I. - 2:43
Composer: - Carl Germany-Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Arc Music Incorporated - Charly International
Matrix number: - MM 1677 Master - Click > 324-338 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date September 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 333 mono
MOANIN' AT MIDNIGHT / RIDING IN THE MOONLIGHT
Reissued: 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm Virgin 86295-5 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF - HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

The other side was far less effective, a copy of Wolf's crashing masterpiece labeled ''Morning (as opposed to ''Moanin''') At Midnight'', with the introductory moan barely audible and, despite Wolf, the overall sound not even close to matching the magisterial effect of the original. In keeping with Modern's continuing appeal to the union over the legitimacy of Chess' signing of Jackie Brenston, the label announced through the agency of its owners, the Bihari brothers, that it had ''inked a term disk contract with Howlin' Wolf, Memphis blues warbler'', on exactly the same grounds.

04 - "KEEP WHAT YOU GOT'' – B.M.I. - 2:24
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date September 1951
Released: - 1962
First appearance: - Crown Records (LP) 33rpm CLP-5240-7 mono
HOWLING WOLF SINGS THE BLUES
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm Virgin 86295-3 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF - HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

NOTES: ''Moanin' At Midnight'' is listed as ''Morning At Midnight'' on all original singles release.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Howlin' Wolf - Vocal & Harmonica
Ike Turner - Piano
Willie Johnson - Guitar
Tommy Bankhead - Guitar
Willie Steele - Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

1951

KWEM studios were located at 231 Broadway Street in West Memphis, Arkansas, in the west side of the Merchants and Planters Bank Building, now the Regions Bank building. In 1954 a second studio was added at 64 Flicker Street in Memphis, Tennessee. The tower and transmitter were south of the viaduct between the Harahan Bridge and the U.S. Engineers Office. KWEM was a daytime station with 1,000 watts on 990 kilocycles.

George Mooney, sportscaster for the Razorback Network, was the manager. Other staff members were Bill Trotter, commercial manager; Frank Keegan, program director; Vernon Dillaplain, chief engineer; Erie Cutrer, salesman; Bill Garrett, announcer; Hal Hill, announcer; Douglas Clark, announcer; Johnny Kenlo, announcer; James Klaser, in charge of production; Betty Dabbs, receptionist; Jean Mooney, traffic director; and Ed Beck, engineer.

Later, Franklin Page of Little Rock was added as an announcer. Officers of KWEM included, J. O. Johnson, president; J. W. Rich, vice-president; J. C. McCaa, secretary; Melvin Dacus, director; and John Cooper, director. KWEM was later sold, and in 1960 would officially become KWAM.

KWEM Radio featured live music performance in the years from 1947 to 1955, a pay to play method generating revenue for radio stations who could not make enough money from conventional advertising sponsors and the spinning of records. Unknown artists who appeared on KWEM during the late 1940s and early 1950s were B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, Ike Turner, Scotty Moore, Stan Kesler, Warren Smith, Paul Burlison and Joe Hill Louis. All of these artists performed live on KWEM, and for many it was their first radio exposure. Listening to KWEM Radio would inspire another young West Memphis area youth, Albert King, to learn to play and he appeared to support his band at the T-99 Club in Oceola, Arkansas. He would launch his career and become a major influence on Eric Clapton, Jimi Hendrix and Stevie Ray Vaughan.

Howlin’ Wolf, Hubert Sumlin, Pat Hare, James Cotton and Junior Parker honed their skills at KWEM and ignited the Chicago Blues scene.

Joe Hill Louis began his music career with his own show in 1949. He would record for Sam Phillips in the early 1950s. Louis moved to WDIA in the early 1950s and replaced B.B. King as the ''Pepticon Boy''. Louis would also become a Sun Records recording artist and session musician.

Sonny Boy Williamson II had become the most well known musician in the Mississippi Delta while appearing on the King Biscuit Radio Program on KFFA in Helena, Arkansas. Williamson arrived in West Memphis in 1949 and launched his own live daily KWEM program, sponsored by Hadacol Elixir. While at KWEM, Williamson worked with Howlin’ Wolf, B.B. King, Junior Parker, and James Cotton, bring his friends from around the delta to perform on his program. These included Elmore James, Houston Stackhouse, Robert Nighthawk (King Biscuit regulars) and Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup. B.B. King made his first radio appearance anywhere at KWEM in 1949, appearing on Williamson’s show.

Elvis Presley's first radio appearance was on KWEM in 1953, performing first with Johnny Burnette and the Rock & Roll Trio, and then with a country group, the Shelby Follin Band. Paul Burlison, guitarist for the Johnny Burnette Trio, had been performing on KWEM since 1949 and played with Howlin’ Wolf.

Johnny Cash’s first radio appearance when he arrived in Memphis was at KWEM. He had his own weekly show with bandmembers Luther Perkins, and Marshall Grant. Ike Turner recorded Howlin’ Wolf in the KWEM studios in 1951. Scotty Moore and Bill Black both made an appearance on KWEM in 1954. Johnny Cash recorded a demo of a song he wrote, ''Rock 'N' Roll Ruby'' in the KWEM studios. The song was recorded by Warren Smith for Sun Records after Cash and Sam Phillips appeared at the Cotton Club and offered Smith's band the chance to record the song. Junior Parker had his own show on KWEM in 1953, before leaving and recording for Chess Records in 1954. James Cotton also had a programme on KWEM until around 1954, when he joined Muddy Waters as his harmonicist. Cotton also recorded for Chess Records. Eddie Bond also played on KWEM, whilst his guitarist, Reggie Young, grew up around Blytheville, Arkansas. KWEM’s station manager, Dick Stuart, became Carl Perkins’ manager. Stuart’s brother-in-law, Charlie Feathers, also appeared on the radio station. KWEM is listed on the National Historic Buildings applications for Sun Studios and Graceland, as having been a major influence on Presley, and the Memphis area in the development and birth of rock and roll, along with WDIA.

SEPTEMBER 28, 1951 FRIDAY

George Jones is jailed for the second time in five weeks for failure to make support payments to his wife, Dorothy.

Photo above: Abe Scharff (left) presents a key to Chris Roulhac (second Right) in ceremonies dedicating an addition to Abe Scharff Branch of the YMCA at 254 South Lauderdale on September 29, 1951. Looking on were Earle Whittington (second left), YMCA general secretary and T. Walker Lewis (right), president of the Metropolitan YMCA Board. Mr. Scharff is a board member of Metropolitan YMCA and Roulhac is branch executive secretary.

SEPTEMBER 29, 1951 SATURDAY

Porter Wagoner moves from his hometown, West Plains, Missouri, to Springfield, just 100 miles away, to take a job performing on KWTO Radio.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1951 SUNDAY

Porter Wagoner makes his debut on KWTO Radio in Springfield, Missouri, where his instant popularity earns him a raise from $35 weekly to $70.

The Weavers, ''He'll Have To Go'' songwriter Joe Allison and Foy Willing and The Riders Of The Purple Sage are featured in the movie debut of ''Disc Jockey'', a musical that also stars Tommy Dorsey, Herb Jeffries and Sarah Vaughan.

Gene Autry plays a doctor in the lawless West with the debut of the movie ''The Hills Of Utah'', featuring his performance of ''Peter Cottontail''. Pat Buttram returns to the screen as Autry's sidekick.

OCTOBER 1951

"Saddled The Cow" enters the rhythm and blues charts at number 10, but soon disappears after peaking at number 9.

Rosco Gordon's third single, "A New Remedy For Love" b/w "Dime A Dozen" (RPM 336) is shipped. This comes from Sam Phillips' last session on Rosco for RPM Records. Phillips duly purchases the rights to the song "Booted", which he has already sent to Chess Records.

Sam Phillips recorded Harmonica Frank, and West Coast bluesman Lafayette (L.J.) Thomas for Chess Records.

Studio session with Rufus Thomas at the Memphis Recording Studio in Memphis, Tennessee.

The first release of a Memphis-based gospel group recorded at Phillips' studio is made by Chess, The Brewsteraires ''Where Shall I Be''.

OCTOBER 1, 1951 MONDAY

Songwriter Chip Hardy is born in Scott City, Kansas. He writes three early-1980s hits for The Whites, ''Hagin' Around'', ''Pins And Needless'' and ''You Put The Blue In Me''.

Decca released Webb Pierce's first hit, ''Wondering''.

OCTOBER 2, 1951 TUESDAY

Gordon Summer is born in Wallsend, England. Under the name Sting, he plays in the rock band The Police, then builds an electric solo career. He joins Toby Keith in the country charts on a remake of his song ''I'm So Happy I Can't Stop Crying''.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Session Published for Historical Reasons

STUDIO SESSION FOR HOWLIN' WOLF
FOR RPM RECORDS 1951

YMCA BUILDING, WEST MEMPHIS, ARKANSAS
RPM SESSION: TUESDAY OCTOBER 2, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - JOE BIHARI
AND/OR IKE TURNER

01 - ''PASSING BY BLUES'' - B.M.I. - 2:44
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: Modern Music Publishing
Matrix number: - MM 1684 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - October 2, 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 340 mono
PASSING BY BLUES / CRYING AT DAYBREAK
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm V2-86295-10 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

02 - ''CRYING AT DAYBREAK'' - B.M.I. - 3:55
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: Modern Music Publishing
Matrix number: - MM 1685 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - October 2, 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 340 mono
CRYING AT DAYBREAK / PASSING BY BLUES
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm V2-86295-2 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

''Crying At Daybreak'' is listed as ''Crying At Daylight'' on LP ''Big City Blues''.

03 - ''MY BABY STOLE OFF'' - B.M.I. - 3:03
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Modern Music Publishing
Matrix number: - MM 1748 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - October 2, 1951
Released: - 1952
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 347 mono
MY BABY STOLE OFF / I WANT YOUR PICTURE
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm V2-86295-8 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

04 - ''I WANT YOUR PICTURE'' - B.M.I. - 2:53
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Modern Music Publishing
Matrix number: - MM 1749 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - October 2, 1951
Released: - 1952
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 347 mono
I WANT YOUR PICTURE / MY BABY STOLE OFF
Reissued: - 1991 Virgin Records (CD) 500/200rpm V2-86295-9 mono
HOWLIN' WOLF RIDES AGAIN

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Howlin' Wolf - Vocal & Harmonica
Ike Turner - Piano
Willie Johnson - Guitar
Willie Steele - Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR RUFUS THOMAS
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE OCTOBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

Sam Phillips planned a second release for Rufus Thomas, and in October 1951 Rufus was back in Phillips' studio recording a song called "No More Dogging Around". It was the first of many he would record over the years with "Dog" in the title, though this time he was talking about being led a dance by his woman rather than promoting dance steps. The same band as before sets up a stomping rhythm and Herman Green takes a flowing sax solo. Rufus follows the catchy riff, his voice rising and falling as he sets out how he intends to get out from under. It is evident that Rufus knew exactly what he wanted his bands to do, and overall the sound on this recordings is one that can be heard on later recordings for Sun, Meteor and Stax.

 01 - "NO MORE DOGGING AROUND" – B.M.I. - 2:36
Composer: - Rufus Thomas
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7399 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - October 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1492-A mono
NO MORE DOGGING AROUND/CRAZY ABOUT YOU BABY
Reissued: - 2008 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 16695-10 mono
RUFUS THOMAS - THE SUN YEARS PLUS

Marion Keisker logged that the master of "No More Dogging Around" was mailed to Chess on October 5, and that Chess "already have "Crazy About You" and the "Christmas Song". Latter whatever it was, has not been found, and it was "Crazy" that was issued along with "Dogging" on Chess 1492. The record gathered some steady but not spectacular sales through the spring of 1952.

 02 - "CHRISTMAS SONG"
Composer: - Rufus Thomas
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Unissued/Lost
Recorded: - October 1951

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Rufus Thomas - Vocal
Herman Green - Tenor Saxophone
Richard Sanders - Baritone Saxophone
Billy Love - Piano
Unknown - Guitar and Bass
Houston Stokes - Drums

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR LAFAYETTE JERL THOMAS
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE OCTOBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

01 - "SAM'S DRAG" – B.M.I. - 2:49
Composer: - Lafayette Jerl Thomas
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U7393 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - October 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1493-A mono
SAM'S DRAG / BABY TAKE A CHANCE WITH ME
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-15 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

This instrumental is anything but a drag, its tough guitar work, giving a clear indication of Lafayette Jerl Thomas' burgeoning talent. However, its readily apparent at this early stage in his career that he hadn't quite developed the technique to match his energy and enthusiasm. An off-key passage towards the end confirms that he still had some way to go to achieve his later status as West Coast guitar star. Although Thomas was from the Shreveport area, he was already based in Oakland, California when this was recorded.

Recording as a side-man since 1948, Thomas was touring with Jimmy McCracklin in 1951, so it's at least possible that McCracklin's tour stopped in Memphis, and then stopped at the Memphis Recording Service.

Certainly, Thomas and McCracklin recorded together in Houston a few months later with two saxes, piano, and rhythm section... in other words, the same line-up heard here.

The tune hits a sweet groove, but not an original one; it was based quite closely on the hugely influential ''Junior Jives'', a hit for Roy Milton a few months earlier. Thomas's next solo record came in 1955. His only other oblique connection with Sun came in 1960 when he joined two other Sun alumni, James Cotton and Pat Hare, for one song on Muddy Waters ''At Newport'' LP.

02 - "BABY TAKE A CHANCE WITH ME"* – B.M.I. - 2:44
Composer: - Lafayette Jerl Thomas
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U7394 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - October 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1493-B mono
BABY TAKE A CHANCE WITH ME / SAM'S DRAG
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-16 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

Meanwhile, over on the flip-side things pick up considerably. Thomas' pinched, nasally vocal delivery and fluid, syncopated guitar fills are clearly borrowed from the Texas tradition - exuding distinct overtones of T-Bone Walker - and giving a clear pointer to later blues guitar styles. The band play in a wonderfully doomy vein, in distinct counterpoint to their leader.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Lafayette Jerl Thomas - Vocal* - Guitar
Unknown - Saxophone, Bass and Drums

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

OCTOBER 3, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Kenny Dale is born in Artesia, New Mexico. He garners a hit in 1979 by remaking Gene Pitney's ''Only Love Can Break A Heart''.

Blues singer and songwriter Keb' Mo' is born in Los Angeles, California. He joins Garth Brooks in a 2001 NBC special, recorded with Lee Roy, and appears on tribute albums celebrating Johnny Cash and Hank Williams.

OCTOBER 4, 1951 THURSDAY

When The Oak Ridge Quartet plays in Evansville, Indiana, concert-goer Minnie Huff gives the band a wallet-size picture of Jesus and writes ''Oak Ridge Boys'' on the back. The Quartet later adopts The Oak Ridge Boys as its official name.

OCTOBER 5, 1951 FRIDAY

''Don't Fence Me In'' songwriter Cole Porter enters Doctors Hospital in Manhattan, where he undergoes multiple shock treatments.

The Red Skelton/Ester Williams movie ''Texas Carnival'' debuts with Foy Willing in a supporting musical role.

OCTOBER 6, 1951 SATURDAY

Rhythm and blues musician Tiny Bradshaw recorded ''The Train Kept A-Rollin'''. Johnny Burnette and The Rock And Roll Trio cover the song ranks among country's 500 greatest singles in the Country Music Foundation book ''Heartaches By The Number''.

OCTOBER 7, 1951 SUNDAY

John Mellecamp is born in Seymour, Indiana. The rocker, known for such hits as ''Hurts So Good'' and ''Pink Houses'', joins Willie Nelson and Neil Young to present the annual Farm Aid concerts. He's name-checked in the title of Keith Urban's 2015 hit ''John Cougar, John Deere, John 3:16''.

OCTOBER 8, 1951 MONDAY

Hank Snow recorded ''Music Makin' Mama From Memphis'' and ''The Gold Rush Is Over'' during the evening in Nashville.

Carl Butler has his first solo recording session for Capitol Records.

OCTOBER 12, 1951 FRIDAY

Johnnie & Jack recorded ''Three Ways Of Knowing'' and ''Ashes Of Love''.

OCTOBER 15, 1951 MONDAY

The classic television show “I Love Lucy” debuted on the CBS network on October 15th of 1951. The show starred comedienne Lucille Ball as the titular Lucy Ricardo, Cuban entertainer Desi Arnaz as Lucy’s husband Ricky, with Vivian Vance and William Frawley as their goofy landlords Fred and Ethel Mertz, and it revolved around Lucy’s comical antics. Arnaz and Ball were a real-life husband and wife and the show was based off a popular radio series that Ball had previously starred in. “I Love Lucy” was one of the first scripted television shows to be filmed using three different cameras and it was unusual that it was filmed in Hollywood using a live audience rather than in New York using a laugh track. The show was a huge success and was nominated for and won many Emmy awards while it aired. It ended in May of 1957 but remained popular in reruns and it is still regularly aired on cable TV.

''Slaughter Trail'' debuts in movie theaters with vocal appearances by Rosemary Cloony and by songwriter Terry Gilkyson, who wrote Tennessee Ernie Ford's hit from the previous year, ''The Gall Of The Wild Goose''.

There's gold in them their hills! Rex Allen races a gang of thugs to a mine in the plot of ''Utah Wagon Train'', which makes its debut in theaters. Allen's rendition include the classic ''The Streets Of Laredo (The Cowboy Lament)''.

Racing horses, bandits and a gypsy are all part of the action with the debut of the Roy Rogers movie, ''South Of Caliente'', also featuring Dale Evans and Pat Brady.

OCTOBER 16, 1951 TUESDAY

Ray Price recorded the first version of Hank Williams song ''Weary Blues From Waitin'''at Dallas' Jim Beck Studio. Williams' version becomes a hit posthumously.

Little Richard holds his first recording session at WGST Radio in Atlanta, Georgia. He goes on to write two songs that become country hits, Waylon Jennings' ''Lucille (You Won't Do Your Daddy's Will)'' and Billy ''Crash'' Craddock's ''Slippin' And Slidin'''.

OCTOBER 18, 1951 THURSDAY

Red Foley recorded ''Salty Dog Rag''.

OCTOBER 20, 1951 SATURDAY

Hank Williams sings a movie deal with MGM Pictures.

OCTOBER 23, 1951 TUESDAY

David Wills is born in Pulaski, Tennessee. He cuts two Charlie Rich produced hits in the 1970s and writes George Strait's ''If You're Thinking You Want A Stranger (There's One Coming Home)'' and John Schneider's ''You're The Last Thing I Needed Tonight''.

OCTOBER 24, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Flatt & Scruggs recorded ''Tis Sweet To Be Remembered'' and the original version of ''Earl's Breakdown'' at the Castle Studio in Nashville.

OCTOBER 25, 1951 THURSDAY

Hank Williams recorded ''There's A Tear In My Beer''. The tape remains in boxes at Bill Lister's house until 1988, when Lister sends it to Hank Williams Jr., who eventually recorded a duet matching him with his father's performance.

OCTOBER 26, 1951 FRIDAY

Big Bill Lister recorded the first version of ''There's A Tear In My Beer'' to be released. The song will achieve hit status when Hank Williams Jr.'s voice and new instrumental tracks are added to a demo recording by the song's writer, Hank Williams.

George Morgan recorded ''Almost''.

OCTOBER 28, 1951 SUNDAY

George Jones' first daughter, Susan, is born.

NOVEMBER 1951

Howlin' Wolf's "Moanin' At Midnight" enters the rhythm and blues charts at number 10 but quickly disappears, and a follow-up, "Cryin' At Daybreak" b/w "Passin' By Blues" (RPM 340) is rush-released. During the same month, Wolf receives a sizable cash advance from Chess Records.

Lester Bihari (who will later move to Memphis, where he will found Meteor Records) rejoins brothers Joe, Jules, and Saul as New York sales and promo man for RPM/Modern Records.

Sam Phillips recorded Doctor Ross for the first time and sends the dubs to Chess Records in Chicago.

NOVEMBER 1, 1951 THURSDAY

Cole Porter, co-author of ''Don't Fence Me In'', is released from Doctors Hospital in New York after a stay of nearly four weeks in which he underwent repeated shock therapy for emotional problems.

NOVEMBER 5, 1951 MONDAY

Martha Carson recorded her signature song, ''Satisfied'', at the Castle Studio in Nashville's Tulane Hotel. The gospel tune never makes national country charts, but it helps her gain membership in the Grand Ole Opry.

Songwriter Archie Jordan is born in Augusta, Georgia. He writes the Ronnie Milsap ballads ''Let's Take The Long Way Around The World'' and ''It Was Almost Like A Song'', plus hits for Sylvia, Charlie Rich and Barbara Mandrell.

NOVEMBER 9, 1951 FRIDAY

MGM released the first Hank Williams album, ''Hank Williams Sings''.

NOVEMBER 11, 1951 SUNDAY

Pop singer Paul Cowsill is born in Portsmouth, Virginia. He becomes one of seven members of the family group The Cowsills, who gain a trio of pop hits in the 1960s. One of them, ''Indian Lake'', is remade as a country hit by Freddy Weller.

NOVEMBER 12, 1951 MONDAY

Decca released Ernest Tubb's ''Driftwood On The River''.

NOVEMBER 13, 1951 TUESDAY

Ernest Tubb recorded ''Somebody's Stolen My Honey'' at Nashville's Castle Studio.

NOVEMBER 14, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Marty Robbins has his first recording session for Columbia Records at Hollywood's Radio Recorders. He recorded his debut single, ''Love Me Or Leave Me Alone''.

Ernest Tubb and Red Foley recorded ''Too Old To Cut The Mustard'' at the Castle Studio during an evening session in Nashville.

Hank Williams makes his first national TV appearance, on CBS-TV's ''The Perry Como Show'', performing ''Hey, Good Lookin'''.

NOVEMBER 15, 1951 THURSDAY

''Pals Of The Golden West'' debuts in theaters, with Roy Rogers and Dale Evans tackling a smuggling ring on the Mexican border.

Actress Beverly DÁngelo is born in Columbus, Ohio. She plays Patsy Cline in the 1980 movie ''Coal Miner's Daughter'', earning a Country Music Association award when the soundtrack is named Album of the Year.

NOVEMBER 16, 1951 FRIDAY

George Jones joins the Marines.

Columbia released Lefty Frizzell's double-sided hit ''Give Me More, More, More (Of Your Kisses)'' backed by ''How Long Will It Take (To Stop Loving You)''.

NOVEMBER 17, 1951 SATURDAY

Eva Overstake Foley, the wife of Red Foley, commits suicide in Nashville after discovering her husband is having an affair with TV personality Sally Sweet.

Jimmy heap holds his first Capitol recording session in Austin, Texas. He earns the only hit of his career during his time with the label.

NOVEMBER 18, 1951 SUNDAY

Boy Hawdy drummer Hugh Wright is born in Keokuk, Iowa. The band develops three hits, ''A Cowboy's Born With A Broken Heart'', ''They Don't Make 'Em Like That Anymore'' and ''She'd Give Anything'' before disbanding in 1996.

NOVEMBER 20, 1951 TUESDAY

''Valley Of Fire'' debuts in movie theaters, starring Gene Autry and Pat Buttram. Autry plays a mayor in a southwestern town where outlaws try to hijack a train full of women who are, in essence, mail-order brides.

NOVEMBER 22, 1951 THURSDAY

The Four Guys' Laddie Cain is born in Houston. The group earns Grand Ole Opry membership in 1967.

NOVEMBER 23, 1951 FRIDAY

MGM released Hank Williams' ''Baby, We're Really In Love''.

NOVEMBER 28, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Bessie Lee Mauldin is granted a divorce from Nelson Gann. She is already romantically involved with Bill Monroe, whose 1959 hit ''Gotta Travel On'' will feature her on bass.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Ike Turner struck up a relationship with Joe Bihari, who set him up as a talent scout, providing a car and a new suit so he could scour the Memphis and Mississippi Delta for blues and rhythm and blues talent. Ike, the black man could open the doors for the ''out of towner'' Jewish white guy that would be otherwise closed. Ike would round up the talent, set a series of dates and Joe Bihari would drive in and record at a whole array of venues throughout the Delta and Memphis.

The first session of these sessions to produce a single was with Robert Bland (soon to be blues superstar Bobby ''Blue'' Bland) recorded at band-leader. Tuff Green's house in Memphis. ''Dry Up, Baby'' is the sort of chaotic rocker that Howlin' Wolf might have cut, while the reverse of Modern 848 is a slow moaning blues with Bobby demonstrating his vocal prowess.

Session Published for Historical Reasons

STUDIO SESSION FOR BOBBY BLUE BLAND
FOR MODERN RECORDS 1951

TUFF GREEN'S HOUSE
1293 QUINN AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE NOVEMBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - IKE TURNER

01 – ''CRYING ALL NIGHT'' – B.M.I. - 3:03
Composer: - Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - MM 1735 Master - Click > 831-868 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date November 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - Modern Records (S) 78rpm Modern 848-A mono
CRYING ALL NIGHT / DRY UP, BABY
Reissued: - 2010 Jasmine Records (CD) 500/200rpm JASCD 564-2 mono
BOBBY BLAND - IT'S MY LIFE, BABY

02 – ''DRY UP, BABY'' – B.M.I. - 2:01
Composer: - Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - MM 1736 Master - Click > 831-868 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date November 1951
Released: - 1951
First appearance: - Modern Records (S) 78rpm Modern 848-B mono
DRY UP, BABY / CRYING ALL NIGHT
Reissued: - 2010 Jasmine Records (CD) 500/200rpm JASCD 564-3 mono
BOBBY BLAND - IT'S MY LIFE, BABY

Name (Or. No Of Instruments)
Bobby Bland - Vocal
Ike Turner - Piano
Matt Murphy - Guitar
Unknown - Saxophones
Possibly Richard ''Tuff'' Green - Bass
Earl Forest - Drums, Band Vocals, Handclaps

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

NOVEMBER 1951

Courtesy of Sam Phillips' developing relationship with Chess Records in Chicago, the good Doctor Ross and his small band were able to treat the wider public to the hypnotic one-chord style that cured all ills. Ross was just out of the Army and came into the Memphis Recording Service as a singer and harp player accompanied by his Jump and Jive Boyd; guitarist Wiley Gatlin and Robert Moore aka Mook who used a broom to make a percussive sound. Ross would soon develop the ability to pay rhythm guitar, harmonica, and drums simultaneously, but he and his boys already had the formula down pat. It ain't Gershwin or Charlie Parker but it sure is hard to resist. Can you imagine how Sam must have felt the first time he listened to this music coming through the speakers in his tiny studio? Probably much the same as when Joe Hill Louis began to play, because in some respects they were quite similar. One possibility is that Sam Phillips feared he might lose Louis to Modern in the fall-out from ''Rocket 88'' and saw the Doctor as a replacement. This in fact happened; Modern recorded a session or two with Joe Hill Louis away from Phillips studio before dropping him.

NOVEMBER 1951

With the war in Korea looming, Isaiah Doctor Ross was required to join the Army again for a year starting on October 2, 1950 and ending in November 1951. He served this time in Fort Worth, Texas, suffering a delay in his career at an important moment. By the time he was back in Memphis near the end of 1951 he found people he'd known down in Mississippi or in West Memphis had started to make records and big reputations – men like B.B. King, Howlin' Wolf, and Ike Turner with Jackie Brenston.

As soon as he could, he reconnected with WDIA and he became a paid up member of the musicians union at this time. He told Barry Lee Pearson: ''B.B. King took me around there and I got my union card and everything. And I paid for my band boys. That was Wiley, Mook, and Reuben Martin. Wiley played the guitar and I blowed the harmonica and sang. Mook had him a broom and get him a rough piece of wood on the floor and he's take the straw part and have it up and the naked part at the bottom. And he'd just stroke that. And Reuben Martin played washboard with a spoon and fork. And so everybody fell for us''.

Ross also lost no time in connecting with Sam Phillips' Memphis Recording Service. Jacob Ross, his brother, had apparently been to see Phillips on his behalf while Isaiah was back in the Army. Ross told Chris Baird, ''Sam Phillips said, 'Well bring your brother in'. One day my brother carried me there and I met Sam Phillips and he had a little old recording studio, just plain props and pasteboard up against the wall for to make some sound. He said he would like us to record for him one evening, so me and Wiley and a couple more boys went up there to play. He listened to us and then he took the phone off the hook and called Chess Records. He was a scout then, for Leonard Chess. He said, 'These guys are the beat I've heard around here'. And he had us to play and we played ''Country Clown'' and the other side was ''Doctor Ross Boogie'', so we put that out and it came on the Chess label''.

The card measures approximately 2.25 x 4" with round edges. Dr. Ross's full name, Issiah Ross, his written on the card in black felt tip marker - it is unlikely the signature of Doctor Ross, but probably written in by whoever issued him the card. It shows normal wear (considering that it was probably carried around in Doctor Ross' back pocket for a year) but is in overall good condition. At the time that Doctor Ross was issued this card, he was only 24 years old and had not yet signed his first recording contract. A year later Ross would join the Army. In 1952 he would release his first single with Sam Phillip's legendary Sun Records label.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR DOCTOR ROSS
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: THURSDAY NOVEMBER 29, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

Doctor Ross first recording session took place on November 29, 1951 with Ross playing harmonica and singing, Wiley Gatlin on guitar, and Robert Moore on broom. Ross told Norman Darwen, ''Mook used to drag the broom, yeah he could drag that, he could make it sound better than any drums''. Six songs from the session have survived. Sam Phillips was impressed by Ross's little group and their fascinating mix of catchy rhythms and authentic blues. He probably didn't know or care that Ross's original tunes were drawn from his years on the juke joint circuit and from listening to records.

01(1) - "COUNTRY CLOWN" - B.M.I. - 2:51
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Take 1 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - 1996
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rom CDSUNBOX 7-1-17 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958
Reissued: March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-1-13 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Doctor Ross' recording debut shows the profound influence that John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson had on the harmonica players of the next generation. The performance is something of a hybrid, since it combines elements of Mississippi, Tennessee and Texas in its construction. The song is Ross' version of Lil' Son Jackson's "Bad Whiskey, Bad Woman", recorded in Houston, Texas three years previously and issued on Gold Star 642. This first take begins with a long harmonica solo, whereas the issued version has a four-bar introduction before the first verse. Sam Phillips noted Ross's guitarist as 'Wiley Gallatin' but no one of that name appears to have been living around that time, and Ross later confirmed that he was really Wiley (or Wylie) Gatlin. Ross, Gatlin and Rober Moore aka Mook had played together for some years on Arkansas radio stations either side of Ross's stints in the Army and they'd found themselves a slot on WDIA where A.C. Mooha Williams dubbed Ross the Medical Director of the Royal Amalgamated Association of Chitlin' Eaters of America.

01(2) - "COUNTRY CLOWN" - B.M.I. 2:54
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1012 - Take 2 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - March 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1504-A mono
COUNTRY CLOWN / DR. ROSS BOOGIE
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-17 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

02 - "DOCTOR ROSS BOOGIE" - B.M.I. - 2:35
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1013 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - March 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1504-B mono
DR. ROSS BOOGIE / COUNTRY CLOWN
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-18 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

''Doctor Ross Boogie'' is the template for many of Doctor Ross' later Sun recordings. The guitarist's amplifier makes a rather muddy jumble of his boogie phrases, but his presence is almost incidental to Ross' exuberant vocal and his harmonica playing. The song's obvious derivation from Pinetop's "Boogie Woogie" is made plain by Ross' spoken (or half-shouted) instructions to his imaginary audience "When I tell you to that thing/try your best to break your leg". He prefaces a harmonica solo with the comment, "Now play it cool", and proceeds to play with anything but reticence.

03 - "CAT SQUIRREL" - B.M.I. - 2:23
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - 1986
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-20 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958
Reissued: March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-1-14 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

On ''Cat Squirrel'', this intriguingly named track, Dr. Ross moves away from his usual incessant one-chord boogie. This is shaped after Robert Petway's ''Catfish Blues'', recently revived by Bobo Thomas on the flip side of Elmore James' ''Dust My Broom''. Muddy waters' revival of the song as ''Rollin' Stone'' was still on jukeboxes as well. The Doctor recorded ''Cat Squirrel'' several more times in later years, and the version for Fortune was especially fine, arguably better than this.

In 1966, Cream featured ''Cat Squirrel'' (retitled ''Cat's Squirrel'' and credited to Trad. Arr. S. Splurge) on the flip side of their first single, ''Wrapping Paper''. True, Clapton's solos were pretty spectacular, but the song's energy, not to mention its signature riff, came straight from the Doc. Soon after, Jethro Tull covered Cream's cover. Cream certainly didn't hear this recording, which went unreleased until Krazy Kat bootlegged it in 1985, but they might have heard Ross play it on the 1965 Folk Blues festival. If so, they should have realized that he needed the money more than they did.

 04(1) - "LITTLE SOLDIER BOY" - B.M.I. - 2:58
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Take 1 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - 1972
First appearance: - Arhoolie Records (LP) 33rpm Arhoolie 1065 mono
HIS FIRST RECORDINGS
Reissued: - January 5, 1992 Arhoolie Records (CD) 500/200rpm Arhoolie 371 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - BOOGIE DISEASE

04(2) - "LITTLE SOLDIER BOY" - B.M.I. - 2:55
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Take 2 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - 1996
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-19 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958
Reissued: - 2013 JSP Records (CD) 500/200rpm JSP4239B-2-4 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - THE MEMPHIS CUTS 1953-1956

 The second of two takes, this version is slightly faster than the previous take and features the prominent foot-tapping also present on "Country Clown". Those with a mania for classification could argue endlessly over which musician is providing pedestrian assistance or whether a third party, like Willie Johnson, might have wandered into the studio to help. The song refers to Ross' two bouts of Army service, from which he'd recently been demobbed. Having served in the Philippines and the Southwest Pacific, he got out in 1948 but was recalled two years later. In his own words: "He kept on playing/he would say/Everything's going to be alright after awhile'/and he would keep a smile on his face/pointing his finger and blowing his harmonica/all of the girls loved Doctor Ross".

05(1) - "SHAKE A MY HAND" - B.M.I. - 2:34
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None – Take 1 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - 1972
First appearance: - Arhoolie Records (LP) 33rpm Arhoolie 1065 mono
HIS FIRST RECORDINGS
Reissued: - January 5, 1992 Arhoolie Records (CD) 500/200rpm Arhoolie 371 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - BOOGIE DISEASE

 05(2) - "SHAKE A MY HAND" - B.M.I. - 2:34
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None – Take 2 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951 - Alternate Take
Released: - 1992
First appearance: - Arhoolie Internet iTunes MP3-10 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - BOOGIE DISEASE
Reissued: - 2013 JSP Records (CD) 500/200rpm JSP4239-1-26 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - THE MEMPHIS CUTS 1953 - 1956

 06 – ''THAT'S ALRIGHT (GOIN' BACK SOUTH*'' - B.M.I. - 2:35
Composer: - Isaiah Ross
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None – Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - November 29, 1951
Released: - January 5, 1992
First appearance: - Arhoolie Records (CD) 500/200rpm Arhoolie 371 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - BOOGIE DISEASE
Reissued: - 2013 JSP Records (CD) 500/200rpm JSP4239-1-12 mono
DOCTOR ROSS - THE MEMPHIS CUTS 1953 - 1956

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Isaiah Ross – Vocal, Harmonica & Footstomping
Wiley Gatlin - Guitar & Vocal*
Robert Moore (aka Mook) - Broom

 Wiley Gatlin was recorded as a cotton farmer on the Wilson Plantation north east of Dundee in Tunica County at the time. According to Doctor Ross, ''the best picker you ever saw''. Robert Moore, was a man Doctor Ross called ''Mook'', who played a string bass and also used a broom to make a percussion sound.

 Note: Doctor Ross recorded other versions of these songs at this session. Note 2: Doctor Ross also played on ''That's Alright (Goin' Back South)'' sung at this session by Wiley Gatlin.

 In almost total contrast, Doctor Ross's final offering at the session was an engaging if strange attempt to marry some familiar lines about a mistreating woman (from the likes of Sonny Boy Williamson's 1946 recordings of ''Shake The Boogie'') with Moohah Williams local catchphrase: ''come on and shake-a my hand''. WDIA jockey A.C. Williams had the ''Wheelin' On Beale'' show. He had still been a biology teacher at Manassas High School when he started at WDIA in 1949, but he soon became the first full time black employee of the station, working on promotion and organisation of events as well as hosting shows.

 He set up the Teen Town Singers group that changed personnel each year to include the best talent from all seven of the local black High Schools. When singer Faye Adams had a number 1 rhythm and blues hit on Herald in the summer of 1953 with another song called ''Shake A My Hand'', Moohah got together with WDIA's David Mattis to write a comical song about the perils of hand-shaking. Issued that November on Starmaker Records, Moohah's ''All Shook Out'' was an answer song in the vein of Rufus Thomas's ''Bear Cat'', a recent number 1 in Memphis.

 The song may also have had secondary reference to the gladhanding that went on during the annual WDIA Goodwill Revue. Although Moohah played all kinds of black music in his shows, he took the name ''Mr Blues'' for one show and ran mock elections for the preservation of good country blues; he awarded Doctor Ross the presidency of the Royal Amalgamated Association of Chitterling Eaters of America for his musical efforts.

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

NOVEMBER 1951

Up to the time Rosco Gordon first recorded ''Booted'', Billy Love had recorded just one song for Sam Phillips but around November 2, 1951 he recorded three more songs, two of which became his first record on Chess under his own name. Perhaps featuring the same band as on the Juiced session, ''Drop Top'' was another stormer, an undisguised attempt to follow in the slipstream of ''Rocket 88''. Billy's going to breeze around town keeping cool in his fantasy convertible and he doesn't care who knows it. He boogies into this track singing after the style of a Roy Brown before giving way to a crashing guitar solo from Calvin Newborn and a matching sax solo. The other side of the record was to be ''You're Gonna Cry'', a mid-paced Niles about the perils of getting too high and mighty. There is a throaty sax solo twin an unidentified player and good understated support from guitar and drums, possibly the Newborns again. The third title recorded at this time was ''Ain't No More'' hut the tape or acetate of this has never been found. Phillips paid Love an advance c l $70 on the disc on November 2, and loaned him $15 on December 11, when he noted that Chess has masters on ''Ain't No More'', ''You're Gonna Cry'' and ''Drop Top". However the disc was not issued immediately and some months later on March 16, 1952 Phillips noted that he had sent another master of ''Drop Top'' to Chess. The disc was finally issued as Chess 1508 on April 1, 1952. The record seems to hive been given little promotional support by Chess and it did not show up significantly on regional sales charts.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR BILLY LOVE
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: POSSIBLY OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

 01 - "DROP TOP" – B.M.I. - 2:41
Composer: - Milton Morse Love
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1014 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - Possibly October/November 1951
Released: - April 1, 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1508-A mono
DROP TOP / YOU'RE GONNA CRY
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-20 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

 "Rocket 88", of course, inspired a great many sequels - a fair number of which emanated from Sam Phillips' studio, notably "My Real Gone Rocket", "T-Model Boogie", "Mr. Highway Man", "Ridin' The Boogie". Billy Love's song is a delightful eulogy to the long-gone, gas-guzzlin' convertibles of the early 1950s: a routine eight-to-the-bar boogie, driven along by Billy's rock-solid, dependable left hand and hugely confident vocal, the automobile evolves into a metaphor for nookie halfway through. Sam Phillips' later comments notwithstanding, Love appears to have possessed considerable talent, and clearly should have gone on to become a major player - and whilst his dept to Roy Brown is readily evident here, he remains his own man.

02 - "YOU'RE GONNA CRY" – B.M.I. - 2:26
Composer: - Milton Morse Love
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F 1015 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - Possibly October/November 1951
Released: - April 1, 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1508-B mono
YOU'RE GONNA CRY / DROP TOP
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-21 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

''You're Gonna Cry'', a mid-paced blues about the perils of getting too high and mighty was the song backed ''Drop Top'' on Chess. There is a throaty sax solo, probably from Charles Walker, and good understated support from Calvin and Phineas Newborn, Sr, on guitar and drums. Phillips paid Love an advance of $70 on the disc on November 2, 1951 and loaned him $15 on December 11 when he noted that ''Chess has masters on ''Ain't No More'', ''You're Gonna Cry'' and ''Drop Top''. However the disc was not issued immediately and some months later on March 16, 1952 Phillips noted that he had sent another master of ''Drop Top'' to Chess. The disc was finally issued in April, but appears to have been given little promotional support and did not show up significantly on regional sales charts.

Apparently from the same session as ''Drop Top'' and ''You're Gonna Cry'', Sam Phillips shows that ''It Ain't No More'' was sent to Chess along with the other two titles. There was a delay of some months before a record was issued and in that time Chess decided to go for the other titles. At one point, Chess asked for another copy of the ''Drop Top'' master and somewhere along the line the tape of ''It Ain't No More'' was lost but, here an acetate copy from Steve LaVere who had kept it for over forty years. If it were not for the greater saleability of the ''Drop Top'' lyric, this recording would have been a real contender for release. It is a storming performance, from Love's opening piano chord and the pushing drumbeat of Phineas Newborn through the unison riffing of sax and guitar and on to the superior guitar solo from Carlvin Newborn. The song itself consists of Love telling his girl the reasons why she's got to pack everything and go and perhaps this downbeat message being delivered at such a rocking tempo weighed against the track when Chess 1508 was being planned.

 03 - "AIN'T NO MORE" – B.M.I. - 2:19
Composer: - Milton Morse Love
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None
Recorded: - Possibly November 1951
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-3-15 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Over the river in West Memphis, Arkansas there were other clubs and bars, like the Sixteenth Street grill where Sonny Boy Williamson, Willie Love and B. B. King played, the Be-Bop Hall, and also the Cotton Club that catered to a white audience.

Together Memphis and West Memphis provided a living to touring pianists like Roosevelt Sykes, Ivory Joe Hunter, or Fats Domino, to the pianists in local bands such as those led by Tuff Green or Bill Harvey, to the solo pianists and itinerant performers - Memphis keyboard legends like 'Struction' and 'Dishrag' - and to budding youngsters just starting out to learn. And then there was Phineas Newborn junior who played in a family band with his father Phineas, a well-known drummer, and his brother Calvin, a guitarist.

The Newborns came from around Jackson, Mississippi, originally but Phineas senior moved to Memphis in about 1930. His son joined him in the Tuff Green band in the mid-1940s and spent summers on the road with the popular Saunders King band when aged just 16. In 1948 the Newborn family show band was resident at Morris Berger's Plantation Inn in West Memphis, moving over the bridge to the Flamingo Room at Hernando and Beale in the early 1950s.

By the mid-1950s Phineas was being feted by jazz aficionados in New York and Los Angeles, and he remains a legendary name in jazz. Writing about musicians from Memphis in Rhythm Oil, Stanley Booth quoted one contemporary Memphis pianist saying that Phineas Newborn "had a boogie-woogie left hand, a bebop right hand, and this ... third hand." That's what pianist Billy Love was competing with when he was growing up.

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Billy Love - Vocal and Piano
Charles Walker - Saxophone
Calvin Newborn - Guitar
Phineas Newborn Sr – Drums

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

NOVEMBER 30, 1951 FRIDAY

Ernest Tubb recorded ''Missing In Action'' during an afternoon session at Nashville's Castle Studio in the Tulane Hotel.

Columbia released Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs ''Tis Sweet To Be Remembered''.

Guitarist Gordon Payne is born. He becomes a longtime member of Waylon Jennings' band, playing on ''I Ain't Living Long Like This'', ''I've Always Been Crazy'' and ''Luckenbach, Texas (Back To The Basics Of Love)''.

DECEMBER 1951

The Chess version of Howlin' Wolf's "Moanin' At Midnight" (Chess 1479) enters the rhythm and blues charts at number 10. The Biharis file a claim against Chess Records, but the latter claim that they have a prior contract filed by Sam Phillips with the negro local of the AFM in Memphis. Sam Phillips cuts a second session on Wolf for Chess Records.

Chess release Rosco Gordon's "Booted" b/w ''Love You Till The Day I Die'' (Chess 1487). The Biharis arrange to cut another version with Roso and their version of ''Booted'' which is released on RPM 344. They also file a further suit against Chess, but again find that the latter have a prior contract on the song filed with the AFM.

At this stage, Chess Records and the are also in dispute over John Lee Hooker.

Sam Phillips records a second session on Rosco Gordon for Chess Records, but only a duet with Bobby Bland is issued. The session also includes Rosco's belated answer-disc to "Rocket 88", the "T-Model Boogie".

Sam Phillips recorded another country artist, Bob Price, for Chess Records.

Chess Records release a disc by the Spiritual Stars ''Good Religion'' b/w ''I'll Search Heaven'' (Chess 1485) probably recorded by Phillips, along with a second disc by the Evangelist Gospel Singers of Alabama ''Walk The Light'' b/w ''Never Grown Old'' (Chess1486).

DECEMBER 1, 1951 SATURDAY

Slim Whitman recorded ''Indian Love Call'' at the KWHK Studio in Shreveport, Louisiana. The song was introduced in the 1930s by Jeanette MacDonald and Nelson Eddy in the movie ''Rose Mari.

DECEMBER 2, 1951 SUNDAY

The Randolph Scott western ''Man In The Saddle'' debuts in movie theaters, with Tennessee Ernie Ford singing the title song.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Sam Phillips records another country artist for Chess Records, Bob Price. Phillips' mid-1950s venture into country music was largely conducted in partnership with the A&R team of Quinton Claunch and Bill Cantrell, but it seems as if Claunch was there first. He appeared at Phillips' door with Bob Price, and was certainly not joking when he said that Price had an unusual voice. Price and Harmonica Frank marked Chess Records' inauspicious debut into the country market. Both were a long way from mainstream but, unfortunately, this outing has none of the period charm of Frank Floyd, nor the searing hillbilly passion of Phillips' later efforts. In fact it has not weathered the years at all well although Roy Cooper's dancing guitar fills are quite pleasant and Price's vocal has its moments. If Price was aiming for the pop-country mix of Eddy Arnold-George Morgan-Red Foley, he came up with an almost comically inept parody. He had previously recorded for Decca in 1949 together with Eddie Hill, suggesting that he may have been part of the same troup, although Claunch recalled that Price rarely sang except at home. Billboard, though reported in March 1952 that Price was on the point of joining the live on-air staff of KWEM, West Memphis, so perhaps he got around more than Claunch believed.

STUDIO SESSION FOR BOB PRICE
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: SUNDAY DECEMBER 2, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR QUINTON CLAUNCH

Sometime during the fall of 1951, a childhood friend of Quinton Claunch named Price Twitty came to Memphis to play a few country music gigs. In a strange reversal of the Harold Jenkins story, Twitty rejected his surname for the stage name Bop Price. Claunch recalls that Price sang very little and "mainly in the bath", yet Price was no novice and had pursued an intermittent career in country music, recording for Decca in on August 22, 1949. Bop Price had what Claunch characterizes as, "an unusual voice, and his own way of phrasing a song that was his main claim to fame". In November 1951, Claunch called Sam Phillips and took price down to the studio at 706 Union Avenue. This was to the Claunch's first venture as a record producer.

Although somewhat lightweight, Bob Price's unusual phrasing impressed Sam Phillips sufficiently to call a recording session. Claunch recalls that before the session be, Price and guitarist Paul Buskirk recorded a demo of "How Can It Be" at WLAY radio studio in Muscle Shoals. Moving back to Memphis for the proper session, Claunch found that the additional session players Sam had brought in were not capable of making the sounds he intended the world to hear and he was somewhat dissatisfied with the outcome.

Nevertheless, Sam Phillips was involved at the time with leasing country material to the newly established Chess label country series, and he was able to sell "How Can It Be" and "Sticks And Stones" for release on Chess 1495 in March 1952.

01 - "HOW CAN IT BE" – B.M.I. - 3:06
Composer: - Quinton Claunch-Bob Price
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F-1002 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 2, 1951
Released: - March 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1495-A mono
HOW CAN IT ME / STICKS AND STONES
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-9 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-27 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

02 - "STICKS AND STONES" – B.M.I. - 2:24
Composer: - Bob Price
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - F-1003 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 2, 1951
Released: - March 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1495-B mono
STICKS AND STONES / HOW CAN IT ME
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-10 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-28 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

''Stick And Stones'', this uptempo side has a folky, almost nursery rhyme, quality enhanced by the instrumental break which sounds like a musical box. Hank Thompson was doing well with songs like this (''Humpty Dumpty Heart'', ''Whoa Sailor'', etc) but Thompson at least had visibility in the western half of the country. Released to little acclaim in January 1952, this single represented the beginning and end of Chess's involvement in hillbilly music until they allied themselves with Stan Lewis in Shreveport. However, shortly after this record was released, Billboard announced that Leonard Chess was heading south to secure more country talent. Perhaps the dismal sales of this outing convinced Chess to stay clear of the country market until Lewis started providing him with saleable product. Note that the master tape from this session was recorded over. Only the very last cut on the tape, a fragment of ''Why So Blue''? remains from the original tape.

03 - "WHY SO BLUE"
Composer: - Bob Price
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Snatch
Recorded: - December 2, 1951
Released: - Sun Unissued

04 - "DONATIN' MY TIME"
Composer: - Bob Price
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None
Recorded: - December 2, 1951
Released: - Sun Unissued

Two other songs had been recorded by Sam Phillips. A snatch of "Why So Blues" remains on tape, but "Donatin' My Time" appears to have been recorded over along with the master tape of the two issued items. The inconspicuous sales of Chess 1495 compared unfavourably with the good sales on rhythm and blues recordings from Phillips' studio, and this may have put Sam Phillips off country music for a while. It would be another two years before Claunch came to Sam again with a song to resurrect his recording career.

"Bob Price made some things for Chess Records in my studio", recalled Sam Phillips. "His real name was Price Twitty. He was a young man from down in Tishomingo, Mississippi. But he did not have the blue feel in the music. We didn't do too much with Bob". Price was simply not quirky enough, not even for this ready-made new hillbilly marked, and Sam Phillips doubted that there was a bluesy bone in his body. The results in any case were satisfying to no one, including Leonard Chess, who suspended his brief country music experiment shortly thereafter.

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Bob Price - Vocal
Quinton Claunch - Guitar
Roy Cooper - Guitar
Harold Buskirk - Bass
Dexter Johnson - Mandolin
Bob Smith – Piano
Unknown - Fiddle

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 3, 1951 MONDAY

Studio sessions for Rosco Gordon at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee.

Hank Williams is sued for copyright infringement, charged with stealing the melody for ''Cold, Cold Heart'' from the T. Texas Tyler recording ''You'll Still Be In My Heart''.

The Maddox Brothers & Rose sign with Columbia Records.

DECEMBER 4, 1951 TUESDAY

Studio sessions for Rosco Gordon and Bobby Bland at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee.

Guitarist Gary Rossington is born in Jacksonville, Florida. In his teens, he becomes a founding member of Lynyrd Skynyrd, whose ''Sweet Home Alabama'' receives billing in a Country Music Foundation book among country's 500 all-time greatest singles.

  © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR ROSCO GORDON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICES FOR RPM RECORDS 1951

 MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY MONDAY DECEMBER 3, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

 01 - "BOOTED" - B.M.I. - 3:09
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - MM 1744 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - December 3, 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM 344-A mono
BOOTED / COLD COLD WINTER
Reissued: - 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDCHD 694-8 mono
ROSCO GORDON - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

 02 - "COLD COLD WINTER" - B.M.I. - 3:12
Composer: - Rosco Gordon-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music
Matrix number: - MM 1745 Master - Click > 339-358 Series
Recorded: - December 3, 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - First appearance: RPM Records (S) 78rpm RPM-B 344 mono
COLD COLD WINTER / BOOTED
Reissued: - 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDCHD 694-9 mono
ROSCO GORDON - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

 03 - "WHAT YOU GOT ON YOUR MIND" - B.M.I. - 1:54
Composer: - Rosco Gordon-Jules Taub
Publisher: - Modern Music Publisher
Matrix number: - 1842 Master - Click > 365-384 Series
Recorded: - December 3, 1951
Released: - September 6, 1952
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm standard single RPM 365-A mono
WHAT YOU GOT ON YOUR MIND / TWO KIND OF WOMEN
Reissued: - November 24, 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm Ace CDCHD 694-14 mono
ROSCO GORDON - BOOTED - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

 04 - "TWO KIND OF WOMEN" - B.M.I. - 3:02
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Modern Music Publisher
Matrix number: - 1867 Master - Click > 365-384 Series
Recorded: - December 3, 1951
Released: - September 6, 1952
First appearance: - RPM Records (S) 78rpm standard single RPM 365-B mono
TWO KIND OF WOMEN / WHAT YOU GOT ON YOUR MIND
Reissued: - November 24, 1998 Ace Records (CD) 500/200rpm Ace CDCHD 694-13 mono
ROSCO GORDON - BOOTED - THE BEST OF THE RPM YEARS

 05 - "GONNA LET YOU OUT''
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 3, 1951

 06 - "THAT'S AGAINST THE RULE''
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 3, 1951

 07 - "TELL DADDY, BABY''
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 3, 1951

This session was recorded for Chess Records but the masters were not dispatched pending the outcome of the legal wrangling surrounding Gordon. The titles were later offered to RPM/Modern.

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Rosco Gordon - Vocal and Piano
Willie Sims - Saxophone
Willie Wilkes - Saxophone
John Murry Daley - Drums
More Details Unknown

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR ROSCO GORDON & BOBBY BLUE BAND
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICES FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: TUESDAY DECEMBER 4, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

 01 - "LETTER FROM A TRENCH IN KOREA*/***" - 1 – B.M.I. - 2:55
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7398 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - December 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Duke 106-B / Chess 1489-B mono
LETTER FROM A TRENCH IN KOREA / CRYING
Reissued: - July 5, 2013 Salt & Pepper Records (MP3) Internet Sample-3 mono
LOVE YOU TILL THE DAY I DIE - EARLY SINGLES 1951 - 1956

 02 - ''CRYING'' - 1 - B.M.I. - 3:00
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7397 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - December 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Duke 106/Chess 1489-A mono
CRYING / LETTER FROM A TRENCH IN KOREA
Reissued: - July 5, 2013 Salt & Pepper Records (MP3) Internet Sample-2 mono
LOVE YOU TILL THE DAY I DIE - EARLY SINGLES 1951 - 1956

 03(1) - "T-MODEL BOOGIE" – B.M.I. - 2:25
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Lion Publishers
Matrix number: - None - Alternate to Original Issue Duke 106 - Click > Duke Series
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - 1952
First appearance: - Duke Records (S) 78rpm standard single Duke 106-A mono
T-MODEL BOOGIE /
Reissued: - 1990 Charly (CD) 500/200rpm Instant INS 503 mono
THE SUN STORY VOLUME 1 - SUNRISE

 03(2) - "T-MODEL BOOGIE" – 1 - B.M.I. - 2:25
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Lion Publishers
Matrix number: - None - Take 1 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - 1986
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30133-3 mono
ROSCO GORDON - THE LEGENDARY SUN PERFORMERS
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-22 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

Rosco Gordon recorded at least three versions of this, two for Sam Phillips (the other take first appeared on CR 30101) and a speeded-up version for Duke Records, with automobile noises spliced into the intro and outro. The song is patently another "Rocket 88" spinoff, but has an engaging spirit of its own - although things begin to fall apart rhythmically during the third verse after Rosco attempts to cram a couple of gratuitous extra beats into the mix. The tenor sax player suddenly springs to life during his solo, exhibiting a surly blues tone - his sustained note during the last verse being particularly effective.

 03(3) - "T-MODEL BOOGIE" – 2 - B.M.I.
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Lion Publishers
Matrix number: - None - Take 2 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - 1976
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30101-A-3 mono
SUN: THE ROOTS OF ROCK – VOLUME 1 - CATALYST

 04 - "NATIVE CHANT***" - 1
Composer: - Rosco Gordon
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 4, 1951

 05 - "DR BLUES**" - 2
Composer: - "Dr. Blues" Maxwell
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 4, 1951
Released: - 1986
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30133-4 mono
ROSCO GORDON - THE LEGENDARY SUN PERFORMERS

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Rosco Gordon - Vocal* and Piano
Bobby Bland - Second Vocal***
"Dr Blues" Maxwell - Vocal**
Willie Sims - Saxophone
Willie Wilkes - Saxophone
John Murry Daley - Drums

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 1951

Business started picking up a little in December 1951. Sometime around the beginning of the month Sam Phillips recorded harmonica Frank Floyd, a grizzled white medicine-show veteran in his forties who sang and played the harmonica without making use of either his hands or a harmonica rack, simply rolling the harmonica around in his mouth and then rolling it back to the side again as he declaimed the lyrics of his blues and humorous entertainments in a parched, self-amused voice. He had been captivated by Frank when they met, and first recorded him on July 15, 1951, signing him immediately to a management contract. He was not by any stretch of the imagination a great artist, but he was a compelling one, a true original, of the sort that Sam Phillips had always been drawn to. According to Sam Phillips, ''Frank Floyd was a beautiful hobo. He was short, fat, very abstract, and you looked at him and you really didn't know what he was thinking, what he was going to say or sing next. He had the greatest mind of his own, I think hobos by nature have to have that, and that fascinated me from the beginning. And then he had some of these old rhymes and tales and stuff that he had embellished, and some of them were so old, God, I guess they were old when my father was a kid''.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Frank Floyd was called back into the studio and recorded "Howlin' Tomcat" and "She Done Moved" this time, two blues staples, for which there would be no reason to have any commercial expectation. Harmonica Frank just tickled him. He was difficult to marked, Sam realized, not just because of the peculiarity of his sound but because he was primarily a visual act. With that harmonica in his mouth as he sang, he was more of a novelty act than any of the other singers Sam had recorded, but Sam was convinced there was a place for him, if you could just find the right kind of setting to present him in. He was ''a very fascinating character'', said Sam. And, as Sam was always quick to point out, ''You don't throw away any good characters''.

The masters were shipped to Chess on December 13, 1951 and the record was released in January 1952. From that point, Frank's career took a downturn. His second Chess single sank without a trace and his steady gig with Eddie Hill ended when Hill left WMC for the brighter lights at WSM, Nashville, in February 1952.

STUDIO SESSION FOR HARMONICA FRANK FLOYD
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE DECEMBER 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

 01(1) - "HOWLIN' TOMCAT" – 1 - B.M.I. - 2:44
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - 1504-A Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date December 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1494-A mono
HOWLIN' TOMCAT / SHE DONE MOVED
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-4 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-22 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

''Howlin' Tomcat'' is not so much a blues as a loving parody of a blues, and an anachronism even in 1951. It is true that folk blues were still selling in 1951 but this is much more folk than blues. It seemed to belong in either the 1930s or the ersatz folk blues revival of the 1960s but barely at any point in between. If it had a direct antecedent, it was Bo Carter's 1931 recording of ''Howlin' Tom Cat Blues'', but that assumes Frank collected blues 78s, and it's a pretty fair assumption that he didn't. He must surely have heard Carter or someone else perform it, though. Perhaps Frank's animal noises gave Phillips a sense of deja vu in 1953 when he was grafting similar noises onto Rufus Thomas's first hits.

01(2) - "HOWLIN' TOMCAT" – 2 - B.M.I. - 2:49
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - None - Alternate Take - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Unknown Date December 1951
Released: - 1973
First appearance: - Puritan Records (LP) 33rpm Puritan 3003 mono
HARMONICA FRANK THE GREAT ORIGINAL RECORDINGS 1951-1958
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-6 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-24 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

The alternate of ''Howlin' Tomcat'' was basically similar to the issued version and, aside from a couple of minor vocal flufs, it was a serious candidate for shipping to Chess. In fact, in the days before tape, Sam Phillips may well have recorded a second version in order to have a safety master in case the version he shipped was damaged during shipping or plating. This may be a lone survivor of those safety masters.

 03 - "SHE DONE MOVED" – B.M.I. - 2:58
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - 1504-B Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - Unknown Date December 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1494-B mono
SHE DONE MOVED / HOWLIN' TOMCAT
Reissued: - November 1986 Bear Family Records (LP) 33rpm BFX 15211-2-5 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY YEARS 1950 - 1959
Reissued: - February 15, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17311-1-23 mono
THE SUN COUNTRY BOX 1950 - 1959

''She Done Moved'', a straight blues rendering without even a harmonica. Nevertheless, there are still flashes of Frank's wonderfully idiosyncratic phrasing together with some playful touches in the phrasing where his vocal crosses bar lines. As with his other blues, Frank makes no effort to sound like anyone but himself. He absorbed the vernacular of the blues and made it his own. This song comes from the same deep well as Lonnie Johnson's ''Kansas City Blues'', but there are lines like ''she got eyes like a lighthouse on the sea'' that leave you wondering where Frank heard them.

 04 - ''CHRISTMAS TIME AGAIN''
Composer: - Frank Floyd
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Sun Unissued - Tape Lost
Recorded: - Probably December 1951

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Harmonica Frank Floyd - Vocal, Guitar and Harmonica

The Chess recordings are still shrouded in mystery. It is possible that "Step It Up And Go" was hastily placed on Frank's first single because it was starting to become a small hit for Big Jeff and the Radio Playboys on Dot Records. More surprising, the original coupling of "Swamp Root" and "Goin' Away Walkin'" was repromoted in August 1952, one year after release. Copies were serviced to both country and pop disc jockey's. Another cut destined for Chess, "Christmas Time Again", has never been found.

Chess Records had found a place for Frank Floyd in any case in their new hillbilly series, inaugurated the previous summer with fanciful claims for Frank's first single (it was, ''just as great if not greater'' in its field, Leonard Chess announced to the trades, than ''Rocket 88'', and the label took out an ad for its ''Folk Smash!!'').

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 7, 1951 FRIDAY

While returning from California, while they filmed the movie ''Rough, Tough West'', Pee Wee King and His Golden West Cowboys' airplane comes up missing, and the media erroneously reports that the singer has died.

DECEMBER 8, 1951 SATURDAY

Rosco Gordon's ''Saddled The Cow'' enters the local charts in New Orleans, Louisiana.

''They're At It Again Chess-Modern Square Off Over To Rhythm & Blues Artists: Chicago. The ongoing hassle between the Chess brothers of the Chess/Aristocrat plattery here and the brothers Bihari, of the Modern/RPM firms, Hollywood, has erupted anew. Original flare-up between the diskery fraters started about three months ago, when both were battling over who owned the contract to Jackie (''Rocket 88'') Brenston.

Current brouhaha involves two artists, Johnny Lee Hooker and Rosco Gordon. Phil Chess notified the trade press that Gordon, who has a pressing of ''Booted'' out on both Chess and Modern, is a contracted artist of Chess Records. The Chess exclusive to Gordon was okayed by the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) approximately two months ago, and Gordon sliced his disking for Chess about a week after the contract was signed in Memphis.

In Hooker's case, both Modern and Chess have versions out on ''Louise'' backed by ''Ground Hog Blues''. Chess said that the union investigated the release of the Chess recording of the two tunes and notified the union that they purchased the controversial Hooker master from Joe Battle, owner of Joe's Record Shop in Detroit, a year ago.

Union long has had a ruling that an artist cannot re-cut the same tune unless a five-year period exists between the first and second cutting. Union has made an exception several times, where an artist has received they okay of the firm for which he first cut the tune.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR GOSPEL TONES
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
SUN SESSION: MONDAY DECEMBER 10, 1951
STUDIO HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER – SAM C. PHILLIPS

Sam Phillips recorded the Gospel Tones, but as much as he loved the old-time black gospel sound, he couldn't sell it to anyone.

No Details

01 – ''NOAH''
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None – Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 10, 1951

02 – ''GET AWAY JORDAN''
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: Public Domain
Matrix number: - None – Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 10, 1951

03 – ''ROCK MY SOUL''
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: Public Domain
Matrix number: - None – Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 10, 1951

04 – ''MOTHERLESS CHILDREN''
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: Public Domain
Matrix number: - None – Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 10, 1951

05 – ''LORD BE NEAR ME, HEAR ME''
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None – Sun Unissued
Recorded: - December 10, 1951

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Cicero Lewis – Vocal and leader
Unknown Personnel

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 10, 1951 MONDAY

Pee Wee King recorded ''Silver And Gold'' at Chicago RCA Studio A.

Johnny Rodriguez is born in Sabinal, Texas. He becomes country's first mainstream star of Hispanic descent, emerging out of Tom T. Hall's band in 1972. He recorded numerous songs in Spanglish, with a line of hits that stretches from 1972-1983.

Decca released the Ernest Tubb and Red Foley duet ''Too Old To Cut The Mustard''.

DECEMBER 11, 1951 TUESDAY

Hank Williams recorded ''Honky Tonk Blues'' and ''I'm Sorry For You, My Friend'' during a midday session in Nashville at the Castle Studio. It marks his last recording date before dissolving the Drifting Cowboys.

Hank Thompson recorded ''The Wild Side Of Life'' and ''Waiting In The Lobby Of Your Heart'' during the evening at the Capitol Studios on Melrose Avenue in Los Angeles.

DECEMBER 13, 1951 THURSDAY

Hank Williams undergoes surgery at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville for fuse two vertebrae in his back.

DECEMBER 14, 1951 FRIDAY

Mercury released Flatt & Scruggs ''Roll In My Sweet Baby's Arms''. The bluegrass is later made into a country hit by Buck Owens.

DECEMBER 15, 1951 SATURDAY

''Chess Claims Wolf In Modern Dispute: Chicago . The revolving battle between the Chess brothers, of Chess-Aristocrat here, and the Bihari clan of Moderm-RPM waxeries has broken out again over yet another artist's contract. Latest round was touched off when Phil and Leonard Chess staked a claim on Howlin' Wolf, who has cut sides for both the Biharis and Chess, with the latter fraters claiming him exclusively this week.

The Wolf, otherwise known as Chester Burnett, a farmer from West Memphis, Arkansas, was signed into Local 208, the Negro chapter of the American Federation of Musicians genre, and duked a musician's recording pact with Chess. Currently Howlin' Wolf has ''How Many More Years'' on Chess listed among the top ten on the rhythm and blues charts.

Only a week ago the two flatteries were squaring off in a still unresolved dispute involving two other artist pacts belonging to John Lee Hooker and Rosco Gordon.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR JACKIE BRENSTON
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

PROBABLY MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: SATURDAY DECEMBER 15, 1951
STUDIO HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER – SAM C. PHILLIPS

In mid-December, Chess sought to follow up on the success of "Rocket 88" by bringing Jackie Brenston to Chicago to record his own session. Much was obviously expected, as the singer and baritone saxophonist laid down no fewer than 8 sides. But just four were released, and the sales of Chess 1496 and 1532 must not have been up to expectations. Chess 1496 has shown up in quite a few collections; 1532, which would be Brenston's last release on Chess, is less often seen. The full band personnel for the session is not known, but two Memphis stalwarts were on hand: Phineas Newborn Jr. at the piano and his brother Calvin Newborn on guitar.

Calvin is also credited as the composer on "Starvation'', a solid jazz instrumental. The band was rounded out with an alto sax, a tenor sax, bass, drums, and guest singer Edna McRaney, who appeared on ''Eighty Eight Boogie" and "Lovin' Time Blues" as well as "Hi, Ho Baby".

Note: The session may have been recorded for Chess in Chicago but Brenston was under personal contract to Sam Phillips and Phillips notebook shows at least from the session(s) at December 15, as having been recorded by him at the Memphis Recording Service.

01 – ''HI HO BABY''* – B.M.I. - 2:24
Composer: - Carl Germany
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7405 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1496-A mono
HI HO BABY / LEO THE LOUSE
Reissued: 1984 P-Vine Records (LP) 33rpm PLP 6027-2-1 mono
JACKIE BRENSTON AND HIS DELTA CATS – ROCKET 88

02 – ''TELL TROUBLES GOODBYE''
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U 7406 - None – Chess Unissued
Recorded: - December 15, 1951

03 – ''BLUES GOT ME AGAIN'' – B.M.I. - 3:05
Composer: - Jackie Brenston
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7407 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - December 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1532-A mono
BLUES GOT ME AGAIN / STARVATION BLUES
Reissued: 1984 P-Vine Records (LP) 33rpm PLP 6027-2-7 mono
JACKIE BRENSTON AND HIS DELTA CATS – ROCKET 88

 04 – ''YOU WON'T BE COMING BACK'' - 2:49
Composer: - Newborn
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U 7408 – Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - 1984
First appearance: - P-Vine Records (LP) 33rpm PLP 6027-2-5 mono
JACKIE BRENSTON AND HIS DELTA CATS – ROCKET 88
Reissued: - October 22, 2007 Rev-Ola Bandstand MP3-16 mono
THE MISTREATER

 05 – ''EIGHTY EIGHT BOOGIE''* - 2:29
Composer: - Newborn
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U 7408 – Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - 1984
First appearance: - P-Vine Records (LP) 33rpm PLP 6027-2-4 mono
JACKIE BRENSTON AND HIS DELTA CATS – ROCKET 88
Reissued: - October 22, 2007 Rev-Ola Bandstand MP3-17 mono
THE MISTREATER

 06 – ''LOVING TIME BLUES''* - 3:06
Composer: - Newborn
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - U 7410 – Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - 1984
First appearance: - P-Vine Records (LP) 33rpm PLP 6027-2-2 mono
JACKIE BRENSTON AND HIS DELTA CATS – ROCKET 88
Reissued: - October 22, 2007 Rev-Ola Bandstand MP3-18 mono
THE MISTREATER

 07 – ''LEO THE LOUSE'' – B.M.I. - 2:34
Composer: - Onah Spencer-Randolph
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7411 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - January 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1496-B mono
LEO THE LOUSE / HI HO BABY
Reissued: - October 22, 2007 Rev-Ola Bandstand MP3-8 mono
THE MISTREATER

 08 – ''STARVATION BLUES'' – B.M.I. - 2:13
Composer: - Calvin Newborn
Publisher: - Burton Limited
Matrix number: - U 7412 Master - Click > 1504-1547 Series
Recorded: - December 15, 1951
Released: - December 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm Chess 1532-A mono
STARVATION BLUES / BLUES GOT ME AGAIN
Reissued: - October 22, 2007 Rev-Ola Bandstand MP3-10 mono
THE MISTREATER

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Jackie Brenston – Vocal - Saxophone
Edna McRaney - Vocal*
Phineas Newborn Jr. - Piano
Calvin Newborn - Guitar
Unknown Musicians

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 16, 1951 SUNDAY

Cynthia Dunn is born in Nashville. She becomes Steve Earle's second wife in 1977.

DECEMBER 18, 1951 TUESDAY

Studio session with Howlin' Wolf at the Memphis Recording Service in Memphis, Tennessee.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

It was Sam Phillips' mid-December session with Howlin' Wolf, as blistering, if not as cataclysmic, as the first, that once again established the high ground for all of his recording ventures.

STUDIO SESSION FOR HOWLIN' WOLF
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: TUESDAY DECEMBER 18, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

MOST OF THE REPERTOIRE ON THIS SESSION WAS
DUBBED FROM ACETATE OR DISC SOURCE
MANY OF THE ORIGINAL MASTER TAPES HAVE BEEN LOST

Once again, there was something almost unearthly, or at the very least altogether unpredictable, about the music. Wolf cut four or five titles with any number of different variations. There was a boogie and a blues, each with the theme of moving to California, Beverly Hills in particular, to, ''prepare for myself in my older days''.

There was a slow blues ''Howlin' Wolf Boogie'' in which for the first time on record (but by no means the last) Wolf explicitly expanded upon his larger-than-life persona (''They call me the Howlin' Wolf, darling, you found me howling at your door''), while ''Look-A-Here Baby'' told an extemporized tale of thwarted courtship (''So sweet to meet a girl like you, darlin', what might be your name?'/ She said, 'None of your business, you don't understand' / 'Well, okay''').

There was a variety of themes and musical approaches, but each number, with the sole exception of ''Howlin' Wolf Boogie'', suggested underlying themes of abandonment, betrayal, and a desperate desire for some form of security.

 01 - "HOWLIN' WOLF BOOGIE" – B.M.I. - 2:36
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Burton Limited - Tristan Music
Matrix number: - F 1005 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Master and originally titled "House Rockin' Boogie" on log sheet.
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - January 14, 1952
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm standard single Chess 1497-A mono
HOWLIN' WOLF BOOGIE / THE WOLF IS AT YOUR DOOR
Reissued: - 1990 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15500-4 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 2

 02(1) - "CALIFORNIA BLUES"* – B.M.I. - 2:55
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Delta Music Incorporated
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - 1976
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30102-A-2 mono
SUN: THE ROOTS OF ROCK – VOLUME 2 - SAM'S BLUES
Reissued: - 1989 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15460-5 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 1

 02(2) - "CALIFORNIA BOOGIE"* – B.M.I. - 2:57
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Delta Music Incorporated
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - 1976
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30102-A-3 mono
SUN: THE ROOTS OF ROCK – VOLUME 2 - SAM'S BLUES
Reissued: - 1989 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15460-4 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 1

 03 - "LOOK-A-HERE BABY"* – B.M.I. - 2:08
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Delta Music Incorporated
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Also titled "Color And Kind" but should not be
confused with another of that title (see April 17, 1952 session.
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - September 1977
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30134-14 mono
THE LEGENDARY SUN PERFORMERS – HOWLIN' WOLF
Reissued: - 1989 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15460-6 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 1

 04 - "THE WOLF IS AT YOUR DOOR" – B.M.I. - 2:58
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Burton Limited - Arc Music Incorporated
Matrix number: - F 1004 Master - Click > 1486-1502 Series
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - January 14, 1952
Issued as "Howlin' For My Baby" original titled on log sheet.
First appearance: - Chess Records (S) 78rpm standard single Chess 1497-B mono
THE WOLF IS AT YOUR DOOR / HOWLIN' WOLF BOOGIE
Reissued: - 1990 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15500-5 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 2

 05 - "SMILE AT ME" – B.M.I. - 2:04
Composer: - Chester Burnett
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 18, 1951
Released: - September 1977
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm CR 30134-2 mono
THE LEGENDARY SUN PERFORMERS – HOWLIN' WOLF
Reissued: - 1989 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 15460-7 mono
MEMPHIS DAYS - THE DEFINITIVE EDITION - VOLUME 1

Wolf by now felt thoroughly at ease in the studio. He would just sit there, his feet stretched out in front of him, massive, inscrutable, rocking in his chair. According to Sam Phillips, ''He gave the appearance of being totally unconcerned, but his surroundings meant so much to him. Once he felt at home, there was no way for Wolf to be anything other than himself. Once you broke that barrier, you had all he had to offer. I knew even at that time it went beyond the point of black and white. I just didn't know where to go with what I had''.

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Howlin' Wolf - Vocal and Harmonica
Willie Johnson - Guitar
Unknown - Bass
Willie Steele - Drums
Unknown - Tenor Sax
Possible Albert Williams – Piano*

Sam Phillips was convinced that there was going to be a future to figure it out in. Almost in spite of themselves, the Bihari brothers and Leonard Chess, not to mention the breathtaking artistry of the Wolf and its indisputable popular success, had shown him the way. The acceptance of the records (Wolf's Muddy waters', B.B. King's rapidly rising national hit), the growing commercial impact of the raw gutbucket blues, along with Hank Williams' almost equally raw expression of undisguised emotion in the country field, told the story of the public's hunger for something unaccommodated, something real.

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR THE SOUTHERN JUBILEE SINGERS
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE FOR CHESS RECORDS 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: WEDNESDAY DECEMBER 19, 1951
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS
AND/OR MARION KEISKER

These classic quartet recording, recorded in December 1951, tell us something about the kind of black gospel music that surrounded the Memphis Recording Service in the early 1950s while Sam Phillips tried to eke out a living. Phillips recorded four sides with this quartet and probably expected some kind of payday to result. After all, he had succeeded in selling two similar sides by the Brewsteraires to Chess Records just three months ago. But Phillips was unable to catch gospel lightning in a bottle a second time.

 01 - "FORGIVE ME LORD" – B.M.I. - 2:58
Composer: - Ford
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - 2000
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 16387-17 mono
SUN GOSPEL
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-20 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Nevertheless, this was a powerful, emotionally charged performance, even if a bit subtle for the marketplace. From the opening line of ''Forgive Me Lord'' ("Sinful days are now behind me") there is a compelling quality to the recording. The sustained chords behind the lead vocal are kept in meter by the bass notes which seem to throb through them. When the lead sings "You know I promise" the quartet hits the kind of gloriously churchy 1-7 chord that Ray Charles built his early career around. The emotionally taut style of this arrangement has been all but lost to modern gospel music in a sea of electric guitars, organs, and intrusive drumming.

 02 - "THERE'S A MAN IN JERUSALEM" – B.M.I. - 2:21
Composer: - Joseph Johnson
Publisher: - Hi-Lo Music Incorporated
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - September 1977
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm Charly 30126-B-8 mono
SUN: THE ROOTS OF ROCK - VOLUME 11 - MEMPHIS BLUES SOUNDS
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-19 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

''There's A Man In Jerusalem'' this track was probably the most commercial of the four sides Phillips recorded by The Southern Jubilees. It builds power and intensity as it moves along. In fact, so engaging is the performance that it is easy to overlook the fact that the song is virtually free of lyrics. The group simply repeats the lines "There's a man in Jerusalem / They call him the mighty king" to a simple 16-bar chord progression. In many ways, the performance draws its power from the work of bass Eddie Henderson. Initially he sings words along with the group. Then he begins to sing notes, weaving around the lead singer and backup chanting.

Ultimately, he sings the part of a string bass. Even a capella groups who did not imitate the sound of musical instruments were not averse to having their "basser" simulate the part of a stringed instrument.

Students of black gospel music may view this wordless version by the Southern Jubilees with some interest. The previous year saw a version by the Trumpeteers recorded in New York and issued on Score. In 1952, the year following this recording, the Swan Silvertones saw their version of the song issued on Specialty 844. Both of these recording featured a full set of lyrics. In fact, the Trumpeteers' version is one of the most lyrically complex songs in their repertoire, including some memorable images of the sky opening up over Jerusalem and a voice thundering down telling everyone ''That's my son and I'm mighty well proud of him''. For whatever reason, the Southern Jubilees chose the minimalist approach when it came time to perform the song for Sam Phillips microphone.

03 - "HE NEVER LEFT ME ALONE" – B.M.I. - 3:04
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-21 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958
Reissued: - April 1, 2012 Vintage Masters Inc. iTunes Internet 30 mono
SOUTHERN GOSPEL - ULTIMATE INSPIRATIONAL
SONGS OF OUR BROTHERS And SISTERS

The ''He Never Left Me Alone'' owes much to the formula gospel pieces of the day. During the first reading, the lyric is worked through in a free-meter style, while the lead wrings it for every bit of emotion. From then on, It's a strictly metered performance in tidy 16 bar units. The backing is unusually formal, almost approximating a military march tempo as the group chants ''He never left me never''. The piece ends on a sustained chord that blends into the characteristic 1-7 gospel quartet ending. Although this is the least adventurous of our sampling of Jubilees' Sun work is still registers.

As with ''There's A Man In Jerusalem'', the Southern Jubilees were covering a record of fairly recent vintage; in this case, the Spirit of Memphis's King recordings from December 1949. The Jubilees offer quite a striking re-imagination, though. The fee-meter ad lib opening seems to be their own, and for once at least the Spirit of Memphis had the more formalized arrangement.

 04(1) - "BLESSED BE THE NAME" – B.M.I. - 3:00
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Take 1 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - 1988
First appearance: - P-Vine Special (LP) 33rpm PLP-386-A-6 mono
SOUTHBOUND GOSPEL TRAIN
Reissued: - March 8, 2013 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-8-22 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Of the four songs that the Singing Southern Jubilees, recorded for Sam Phillips in 1951, ''Blessed Be The Name'' was the final one to be issued. It first appeared on a Sun reissue for Charly Records in 1989. The quartet was a major force in Memphis gospel singing in the 1940s and 1950s. This spectacular track tells you everything you need to know about a cappella gospel jubilee singing from the era. When this kind of music faded from favor, the musical world, not simply the world of gospel singing, lost something very special. The track also tells you something about the importance of lyrics. They're sometimes overrated, especially when the musical part of a performance is solid. Take the present case: there are no lyrics here. Or more precisely, there are no lyrics beyond the title. It is simply repeated for the duration of the song. Listeners are often surprised to learn that. They haven't noticed it, and they certainly felt the lack.

 04(2) - "BLESSED BE THE NAME" – B.M.I. - 3:00
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Take 2 - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - 1988
First appearance: - P-Vine Special (LP) 33rpm PLP-386-A-7 mono
SOUTHBOUND GOSPEL TRAIN

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Southern Jubilee Singer consisting of
Jose Lee Smith - Lead Vocal
Lavorne Smith - Lead Vocal
Dan Taylor - Tenor Vocal
James Sanders - Baritone Vocal
Eddie Henderson - Bass Vocal

 Probably recorded here on this session:

 05 - "COULDN'T HEAR NOBODY PRAYING" – B.M.I. - 2:51
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - 1995
First appearance: Document Records Internet iTunes MP3-23 mono
VARIOUS ARTISTS - BLACK VOCAL GROUPS

 06 - "LISTEN TO THE LAMB" – B.M.I. - 2:43
Composer: - Traditional
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - December 19, 1951
Released: - 1995
First appearance: Document Records Internet iTunes MP3-24 mono
VARIOUS ARTISTS - BLACK VOCAL GROUPS

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

DECEMBER 22, 1951 SATURDAY

Gene Nobles was one of the most powerful rhythm and blues disc jockeys in the country. His night-time show on WLAC virtually blanketed the eastern United States. Sam and Becky Phillips have obviously sent him a gift, and Nobles in his reply expresses surprise that Sam is able to sell masters to both Chess and RPM. He wouldn't be able to for much longer, tough.

J.T. Ward, Owner
F.C. Sowell, Manager

WLAC
Nashville 3, Tennessee 50,000 WATS * 1510 ON THE DIAL
Columbia Broadcasting System
Dec 22, 1951

Hi Phillipses (both of you)

Just want to say thanks for the Xmas gift, and hope you get a lot of hit records during 1952.

Never ever saw a lighter like the one you sent before. What won't they think of next. But the guys who think up things will have to get up early in the morning, before they beat the Memphis Recording Company. How in the Hell do you get two companies to put out your releases. That is something.

Thanks again for the gift, and a lot of luck to you both.

Sincerely,
Gene Nobles

WLAC RADIO - Founded in 1926, located at Dickerson Pike Highway 11 / 31W, Nashville radio station WLAC is one of the top-ranked AM stations in its home city and among the best known in the South. Billboard Broadcasting Corporation is its owner, having purchased it from the Life and Casualty Insurance Company in 1978.

The station serves a population of about 486,000 and is on the air 24 hours every day. A network affiliate of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), WLAC-AM today broadcasts primarily all-talk programming.

From the mid-1940s through the early 1970s, however, WLAC radio was known widely for its rhythm and blues programming. It became known as "blues radio" as its nighttime disc jockeys (such like further owner of Sun Records, Sam Phillips) almost exclusively played black music - blues, rhythm and blues, and soul.

While the station 50,000 watts of power brought listeners from most parts of the country, the majority of the audience listened from the South. Many were blacks, and the disc jockeys catered to their preferences, at the same time influencing the musical tastes of the region, the nation, and both white and black artists whose music - rock and roll - would eventually dominate the popular music world.

In the mid-1940s Gene Nobles began playing black music when requested by students at Tennessee State and Fisk universities. Randy Wood, who owned an appliance store in Gallatin, Tennessee, then decided to try selling by radio the records he had hoped in vain to sell to his store customers. On February 17, 1947 Nobles advertised records by Eddy Arnold, Nat King Cole, Johnny Mercer, and Ella Mae Morse, and Randy's Record Mart soon became the largest mail-order record store in the world. Radio station WLAC flourished, luring advertisers as well as listeners.

The station's most popular feature during this era was disc jockey John Richbourg and his 1:00 to 3:00 a.m. blues show. He became known as "John R" and the "granddaddy of soul". Because he promoted their music and often was the first to play their records or to prerelease a record to test the market, he became a favorite of the black artists. If he liked a record that was not immediately popular, he played it persistently until it became a hit. Such was the case with Otis Redding's "These Arms Of Mine", an example of Richbourg's assertion that he and his WLAC radio colleagues did not just play hits - "We made hits". Richbourg broadcast his last show on WLAC radio on August 1, 1973 and died in 1986.

On WLAC's blues disc jockeys, Bill "Hoss" Allen was the only one still with the station after rock and roll pushed rhythm and blues out of the programming. He broadcast a late-night, black gospel show in the mid-1980s, when the station had turned otherwise to an all talk format.

Remembered for its music, its disc jockeys, and its advertisements for sponsors such as Red Top Baby Chicks ("50 percent guaranteed to be alive at the time of delivery"), White Rose Petroleum Jelly, and Royal Crown Hair Dressing, the blues era at radio station WLAC entertained a generation of listeners who probably numbered between 8 and 12 million at its peak. Although programs like "Garden Gate", featuring "The Old Dirt Dobber" Tom Williams, and a talk show conducted by Nashville media personality Ruth Ann Leach have been very successful, WLAC radio made its biggest impact during the years when the catch phrase "This is John R. comin' at ya from way sown in Dixie" could regularly be heard.

DECEMBER 24, 1951 MONDAY

Decca released Ernest Tubb's ''Missing In Action''.

Hank Williams is released from Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville 11 days after having fusion surgery.

DECEMBER 25, 1951 TUSDAY

Merle Haggard spends Christmas in the Bakersfield Juvenile Hall for truancy. His mother shows up during the day with a holiday gift, a Martin guitar. Haggard runs away during the early part of 1952, and ends up in a reformatory in Whittier, California.

DECEMBER 26, 1951 WEDNESDAY

Neil Young's family sets out from Toronto for New Smyrna Beach, Florida, spending five months in the sun while the six-year-old recovers from polio.

DECEMBER 28, 1951 FRIDAY

Ferlin Husky, using the alias Terry Preston, holds his first recording session for Capitol, a business relationship that lasts for more than two decades.

DECEMBER 29, 1951 SATURDAY

Audrey Williams moves out of the house after, she says Hank Williams attacked her.

Pop singer Yvonne Elliman is born in Honolulu, Hawaii. Best known for singing ''If Can't Have You'' for the ''Saturday Night Fever'' soundtrack, she also back up Eric Clapton on his minor country hit ''Lay Down Sally''.

DECEMBER 30, 1951 SUNDAY

''The Roy Rogers Show'' debuts on NBC. The series features Rogers, wife Dale Evans and sidekick Pat Brady, plus the couple horses, Trigger and Buttermilk, and dog Bullet. Rogers and Evans sign each episode with their theme song, ''Happy Trails''.

Hank Williams is forced to cancel shows in Washington, D.C., and Baltimore after back surgery. Audrey Williams still performs at the shows, but as she leaves the house with her thing, Hank shoots four shots at her.

DECEMBER 31, 1951 MONDAY

Aurosmith bass player Tom Hamilton is born in Colorado Springs. The group scores a pop hit with ''I Don't Want To Miss a Thing'' in 1988. Mark Chesnutt turns it into a country success just a few months later.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR LATGE B. LAWSON & JAMES SCOTT JR.
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE PROBABLY 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY 1951/1952
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

The Blues Rockers had been played together for three or four years in Mississippi before their one session at Union Avenue and they had a distinctive style based on the twin guitars of James Scott Jr. and Charles McClelland.

01 - "CAN'T LOVE ME AND MY MONEY TOO" - B.M.I. - 2:27
Composer: - L.B. Lawson
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - 1986
First appearance: - Charly Records (LP) 33rpm Sunbox 105 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1956
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-23 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

Nothing much is known about L.B. Lawson, who sings in deep measured tones on this cacophonous boogie, and is dramatically countered by the coruscating guitar lines of James Scott Jr. Drummer Robert Fox is strangely subdued throughout, and so the rhythm is rather dictated by Charles McClelland on rhythm guitar who evinces an assurance which, one imagines, comes from playing regularly in the same tight combo.

 02 - "FLYPAPER BOOGIE" - B.M.I. - 2:21
Composer: - James Scott Jr.
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - 1990
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm SUN 29-14 mono
THE SUN ARCHIVES VOLUME 1 - BLUE GUITAR
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-24 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

In the main, the artists that Sam Phillips recorded had at least some elements of sophistication about them: however, there were exceptions, and these tracks recorded by Lawson and James Scott Jr's Blues Rockers make three. This is juke joint music at its ragged, rugged best: Scott's lead guitar lines are almost primitive in their simplicity, whilst the vibrato on Charles McClelland's amplifier helps to double the rhythm that Robert Fox's drums do little more than sketch. Its tempting to hear elements of "Boogie Chillen" in amongst the interplay - hardly surprising since he grew up with John Lee Hooker. But this is generic boogie music, a juke joint workout that's got aerobics licked.

03 - "GOT MY CALL CARD" - B.M.I. - 3:24
Composer: - L.B. Lawson
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - 1990
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm SUN 29-15 mono
THE SUN ARCHIVES VOLUME 1 - BLUE GUITAR
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-25 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

The Korean Was was still providing material for future M.A.S.H. scripts when this session took place, so its hardly surprising that L.B. Lawson should have got his 'questionary'. "Yes, my brother's gone to the Army and they're tryin' to get me too". The lyrics also refer to a chilling new dimension that hovered over this war with 'Communism': "You know, I had a friend 'cross the water/he was so dear to me/now that Atom Bomb done exploded/so he done disappeared, don't you see".

The funereal tempo poses problems for drummer Fox, who compensates by making sundry excursions around his limited kit. The interaction between the guitars is notable for the way in which Scott constructs lines that double the rhythm that McClelland doggedly maps out. On ''Scott's Boogie'' some nice lead guitar work fronts this otherwise ordinary 12-bar boogie. A perfect flip side to an unreleased single. The two guitars play sweetly off each other, but once again the drummer is mixed further back than you would think possible in that tiny studio.

The piece didn't have a theme or a signature lick, and it timed out around two-and-a-half minutes but you get the feeling that in clubs it would have gone on until someone in the band needed a leak or a smoke. Scott told a couple of interviewers that the tune was their theme, and the Sun Recording was tested on the radio.

 04 - "SCOTT'S BOOGIE" - B.M.I. - 2:22
Composer: - James Scott Jr.
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None - Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - 1990
First appearance: - Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm SUN 29-16 mono
THE SUN ARCHIVES VOLUME 1 - BLUE GUITAR
Reissued: - 1996 Charly Records (CD) 500/200rpm CDSUNBOX 7-1-26 mono
SUN RECORDS - THE BLUES YEARS 1950 - 1958

The relative facility with which James Scott Jr. plays here suggests that this might have been a part piece, the one that was guaranteed to get everyone up and dancing. Both McClelland and Fox seem to know their parts here too, although the latter's drumkit has once again been relegated a distant comer of the studio, so that all we hear of him is his bass drum and hi-hat. Once again, the musicians' enthusiasm sets them off like a snowball rolling down a hill, but everyone arrives at the bottom, happy and unhurt.

 05 - "MISSING IN ACTION"
Composer: - Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - Unissued

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Latge B. Lawson - Vocal
James Scott Jr. - Guitar
Charles McClelland - Guitar
Robert Fox - Drums or Tub Bass

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR J.C. COLE
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE PROBABLY 1951

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: PROBABLY 1951/1952
SESSION HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER - SAM C. PHILLIPS

 01 - ''IDA MAE'' - B.M.I. - 2:12
Composer: Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None- Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-5 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

There was a guitarist named J.C. Cole who reportedly accompanied Forrest City Joe on a session for Aristocrat in 1948. On that record, he keeps time on the bass strings much as the singer does on this recording. Soon after that session, John Lee Hooker broke big-time, and his influence looms large here. So large, in fact, that Cole has more or less ripped this original from Hooker's Modern record of ''Sally Mae''. Hooker didn't inspire many imitators (most of them turned out to be Hooker himself), but Cole has clearly got Hooker down: mumbling in unison with bass strings runs, twisting and turning vocal notes, singing non-rhyming stanzas as if they rhymed, and playing almost modally. Accomplished perhaps but by no means original.

 02 - ''SOUTHSIDE BLUES'' - B.M.I. - 2:38
Composer: Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None- Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-6 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

Unless we're missing something, this is about as original as J.C. Cole ever was. He's going to move to the South Side (presumably Chicago) and if he doesn't find hippeness there, he'll ramble the world somewhere. The shadow of John Lee Hooker again looms rage, but the song might be his own. In creating and sustaining the mood, Cole worries styllables as Hooker famously did. Playing slowly while sustaining tension is an art in itself, and Cole has pretty much mastered it.

 03 - ''MOVE ME NO MORE'' - B.M.I. - 1:50
Composer: Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None- Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-7 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

And John Lee Hooker, of course, had a ''you don't move me no more... found me a new love'' stomp blues that he recorded several times in his career. What's interesting in Cole's version is that he says ''she rocks, she rolls'' repeatedly. After the Dominoes recorded ''Sixty Minute Man'' in 1951 with ''I'll rock 'em, roll 'em all night long'', rock and roll entered the lexicon of rhythm and blues. By the time Phillips got into the business, a blues song that tried to make it on mood alone without a hook was a tough sell. Few of Hooker's many recordings were hits, and his hits usually had hooks. His discursive, free-form blues found favor with collectors years later, but didn't sell sufficient quantities to chart back in the day. J.C. Cole tries to make ''She rocks, she rolls'' into a hook, but misses the mark. This is a recording that makes it on rhythm and atmosphere, and in the world of early Fifties commercial blues, that wasn't enough.

 04 - ''NO RIGHT BLUES (DEEP BLUE SEA BLUES)'' - B.M.I. - 2:24
Composer: Unknown
Publisher: - Copyright Control
Matrix number: - None- Not Originally Issued
Recorded: - Probably 1951/1952
Released: - March 8, 2013
First appearance: - Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17310-10-8 mono
THE SUN BLUES BOX 1950 - 1958

On ''No Right Blues (Deep Blue Sea Blues), here, Cole switches gears, reaching back to Tommy McClennan's 1941 recording of ''Deep Blue Sea Blues''. He starts slowly before speeding up as only a solo act can do. The signature lick is intact, and, of McClennan's four stanzas, Cole parrots three before adapting the famous ''two trains running'' verse from Muddy Waters' 1951 hit ''Still A Fool''. By the finale, Cole is playing at almost double the tempo he started. ''Still A Fool'' and ''Deep Blue Sea Blues'' were both cousins of Robert Petway's ''Catfish Blues'', as of course was Muddy's ''Rollin' Stone''. McClennan and Petway were friends and musical partners, so the ''Catfish Blues'' lick could have originated with either or neither of them. Cole, though, most certainly had McClennan's record because he imitates the tiniest inflection, right down to calling himself ''Tommy'' or ''Tony'' in the ''husband just now left'' verse. Accomplished plagiarism is about the best one can say of J.C. Cole.

 Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
J.C. Cole - Vocal & Guitar

 © - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

STUDIO SESSION FOR ARBEE STIDHAM
AT THE MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE 1951/1952

MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE
706 UNION AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
STUDIO SESSION: UNKNOWN DATE(S) 1951/1952
STUDIO HOURS: UNKNOWN
PRODUCER AND RECORDING ENGINEER – SAM C. PHILLIPS

No Details

UNKNOWN TITLES

Name (Or. No. Of Instruments)
Arbee Stidham - Vocal & Guitar
Solomon Hardy – Tenor Saxophone
Unknown Musicians

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

Continued: 1952 Sun Sessions 1

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©