When the Mar-Keys’ instrumental “Last Night” became a national hit in 1961, it was discovered that there was another label with the same name in California.
To avoid litigation, the Memphis-based Satellite became Stax (deriving from the names STewart and AXton).
By this time, after a tip from local producer Chips Moman, Stewart and Axton had taken over an old movie theater at East McLemore and College streets in Memphis. Neighborhood musicians
began hanging around 932 East McLemore Avenue, including organist Booker T. Jones, guitarist Steve Cropper, bassist Donald ''Duck'' Dunn and drummer Al Jackson, Jr. Thus, Stax acquired a peerless house band that also came to include the
renowned Memphis Horns (Andrew Love, Wayne Jackson and Joe Arnold).
Stax signed such artists as Otis Redding, who recorded for the sister label Volt from 1962 until his death in 1967. A distribution deal with Atlantic Records resulted in the larger, New York-based company sending some
of its premier soul acts to record at Stax. (That same deal also gave ownership of Stax’s master recordings to Atlantic, which became a sticking point when the deal came up for renewal in 1967.) Stewart, who was involved in many
aspects of the company’s operation, also brought to the label local songwriters Isaac Hayes and David Porter. Hayes and Porter became Stax’s equivalent to Motown’s Holland-Dozier-Holland songwriting team.
In 1965, Stewart made a key hire, appointing Al Bell - a popular black deejay from Washington, D.C. - Stax’s national sales director.
Stax thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, generating an awesome string of soul and rhythm and blues hits with their bread-and-butter artists, Otis Redding, Sam and Dave,
Carla Thomas, Booker T. and the MG’s, while breaking such acts as Eddie Floyd (''Knock On Wood'', ''Raise Your Hand''), Johnnie Taylor (''Who’s Making Love''), the Staple Singers (''I'll Take You There'', ''Respect
Yourself''), Jean Knight (''Mr. Big Stuff''), the Emotions (''So I Can Love You''), Mel and Tim (''Starting All Over Again''”), the Soul Children ''I'll Be the Other Woman'') and William Bell (''I Forgot to Be Your Lover''. Even
comedian Richard Pryor was a Stax artist, having been signed to the label’s Partee subsidiary. House songwriter and sideman Isaac Hayes became a star in his own right with a series of albums released on Stax’s Enterprise subsidiary,
including the number 1 Shaft soundtrack.
Jim Stewart sold his
interest in Stax to Al Bell in 1972, and the company continued until forced into bankruptcy in 1976. Interest in the label and its legacy were rekindled in the Nineties with the release of three massive box sets, comprising 28 CDs between
them, that include every single released on Stax and its subsidiaries.
In April 2001, further recognition of Stax’s legacy came in the form of a groundbreaking for the Stax Museum of American Music and the adjoining Stax Academy and Performing Arts Center on East McLemore Avenue in
Memphis. “It’s been a long time coming,” guitarist Steve Cropper noted with understatement.
The label begun by Jim Stewart back in the late Fifties is finally being recognized as a priceless institution that contributed substantially to America’s musical culture.
When Jim Stewart was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2002, he sent
his two granddaughters to the induction ceremony to accept the award on his behalf.
ESTELLE AXTON - was the co-founder, with her brother Jim Stewart, of Stax Records. Born on September 11, 1918 in Middleton, Tennessee, Estelle Stewart grew up on a farm. She moved
to Memphis as a school teacher, married Everett Axton, and was working in a bank when, in 1958, her brother Jim Stewart asked for help to develop Satellite Records, which he had set up to issue recordings of local country and rockabilly
artists. She convinced her husband that they should remortgage their house and, in 1959, joined Satellite as an equal partner. The following year, Axton and Stewart turned the Capitol Theatre, in a black Memphis neighbourhood
on McLemore Avenue, into a recording studio and record shop, and began making hit records with predominantly black artists.
Satellite was forced to change its name after it was discovered that a Los Angeles label already owned the title, and it changed its name to Stax, taking its name from Axton
and Stewart's surnames. Axton was actively involved with selecting and developing the artists on the label, who included Rufus Thomas, Otis Redding, Booker T & the MGs, and Isaac Hayes.
She sold her interest in the company in 1970. After the non-compete agreement expired, Axton formed
Fretone Records whose biggest hit, "Disco Duck" by Rick Dees was licensed for distribution to RSO Records. In December, 2006, The Recording Academy announced that Estelle Axton would be honored with a Trustee's Award as part of the upcoming
Estelle was the founder of the Memphis Songwriters Association
in 1973. The Memphis Songwriters Association was formed in order to foster the education and advancement of local area songwriters. There was a focus on the development of the songwriting craft with the intentions of producing
commercially viable songs and improving performance skills.
has consecutively maintained membership for over 35 years. Estelle's formation of the Memphis Songwriters Association led to the motivation of many local songwriters and singer/songwriters publishing their original material. Some of these
songs and artists met with some surprising success. Unfortunately, historical records are fragmented and scarce, however, there is a number of MSA alumni that could still tell the stories.
Estelle went on, with friend and founder of Moon Records, Cordell Jackson to work with the Music
Industries of Memphis, later named the Memphis Music Association to assist in the development of local Memphis music as a global force once again. Their collaboration and guidance helped launch the first Memphis Demo Derby, the brainchild
of PR Director Brett Hamilton, which was designed to present and showcase any and all Memphis musical talent to A&R reps, studio heads, producers and the like. The event was such a huge success, it continued for several
years. Joe Savarin, founder of the Handy Awards, and Wanda Freeman of Tenant Laboratories lent a hand in spite of public opposition. The MMA was the umbrella organization for all Memphis music and still exists today.
The Memphis Songwriters Association is still consistently holding meetings, songwriter workshops,
open mics, song critiques, and singer/songwriter showcase events to this day. Estelle Axton died of natural causes on February 25, 2004 at the age of 85.
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