Alphabetical order by the last name of the Artist

Artists C - D

- Cagle, Wade -
- Cannon, Ace -
- Carr, Willie -
- Carroll, Johnny -
- Carter, Big Lucky -
- Cash, Eddie -
- Cash, Johnny -
- Chaffin, Ernie -
- Chapel, Jean -
- Clement, Jack -
- Climates, The -
- Cole, J.C. -
- College Kids, The (Dick Penner) -
- College Kids, The (Wade Moore) -
- Cook, Ken -
- Cotton, James -
- Cunningham, Buddy Blake -

- Damon (Demopoulos), Jimmy -
- DeBerry, Jimmy -
- Dee, Jean -
- Dettenhein, Ed (Ed Hall) -
- Dickinson, Jim -
- Dixieland Drifters, The -
- Dobbins, Joseph & The Four Cruisers -
- Donn, Larry -
- Dorman, Harold -
- Dory, Hunky (Chester McDowell) -
- Douglas, Shy Guy -
- Duling, Vincent -
- Dycke (Dyke), Jerry -


CAGLE, WADE - Guitarist, Wade Cagle Jr., brought along a welcome touch of Duane Eddy when he landed at Sun in the summer of 1960. Operating out of Pensacola, Florida, where his younger brother Conner worked in the nightclub business, Cagle toured the length and breadth of the country (often with road warrior, Wayne Cochran) and ended up in Las Vegas. It was here that he was to discover his true destiny, working alongside some of the world's top golfers as a tournament supervisor for the PGA.

Wade Cagle brought his combo The Escorts into the new studio at 639 Madison for a single session. They laid down four instrumental tracks, two of which were released. The other two remain in the Sun tape vaults. This is music in the grand tradition of ''Tequila''. Indeed ''Groovy Train'' is almost a dead copy of ''Train No Nowhere'', originally the A-side of the Champs record, before someone flipped it over and found ''Tequila'' one fateful day in 1958.


CANNON, ACE – Was a fixture on the Memphis music scene for many years before he finally struck paydirt with ''Tuff'' at the tail end of 1961. While New York and other major centres seemed to have a virtually inexhaustible supply of top flight saxophonists, it seems in retrospect as though Memphis didn't have more than a handful of good white sax players who could work in pop or western swing based music. Ace Cannon and Martin Willis seem to head that list.Cannon was born on May 5, 1934, in Grenada, Mississippi, John Henry Cannon, Jr. preferred his nickname ''Ace''.

Gaining a love for music from his father, who was a professional hillbilly country guitar player, Ace took up the saxophone in fifth grade. After dropping out of college, he began playing nightclubs. According to Johnny Bernero, Cannon joined Johnny Bernero and the Atomics in 1958.

When the Johnny Bernero band split, Johnny "Ace" Cannon concentrated on session work at Sun. He recorded a session in his own right that included a track entitled "Tuff" written by Johnny Bernero. Bernero went on the payroll at Hi Records in Memphis. By this stage Ace Cannon was signed to Fernwood in Memphis, but was making little or no progress. Cannon also played with The Bill Black Combo, as well as managing the group, and it was he who signed Gene Simmons to front the band vocally on dates.

Bernero talked Joe Cuoghi into taking Cannon on at Hi Records, and they recorded "Tuff", agreeing to split everything 50-50. The first royalty cheque that came in was made out for $20,000! Overwhelmed by a vision of unsurpassed riches, Cannon informed Bernero that he was not going to honour their 50-50 agreement, and also appropriated the writer credits on the flipside, "Sittin' Tight", a tune that Bernero had written.

"Tuff" hit number 17 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 in 1962, and the follow-up single "Blues (Stay Away from Me)" hit number 36 that same year. In April 1965, he released Ace Cannon Live (HL 12025); according to the liner notes by Nick Pesce the album was recorded in front of a live audience inside Hi's recording studio, and Pesce claims this was the first time such an album had ever been recorded (as opposed to previous live albums recorded in concert venues).

Johnny Ace Cannon was inducted into both the Rock And Soul Hall of Fame and the Rockabilly Hall of Fame in 2000. In May 2007, his hometown hosted its first annual Ace Cannon Festival, and on December 9, 2008, he was honored with induction into the Mississippi Musicians' Hall Of Fame.

After years of travelling and entertaining fans the world over, he moved back to Calhoun City in the late 1980s and resides there today. He still plays numerous dates each year, and can be found most days working on his golf game at his home course.

John Henry ''Ace'' Cannon died in his home in Calhoun City, Missississippi, on December 6, 2018, at the age of 84.


CARROLL, JOHNNY – Born John Lewis Carrell on October 23, 1937 in Cleburne, Texas. Johnny Carroll grew up in Godley, Texas, a very small town, some 400 people, near Cleburne. As a youngster he listened to country music on the radio and got himself a guitar to practice on. When he was 10 years old his mother had taught him enough for him to appear over Cleburne's KCLA on Saturday mornings. He was later introduced to rhythm and blues by a cousin who was co-owner of a jukebox company and handed down 78's of Joe Turner and others.

During his school days he and his school fellows were very much into coloured music and groups such as the Clovers and the Charms (of "Heart Of Stone" fame).

At 15, Johnny organized his first band, the Texas Moonlighters; they had their own show on Cleburne's KCLA radio. In 1955, the band won first prize in a talent contest, and enrolled second prize winner guitarist Jay Salem in the band along the way. They opened for Ferlin Husky and were spotted by Jack "Tiger" Goldman, owner of the Top Ten Recording Studio in Dallas.

The band cut several demos there, among them "Why Cry", "You Two-Timed Me One Time Too Often" and "Crazy Crazy Lovin". A deal was arranged with Decca's Nashville division on the strength of the latter, and a two-day session was organized there on April 25 and 26, 1956 for Johnny, without his band. The backing group was composed of well-known session men, with Grady Martin on lead guitar. They cut the fantastic "Crazy Crazy Lovin", "Trying To Get To You", "Rock And Roll Ruby", "Hot Rock", "Corrine, Corrina", and "Wild Wild Women" that make up the three magical Johnny Carroll Decca 45s. Two of these were also released in the UK, on Brunswick, but there were few sales on either side of the Atlantic.

Nevertheless, this is rockabilly at its most intense, and these six sides alone assure Carroll's place in musical history. To promote Johnny, Tiger persuaded Sonny Friedman to shoot a quickie rock 'n' roll movie, "Rock Baby Rock It", featuring 4 songs by Johnny Carroll and appearances by Rosco Gordon and others. Johnny was subsequently dropped from the Decca roster and in 1957 found himself accompanied by no less than Elvis' musicians, Scotty Moore and Bill Black (who had left Elvis following a dispute over salary).

It was Bill who introduced Johnny to Sam Phillips who bought a couple of demos Johnny had recorded in Forth Worth, Texas on June 23, 1957. Sam issued "That's The Way I Love" b/w "I'll Wait" as one of the five first (simultaneous) releases on Phillips International, leaving "Rock Baby Rock It" and "You Made Me Love You" unreleased. Of these five records, "Raunchy" by Bill Justis turned out to be the hit and Phillips concentrated all his promotion on that disc, leaving Johnny's record out in the cold. His career at Sun was over before it had even begun.

In 1958, Johnny got himself a new manager, Ed E. McLemore, who ran an agency in Dallas that booked Gene Vincent, Jimmy Bowen, Buddy Knox and Sonny James. Johnny finally met Gene Vincent and they went on to become very close friends. Johnny wrote "Maybe", recorded by Gene in the autumn of 1958 for his "Sounds Like" LP. They both used more or less the same band at the time, and it is not surprising that the sides recorded by Johnny bore a strong resemblance to Gene Vincent's sound. The demos were sent to Warner Bros in New York who released "Bandstand Doll" b/w "The Swing" which sold quite well and became Johnny's biggest seller. Sadly, the second single "Sugar" b/w "Lost Without You" didn't follow the same path and sank without a trace. The third WB single, "Rag Mop"/ "Little Otis", produced by Grady Martin, contained two instrumentals (with a few vocal interjections), by Johnny's group, The Spinners. When this didn't sell either, Warner dropped Carroll and his band. The hard life on the road paid its dues and Johnny quit touring in 1959, though he had two more singles released in 1960 and 1962, two different versions of "Run Come See" for two small labels.

During the 1960s, Carroll's recording career lay dormant. Johnny worked as a booker and fixer at a Fort Worth nightclub owned by Bill Sellers, until good old Ronny Weiser persuaded him to cut a Gene Vincent tribute, "Black Leather Rebel"/"Be Bop A Lula" for his Rollin' Rock label in 1974. "Black Leather Rebel" is also known under the title "Gene Vincent Rock". A Rollin' Rock LP, "Texabilly" was recorded in 1977 and released in 1978. Johnny then teamed up with model and singer Judy Lindsey and went back to making music full-time. They played the night clubs in Texas and have been appearing regularly in Europe in the 1980s. They recorded for the Gipsy label, issuing numerous singles and an LP.

Johnny has always been a great and appreciated performer until his untimely death (of liver failure) on February 18, 1995 in Dallas, Texas.


CARR, WILLIE - If nothing else, Willie Carrr demonstrates the capriciousness of the music business. On the evidence of just one song, ''Outside Friend'', he was as good as many of the artists on Union Avenue who sustained careers in music. Instead, this is the only known recording. Researcher Bob Eagle asked around about Carr, finding out that he was in Greenville, Mississippi with Willie Love around 1950, and probably recorded ''Outside Friend'' for Sam Phillips in 1953 or 1953 at 706 Union. When Eagle asked Walter Horton about Carr, Horton replied that he'd seen him playing guitar around Grenada, Mississippi. That was in the early 1970s. Was it the same guy? From this distance, it's impossible to say. (CE)


CARTER, BIG LUCKY - Appreciated for his guitar playing, singing and his songwriting, Levester ''Big Lucky'' Carter, whose scant recording history includes music on both the Sun Records and Hi Records labels, was a celebrated figure overseas for his blues authenticity.

Born as Levester Carter on February 10, 1920 in Weir, Choctaw County, Mississippi, Carter made his way to Memphis after serving in the Army during World War II. He earned his "Big Lucky" sobriquet during that time for his gambling skills.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Levester Carter performed behind his cousin, Ed 'Prince Gabe' Kirby, as a member of the Rhythmaires and Millionaires, a group that recorded a handful of songs for Sun Records , Savoy and other labels.

Carter was hired even though he had never played in a band before, according to pianist member Lindbergh Nelson. "He was a little shy about playing, but he finally gained confidence and he got better and better," says Nelson, who ended up playing with Carter for nearly 50 years. Levester Carter made six..

..sides for Willie Mitchell's Hi Records label in 1969 including two singles for label subsidiary M.O.C. Those recordings and some others by Amos Patton and Donald Hines were packaged on a 1971 LP, ''River Town Blues''. In 1994, David Evans produced Carter unplugged for the CD ''The Spirit Lives On'' for Hot Fox Records.

It wasn't until 1998, however, that Carter, then in his late 1970s, made his first album, "Lucky 13'', which won a year-end readers poll for best blues CD in the French magazine Soul Bag and was honored with the prestigious Big Bill Broonzy prize for best blues CD from the French Academy of Jazz. Released on the British label Blueside, that album bolstered Carter's reputation in Europe. Even though "Lucky 13" was never released in America, it received accolades here, including a critics' choice award in Living Blues magazine for Artist Most Deserving of Wider Recognition. University of Memphis professor and blues scholar David Evans, who co-produced the album, says it was a special record for many reasons including the point of view that Levester Carter brought. "He wrote from the perspective of a senior citizen, somebody who had seen a lot, been through a lot and had good advice, good wisdom'', says Evans. "He was not an old person trying to still be a young dude, as a lot of blues artists do. Lucky's songs were always reflective, and that was a very attractive quality about him''.

A few years ago, French filmmaker Marc Oriol made a documentary, Big Lucky Carter, which won the Music Film Special Prize award at the 2001 Mediawave Festival in Hungary, an event that also bestowed a "Parallel Culture" Lifetime Achievement Award on him. The bluesman toured Hungary twice as a result. Locally, Levester Carter could be found playing at Wild Bill's, and he was a mainstay at the Center for Southern Folklore and its Memphis Music & Heritage Festival. In 1999, Carter commented in The Commercial Appeal on making his first album so late in life by reciting a self-penned poem: "There may be sometime you'll look for me and I'll be gone/I'll be down at the river with my guitar somewhere singing a song/Maybe I won't get a note on Beale Street/Nor my name in the Hall of Fame/But you can tell from my European record/I was in the game''.

On Tuesday, December 24, 2002, Memphis blues veteran, Levester ''Big Lucky'' Carter died of unknown causes at the Regional Medical Center at Memphis, Tennessee, at the age of 82. (CE)


CASH, EDDIE - Edward Allen Cash was born on February 28, 1941, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was the only child to Virginia and James Cash (no relation to Johnny). His father worked at Firestone Tire & Rubber and was a foreman in the machine shop, he was also a machinist and a tool and tire man. Eddie's mother was a house wife and he commented, ''My mom had a fulltime job raising an idiot like me''. In school Eddie's biggest interest was history. He didn't caught a really interest for music until the cool cat music came along. He thought that there would be a place for him also.

Asked him what his main music influences had been before Elvis entered the scene and after, Eddie says: ''Well, to be quite honest with you I was very much affected by as far as my heart concerns with blues''.

''I've always been a great fan of blues. I got into rockabilly or rock and roll as you now call it at a very early age. I began in the business in 1956 and this is my 40th year. My biggest rockabilly influence was probably Carl Perkins. I think the first song I ever sang first at a contest which I entered at the Casino at the Fairground which here in Memphis and incidentally won was a song called "Matchbox". I'm a big B.B. King fan, I love blues very much. I like all styles of music as far as answer your question. I grew up in a neighbourhood full of kids that wanted to be in the entertainment business. I don't know why but for some strange reason, when I was a kid growing up in Memphis we had a neighbourhood full of kids like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, Isac Hayes, Al Green, The Staple Singers, Kay Starr, The Blackwood Brothers Quartet, Booker T & The MGs, The Willie Mitchell Band, Sam The Sham & The Pharroas, goodness me head goes blank.. Carl Perkins of course came down from Jackson and that's just 40-50 miles from Memphis. We had a neighbourhood full of these kids who just wanted to pick and sing and be like these big

Eddie put his first band together in 1956 which was called "The Mad Caps". But, first of all Eddie wanted to be a drummer, but fait wanted different, Eddie recall, ''I was about fourteen. I began in the business wanting to be a drummer. I'm a frustrated drummer, I don't play very well, and I haven't played for a long time, but I love to play drums very much. In the first band I organized I was the drummer. The kid that was gonna sing was Virgil Henry, and Virgil got arrested for stealing hub caps and they told me I had to sing. The reason being that they had another drummer but they did not have another singer. So I had to sing and give up my drums or get out of the band, so I threw my drums away and began to sing and I've been singing for four decades now''.

Eddie managed to get bookings through Bob Neal without having a record released. He also got his first manager in Gary Peters, who was soon replaced by Bill Harris, Bill had played the bass for Harold Jenkins but when Harold left Memphis Bill quit his job, Eddie recall, ''Bob Neal was a dear friend and Bob booked some dates for me, but he was not my agent or manager. My first manager was a man who worked for Quickeroots Company and he was a bass player and manager for the original Conway Twitty band. When he left Conway he came with me and was my manager and as a matter if fact he was influential in getting me my first record contract with the American Recording and the Lansky Brothers at Peak. Bill was also instrumental in having me do my recordings with Fernwood and Scotty Moore''.

When Elvis Presley, in September 1956, travelled to Los Angeles to make his first movie "Love Me tender", Scotty Moore, Bill Black and D.J. Fontana was left behind in Memphis, they needed job to pay their bills, say Eddie. ''Scotty Moore and Bill Black was pretty much in the same bag as far as my interest was concern because we all worked together. My first professional job was singing with the original Presley band, this what happened; Clearpool was an old place located out on the highway. Presley had gone to do his first motion picture. Colonel Parker asked Bill Harris and my other friend, a radio announcer that acted as a part time manager, Ray Brown was his name. They wanted me to sing with the Presley band because they knew I knew all the Presley songs and all of his keys and tempos and they would not have to rehearse anybody. It was kinda sneaky but quite an experience. My band members were tickled to death that I were able to go on stage with some of the greatest musician around and they did not mind''.

Eddie struck a long relationship with Scotty and Bill and Bill even played bass with Eddie before he founded the Bill Black Combo, more about that later. On April 12 1957 did Eddie and his band participate in a talent contest called "The Mid-South Youth Talent Contest" at the Memphis Fairground which he won by performing "Matchbox". A few days before the contest Eddie had picked up his brand new red coat with the initials "EC" and a pair of pin striped pants. On the same day as the contest he received a good luck telegram from the Lansky Brothers Mens Shop. Eddie recall, ''I entered the contest because I had been watching a lot of them playing around Memphis and I thought I could do better than them, it was that simple''.

The Mad Caps only lasted a short time until he formed a new band called "Eddie Cash and Company" and after a while a third band came with "Eddie Cash and The Cashiers". Among the musicians around this time were Jackie Hartwell (guitar), Tommy Bennett (piano), Dennis Smith (drums) and Prentill McPhail (electric bass).

In 1989 in England Charly Records had two previously unreleased tracks by Eddie in their box "The Rocking Years". These were credited to Roland Janes and held on February 11, 1959. The two tracks released were "Hey Good Looking" and "Little Bitty Pretty Girl". Musicians were Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar), Pat O'Neill (upright bass), Martin Willis (tenor saxophone) and Billy Weir or Jimmy Van Eaton (drums). Eddie may well have the time wrong as he's sure he did the Sun session before the Peak recordings.

The Sun session and the peak session seem to be very close, talking about this 40 years, later Eddie might very well be mistaken. Eddie say, ''The first recording session I ever did was at the Sun Recording Studio. I still have fond memories of that. It was a terrible thing, they were really bad. We used all the Sun musicians, everybody that cut with Jerry Lee and all those guys, Bill Riley but it was terrible. My dad was a camera and recording nut and thanks to him I have a copy of every session I ever did. At about the same time I also did recordings for a television show at WHBQ. They had a disc jockey by the name of Dewey Phillips who they used to call "Daddy-O-Dewey", he first broke Elvis'' Eddie recalled.

Like all the other musicians in Memphis Eddie bought his stage suits at Lanskys and struck a friendship with them. A friendship that would lead to a recording contract. ''To be quite honest with you I knew the Lansky Brothers very well as I bought all my cloths there because Elvis did and so did everybody else that I grew up with. The Lanskys were pretty much the people who did all the clothing things around because they had black cloths on Beale Street, which is a black street in a black neighbourhood full of black people and the black influence and black music and the Lansky Brothers were selling loud cloths and that was very much the thing for a young teenagers in 1956 who wanted to be cool and nosy. The Lansky Brothers very much had the market and all of us went there. The Lanskys owned Peak and the American Recording which was a small studio they had build in the back of their warehouse where they kept all their cloths. Bill Harris knew about this and when he came along and asked if they wanted to record me they said yes. So they got together and I was probably one of the first artists ever signed to Peak and I would have a hit record with "Doin' All Right". It did hit in several markets and did very well. However Lansky Brothers fell on their knees because they didn't have too many distribution contacts. When people in the east, like in New York or New Jersey or up in Chicago began to want the record, 'cause I was pushing it hard, they couldn't follow up so the record died and fell of the charts. I'll never forget them for that, I think that was very bad''

The signing of the contract and the actual recording session happened with a seven-day period. Asking him if there were other unreleased songs and how many takes they used before it came out satisfactory, Eddie continues, ''Oh, my goodness, how many takes? To be quite honest I don't know, but it was a song that we got from Harold a little earlier and we reharsed it for maybe a couple of hours, I guess. We got it down pretty good and I did all of the arranging. I arranged pretty much everything until we got with Scotty Moore at Fernwood, and then he helped us a lot. But I did most of the Peak stuff because it was my band that played the music, they were not session musicians, they were my personal musicians and they played only with me. The arrangement was pretty much done before we even got into the studio and it went on real quick, probably not more than one or two takes. I wrote "Land Of Promises" myself along with my guitar player Gerald Hunsucker. I did all the producing and the Lansky Brothers were executive producers. They put the money in the bank and behind it. We did approach them, Bill and I went down and brought the band. They had heard me but not the band, so one day we got them into the little studio and played a few tunes and they were quite impressed and basically I had a contract the same day. Most everything I did went very very quick. I never had any problem standing around and waiting for anything to happen. All the people I grew up with in Memphis were in the business. I used to hang around the Sun Studio for probably a year just looking and watching everybody else making big records. So I knew how to act when it was my time'', recalled Eddie.

Eddie's first record "Doing All Right" b/w "Land Of Promises" was released in November 1958. The Memphis disc jockey George Klein had it as his "Pick Of The Week" on November 21 together with Johnny Cash' "It's Just About Time". Elvis held the number one spot with "One Night", Kimball Coburn , another Memphis singer, was on position eleven with "Please, Please" on Hi Records. On January 16 it was number eight on radio WTUP chart, and in February we could read in the Memphis Press-Scimitar where Robert Johnson wrote:

''When WLEE-Richmond presented its chart for September 21, 1959 they had Eddie on spot thirteen. Rod Bernard held the second position with "This Should Go On Forever", Tommy Dee had "Three Stars" at number 14 and Neil Sedaka was at number 15 with "I Got Ape". The month he appeared in the Stardom Magazine''.

In 1959 Eddie entered another talent contest sponsored by the daily newspaper "Memphis Press-Scimitar" and WREC-TV. This appearance opened more doors and Eddie appears several times on Wink Martindales TV-show "Talent Party" over WHBQ-TV. By this time Harold Jenkins had turned Conway Twitty and was a big star and had gone off to Hollywood to make a movie. His musicians was left behind and he was again asked to step in for the star and did several shows with them during the shooting of Twitty's first movie.

By this time Peak Records had released quite a few recordings and this article appeared some time during 1959.

During this time Eddie Cash hand Bill Black on bass and they appeared during weekends on local clubs and in the nearby states of Arkansas and Mississippi. Most of them time they had advanced booking on the same route during Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. The following story it quite remarkable. ''I put a band together, Bill Black and Scotty Moore had just left Presley and were looking for jobs. Both Scotty and Bill worked with me several times on jobs and I had done some jobs with them so we knew each other and we worked together. Everybody in Memphis worked together at that time. All the Sun and Hi studio musicians and all those people at Stax. Everybody know everybody from bass player Duck Dunn and all the way down to Jimmy van Eaton. I was the youngest and the most inmature and probably the worst in town, but I was working and some of them not, Anyhow, I called up Bill and we put a little band together, he had a drummer called Jerry Arnold, who was to be the original drummer in the Bill Black Combo, they used to call him Satch. Satch Arnold and I had a saxophone player by the name of Martin Willis who was one of the finest musicians in town. He did a lot of stuff for Sun Records and was also with Conway for a time. The greatest guitar player I ever run across in my life is Reggie Young. Anyhow, we were working this "C&R Club" in Truman, Arkansas and another toilet called "The Silver Moon" in Newport, Arkansas. Those were jobs that we would work after school on Fridays and Saturdays.

''On this occasion I called Bill and said, ''Bill, get ready to go to the thing and I'll pick you up, and he said, 'We're not going. So what do you mean, you're not going? This is Wednesday we're opening at the Silver Moon Night Club in Newport, Arkansas and Friday we're making $15 dollars a piece and you ain't going.

Bill said, 'No, Joe Cuoghi from Hi Records called and he's gonna give us a recording session. I said, 'Well, you go ahead and do your recording session and I'll organize another band and I'm going my way. He said, 'Ok. So Bill went on and recorded "Smokie Part 1 & 2" and made his first million seller and I got $15 and went on singing at the Silver Moon Night Club in Newport, Arkansas. But that's a true Bill Black Story. It's a shame too that Bill's gone. He was a fine man a lot of fun and I miss Bill Black, he was a good friend.''.

In late 1959 or early 1960 Peak released his follow up single "Come On Home" b/w "Day After Day", which ad been recorded in 1959. Unfortunately this record died on the day of its release and Eddie Cash was very disappointed at the Lanskys for not pushing his records and he recorded a session at Fernwood Studio in Memphis.

''We recorded at the Fernwood Studio, downtown on the Main Street. Scotty gave me the story that Elvis was sorry to see them leave and bought Bill Black a house and Fernwood Records for Scotty. Bill Harris wrote one side called "Thinkin' Man" and he got the idea from a Marlboro slogan. Then I wrote the other side "Livin' Lovin' Temptation". On the session we used Jackie Hartwell (guitar), Gerald Hunsucker (rhythm guitar), Prentiss McPhail (electric bass), Tommy Bennett (piano), Dennis Smith (drums) and Martin Willis(tenor sax). We had female vocal group The DeLons, which also appeared on Thomas Wayne's recording of "Tragedy". But it got to the attention of Randy Wood through a friend of mine at radio WMPS here in Memphis, I think it was Ray Brown or it might have been Scotty Moore, I can't recall. Anyhow, they got to Randy and told him to sign me up. Randy heard the record but didn't want it on Dot so he placed it on Dot's subsidiary label called Todd and it did absolutely nothing'' recalled Eddie.

The record was released in March 1960 and Todd spent money on advertisement in Cashbox and it was also reviewed. There are also two different label designs, my copy is pressed in Los Angeles by Monarch. Eddie's next stop was Roulette Records, which came by coincidence where one single was released. ''How I got my Roulette contract was a sick thing. I had graduated from High School in 1959 and left Memphis. I left Bill Harris and everything behind me because my records didn't do what they were supposed to do. I wanted to go on the road as the record at this time made some noise in Chicago I went there to work. The record plays on the radio, people know your name and get jobs, it's that simple. In Chicago I organized another band as the musicians from Memphis wouldn't leave town. When I got to Chicago I got a trio together and we played all over the city. We had a couple of tunes that we were just playing and we went over to some guy's and for forty or fifty dollars we cut a two demos. It was a demo, a junkie demo, really a bad cheap demo in a garage with seven microphones. I had at the time signed a contract to work with Orchestras Incorporated at 332 South Michigan in the McCormick building. They saw me on the Jim Lounsbury Show, which was the Chicago version of American Bandstand, at the ABC Building right across from the Chicago Theatre. They asked me to do several TV spots here because "Doing All Right" was pretty big in that area. It got to the top ten in no time. While I was there and organizing the band and doing all these things I did this little Mickey Mouse thing. I sent the demo to my new agent Herb Grownauer, and asked him what do you think about this and Herbie knew somebody at Roulette and send it to them to see what they thought. Next thing I know Herbie says that we gotta sign a contract real quick, they are gonna release the thing. I said, 'Release what? and he said, 'Your demo. I said, 'Oh no, it's terrible. He said, 'No, they love it. So I signed a contract, they released it and it bell right on its butt'', Eddie said.

Eddie continued to make demos when opportunity occurred, when in Chicago he did recordings in a studio owned by RCA Victor. ''In the early 1960s I did a lot of sessions. We did one at RCA Studios in Chicago, I hired the studio and took my musicians in there and paid them for the session. I borrowed the money from my mother-in-law. I have never forgiven myself for not doing anything with them. They were done with my trio and a band called The Warner Brothers, not the Warner Brothers Record Company, it was an act that I worked with in Chicago.

They were about five musicians so we put the two bands together and I did all the arrangements and the stuff myself''. ''I was with The Warner Brothers Band and worked with them at The Baritz with the Bucus Brothers at the Erwin Park and Sherdon Road in Chicago. These recordings are not be be confused with the one's I did in Nashville. But if you're into Nashville I got some recordings that I did with Fred Carter that has not been release''.

''I also did some great recordings in Nashville for a very dear friend of mine, Fred Carter, he's a guitar player and has his own studio before Uncle Sam closed him down. They closed him down and guttered him about three times. Fred knew me from Conway Twitty's band where I had played. He knew that I was capable of doing different styles of music and asked me to come to Nashville at three different times and do some dub work for him which I did and I still have those recordings from the early 1960s with all the Nashville musicians. I remember Floyd Cramer, Hank Garland and Bob Moore. They are gorgeous and that's probably the finest quality things I have recorded at the same time. Most of my recordings happened 1958-1964, right through that era, before I went to Vegas'', recalled Eddie.

When things had cooled down in Chicago Eddie was already working on a totally different thing. He was by this time tired of people who asked if he was Johnny Cash's brother. He had since 1960 spent six years on the road playing constantly on the east coast, the mid-west, Canada and Greenland. He had appeared together with, and played with the cream of the crop from the golden fifties. None of his recordings had been national hits at the very best they were local hits and he began to look for other things to put into his stage act. He began to do imitations. When in Los Angeles in 1966 he became friendly with an agent from Studio City who liked Eddie's show and offered him a 10 days at a hotel in Las Vegas. He was very uncertain about this, he had shows lined up and they had to be cancelled, the musicians he used would have to be left with full pay to be sure to have after the Vegas show. But the possibility was that he could be a hit.

Eddie says, ''In about 1966 when I got to Vegas I noticed there's a couple of things going on that I wasn't aware of. When I got to Las Vegas the place had about fifty-eight major lounges and fifty-nine major casinos downtown and on the strip in each one of these. I guess you can call them cabaret or showbar and each of them had an eighteen hour shift with four or sometimes five different acts working back-to-back. We were doing three or four shows a piece with an hour in between so the other guys can do it and that went on seven days a week, fifty-two weeks a year for almost eighteen or nineteen years. If you didn't think of something unique or something good the other acts would get your people and you'd be fired if you didn't draw people. I'm proud to say that when I went to Vegas I had a ten day contract with the Mint Hotel in downtown Las Vegas with Del Webb, that 10 days contract turned into some eighteen years. So what I have written in the stories I done on the stage and this is exactly what you people would enjoy listening to. All this stuff that I'm telling you now I do on my show on the stage and sing the music at the same time. I do not understand why somebody would not be interested in sitting down and listen to this put to music. Your letter proves that I am right and this is my act today singing those songs of all those people that I have worked with and telling those stories. I don't believe that somebody is interested is seeing some idiot at 55 years old sit on the stage and sing "Doing All Right" that is absolutely stupid. What do you think of that? I'm getting strong I guess, pardon, my ages are beginning to show or is it years of frustration''.

Before Eddie Cash went to Las Vegas in 1966 he did a show in Memphis at the end of July at Little Abner's Rebel Room. The show was reviewed by Bill E. Burk for the Memphis Press- Scimitar on July 28, 1966 .

Eddie did his last Vegas show in 1984 and returned to Memphis. He had been acquainted with Siegfried & Roy who had all their music programmed on a computer and did not need a forty-piece orchestra, they just pushed a button. This was something Eddie knew was coming and he came home to began working on this. But most of all his parents were ill and in bad shape and Eddie felt he needed to be home and take care of them. In Memphis he also opened a dinner theatre and worked there for five years.

''We didn't start the computer thing until 1990. We moved to Cicero, Missouri, just a few miles down the road from Branson, Missouri in the 1992. We've been here at The Olympic Theatre on 6134 Cermak Road for three years and are still doing fine. We're doing five shows a week and we'll stay here a few more years until we move on'', says Eddie.

By the end of the nineties Eddie was back in Memphis. When doing these interviews and the talks we had over several phone calls over the duck pond I found him a to be a very nice man. But, also very bitter and suspicious over that he was not gonna get paid properly. He wanted to come to Europe, but at the same time afraid he's not gonna be paid. He told me that, ''I have done tons of recordings, I have boxes and boxes and boxes of Eddie Cash singing stuff that nobody wanted to buy and that makes me bitter 'cause some of it was in fact very good''.

Eddie Cash died in Mukwanoga, Wisconsin on September 16, 2016, after a short battle with cancer. He was 75.


CASH, JOHNNY - Country singer, guitarist, and songwriter, was born in the remote rural settlement of Kingsland, Arkansas, on February 26, 1932. His birthplace was almost directly across the Mississippi from Lake County, Tennessee, where Carl Perkins was born six weeks later. Cash is the father of singer Rosanne Cash (1955), as well as the father-in-law of singer Rodney Crowell. Cash was born John Ray Cash, and it was only when he joined the U.S. Air Force that he was given the name Johnny.

In the mid-1940s Cash started work in the fields, habitually listening to Smilin' Eddie Hill on WMPS, Memphis, during the midday break. Hill's "High Noon Roundup" show featured the cream of the local hillbilly talent. Unlike almost all of his later Sun colleagues, Johnny Cash grew up without the influence of black music: his parents had settled on a government colony in Dyess when he was three years old, from which blacks were specifically excluded. His parents kept the radio tuned to the hillbilly stations, and when Cash went into Dyess with a few nickels to put in the jukebox, it was Roy Acuff and Ernest Tubb that he wanted to hear.

When Cash's voice broke, he realized that he owned something that might get him out of Dyess. He practised at every opportunity, singing in school and at home. Yet when he left tow, it was not to become a hillbilly singer but to work in the auto plants in Pontiac, Michigan. Like many others who took that route, Cash returned home, although he made his return somewhat sooner than most - after three weeks. Still determined to get out of Dyess, he joined the Air Force on July 7, 1950.

By his own account, Cash's 'four long, miserable years' in the Air Force were relieved only by playing music with fellow southerners. While stationed in Germany, they formed a group called the Landsberg Barbarians, and Johnny Cash started writing material for them - including the quintessential lament of the homesick southerner, "Hey! Porter", which was published as a poem in the servicemen's magazine Stars & Stripes.

Before leaving for overseas duty, Johnny Cash had gone roller-skating in San Antonio, Texas. On the rink, he crashed into Vivian Liberto, then seventeen years old and in her last year of high school. They dated during his last weeks in the States and wrote to each other constantly while he was overseas. John and Vivian decided to get married after he returned. Cash probably harboured the dream of being able to make money playing music, but up to that point his largest audience had been a gathering of a few dozen Italians who had listened to the Landsberg Barbarians on a drunken furlough in Venice.

On July 3, 1954, Johnny Cash left the U.S. Air Force. On August 7 he married Vivian Dorraine Liberto, and they set up home on Tutwiler Avenue in Memphis. Cash's older brother Roy had found him a job selling appliances for the Home Equipment Company, but Cash was, by his own admission. Cash's trips into the black neighborhoods of Memphis gave him his first exposure to black music. Trying to break into music any way he could, Cash auditioned for a job as a radio announcer at a station in Corinth, Mississippi, but was turned down because of lack of experience.

Taking advantage of the G.I. Bill, Cash enroled at the Keegan School of Broadcast in Memphis. Attending on a part-time basis, he had completed half of the course by the time his first Sun record was released in 1954 with the Tennessee Two (Luther Perkins and Marshall Grant).

A few days after getting out of the service, Johnny Cash visited his brother in Memphis. Roy Cash had forsaken a musical career and was working at the Hoehn Chevrolet dealership on Union Avenue. He introduced his younger brother to three mechanics who played together at home, at small benefit concerts, and on Sunday morning radio. Marshall Grant was twenty-six years old, sang tenor, and played guitar. Luther Monroe Perkins, also twenty-six, played guitar as well. A.W. "Red" Kernodle, ten years older than Perkins and Grant, played steel guitar.

For all his musical shortcomings, it was Luther Perkins who developed the guitar sound that complemented Cash's stark baritone. Perkins was born in Memphis on January 8, 1928. His father drove a taxi at the time, but soon returned to farming in Mississippi. The Perkins family, including Thomas Wayne (Perkins), who later scored a hit with "Tragedy", grew up in Sardis and Como. "Finally, one day, we decided that we were ready for a shot at the record business", recalled Cash.

"I had met Elvis Presley's guitarist, Scotty Moore, and I called him and asked him about the possibility of getting an audition with Sun". Moore probably told Cash that the best approach was simply go to the studio. It was an approach that had worked for Presley.

In an interview with Peter Guralnick, Cash described how he came to audition. "Sun Records was between my house and the radio announcing school. I just started going by there and every day "'d ask: Could I see Mr. Phillips. And they'd say, 'He's not in yet', or 'He's at a meeting'. So really it became a challenge to me just to get inside that studio. Finally, one day I was sitting on the stoop just as he came to work and I stood up and said, 'I'm John Cash and I want you to hear me play'. He said, 'Well, come on in'. I sang two or three hours for him. Everything I knew - Hank Snow, Ernest Tubb, Flatt and Scruggs... I even sang "I'll Take You Home Again Kathleen".

"I had to fight and call and keep at it and push, push, push to even get into Sun Records. I don't feel like anyone discovered me because I had to fight so hard to get heard".

Phillips liked what he heard and invited Cash to return with his group. "When they came in", recalled Sam Phillips, "Cash apologized to me for not having a professional band but I said that he should let me hear what they could do and I would be able to tell whether they had a style I would be able to work with. At that first audition I was immediately impressed with John's unusual voice. I was also interested in Luther's guitar playing. He wasn't a wizard on the guitar. He played one string at a time and he wasn't super good - but he was different,
and that was important".

"Their material was all religious at that time. Songs which Cash had composed. I liked them, but I told him that I would not at that time be able to merchandize him as a religious artist and that it would be well if he could secure some other material or write some other songs. I told him that I was real pleased with the sound we were getting from just the three instruments. If I'm mot mistaken, I think it was the third occasion in the studio that I actually commenced seriously to get Johnny Cash down on tape. He continued to be very apologetic about his band. However, I told him that I did not want to use any other instrumentation because of the unique style they had. They would practice a lot, but I told them not to be overly prepared because I was interested in spontaneity too".

"Sam Phillips had a vision", confirmed Cash in an interview with Bill Flanagan. "Nashville in 1955 was grinding out all these country records. If you took the voice off, all the tracks sounded the same to me... All the arrangements were calculated and predictable. It's kinda that way with my music - but (at least) it's my music. It's not done to try and sound like someone else in Nashville".

According to Marshall Grant, Red Kernodle came to the first session, froze and went back to his day job. According to Kernodle, he played the first session and then quit. "There was no money in it", he recalled with little apparent regret, "and there was getting to be too much staying up late at night and running around". It is probably that his halting attempts at playing the steel guitar can be heard on an early version of "Wide Open Road". If so, his disappearance was no great loss. Luther Perkins' oldest daughter, Linda, recalled that Kernodle's wife had threatened to leave if he concentrated upon music. He also held a better paying job than the other members of the group which he was unwilling to jeopardize. His disappearance was viewed with some relief by the others.

Needing some secular material in a hurry, Cash resuscitated "Hey! Porter" and previewed "Folsom Prison Blues" - a song based closely on a Gordon Jenkins tune, "Cresent City Blues", which formed a segment of a 1953 concept album called "Seven Dreams". Both the melody and finally dawned upon Jenkins after Cash re-recorded the song for his hugely successful prison album in 1968. Cash's earliest version of "Folsom Prison Blues" were delivered in a curiously high pitched voice, although those early takes show that Luther Perkins had already worked out his guitar solo that would later become a model of minimalist country picking. However, Sam Phillips did not want to couple "Folsom Prison Blues" with "Hey! Porter" for the first record.

The essential elements of Cash's music were in place from the start. The stark, lonesome vocals were front and centre, with Luther doing little more than keeping time - even during his solo. Where most guitarists relish the opportunity to solo, Luther seemed to dread it. The fear of failure - messing up an otherwise good take - seemed to haunt him every time he entered the studio during the early days.

For his part, Sam Phillips challenged the established precepts of recording balance, placing Cash's vocals more assertively in the mix than had ever been the case in country music. Phillips fattened the sounds of the vocals and the rhythm track with carefully timed slapback echo that gave a compelling syncopation to some of the faster numbers.

Cash recorded a number of hit records for Sun, including "I Walk The Line" (SUN 241), "Folsom Prison Blues" (SUN 232), and "Ballad Of A Teenage Queen" (SUN 283). His first major public appearance after singing with Sun Records was at the Overton Park Shell in Memphis on August 5, 1955. Elvis Presley was also on the bill. Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, and Elvis Presley toured together on the Jamboree tour from Abilene, Texas, to St. Louis, for two weeks in October 1955.

Johnny Cash became one of the participants in the famed Million-Dollar Quartet session. Years later he filed a lawsuit to try to prohibit the session's release on record. Cash left Sun Records in 1958 to record for Columbia Records. Berely two weeks after his last Sun session, Johnny Cash was in Nashville cutting his first Columbia session. Without Sam Phillips second-guessing the repertoire, cash was able to record a selection of religious or quasi-religious material. The first Columbia album, The Fabulous Johnny Cash, was released in time for the Disc Jockey Convention in the middle of November 1958.

On December 12, 1958 Johnny and Vivian Cash hosted a housewarming party in Encino, California. Cash's life - both inside and outside music - would acquire some new dimension as the '50s gave way to the '60s. At times he seemed to be the most focussed artist in country music, recording concept albums, and bringing a variety to his bare-bones sound that Sam Phillips never envisaged. At other times Cash seemed - like Hank Williams - to be heading ninety miles down a dead-end street.

At a live concert at the International Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, in August 1969, Elvis Presley jokingly introduced himself by saying, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash", before singing "Folsom Prison Blues" and "I Walk The Line".

The Sun recordings maximized the effective contrast between the hustling rhythm of the bass/acoustic guitar and the enigmatically ponderous vocals and sparse lead guitar. Phillips' achievement was to keep Cash's sound at its bare essentials and then fatten it up with the use of tape delay echo. Subsequent producers and engineers could never quite recapture Phillips' formula. At Columbia, Cash's little trio was placed in the cavernous Bradley's studio where the sound leaped around, giving a cavernous echo where Phillips had imparted a tightly focussed slapback. The difference was especially evident on Cash's vocals. The repertoire was as strong, the backings were still commendably simple - but the booming assertive presence was partially lost in the swampy echo.

The ultimate judgement on Cash - at Sun and Columbia - though, is that the whole represented much more than the sum of the parts. Cash's limited vocals, Luther Perkins' bare-bones picking and Marshall Grant's bass playing jelled magically to produce a unique and compelling blend, one of the most original, innovative and immediately recognisable sounds in country music.

The late career regeneration was ongoing. The last album released during Cash's lifetime, ''American IV: The Man Comes Around'', was a fitting epitaph, and the video accompanying his version of Trent Rezner's ''Hurt'' might well be the most moving music video ever made. It was life laid bare.

Johnny Cash lived to be seventy-one, although he looked and sounded considerably older toward the end. Parkinson's disease, diabetes, glaucoma, and respiratory problems took a terrible toll. After his second wife, June Carter Cash, died on May 15, 2003, many believed that John would not last long, and he did not. The end came on September 12, 2003 and Johnny Cash dies at the Shy- Drager Syndrome of the age of 71 in the Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee. He'd been to the brink so often, but lacked the strength for more fight. It had been nearly fifty years since Sam Phillips captured the surprisingly confident opening notes of ''Wide Open Road''. (CE)(MH)


CHAFFIN, ERNIE - Born in Water Valley, northern Mississippi, on January 1, 1928. Like so many country artists of that period Ernie cites the Grand Ole Opry and Hank Williams as his primary influences. "When I was a kid, the Opry was the only radio show we could get and that's what really made me decide to be an entertainer. I would sing in church too, so I grew up on good old country gospel and the Grand Ole Opry".

Chaffin relocated to Gulfport in 1944, hoping to break into country music. He had already mastered the guitar and mandolin and was looking to break into the entertainment field. "I felt that if I lived on the coast where they had a lot of clubs and so on, I might be able to get into music better than being stuck in northern Mississippi where there wasn't much going on".

In the early 1950s, he met a local songwriter, Murphy "Pee Wee" Maddux, while playing in a pavilion on the waterfront in Biloxi and someone said, "Let Ernie sing", so Pee Wee allowed him to step up to the mike and sing "Many Tears Ago".

From that point Maddux assumed a large role in Ernie's career. In early 1954 the pair decided that it was time to let Nashville know they were missing something. Pee Wee took Ernie to see Jim Denny at the Grand Ole Opry. Denny called Paul Cohen, the irascible boss of Decca's Nashville operation, and said "I got a boy here who sounds a little like Eddy Arnold, a little like Red Foley, a little like Marty Robbins but not a lot like anyone". Cohen invited Ernie Chaffin over for audition but Ernie did not like Cohen's attitude. "He wanted me to sign a contract for four years and I told him that I didn't need that kind of contract. Pee Wee was sick. Anyway, we went over to see Fred Rose and, as it turned out, Fred had heard me sing "Many Tears Ago". He was a different kind of person altogether. A fine person. Made me relaxed".

Pee Wee and Ernie Chaffin returned to Mississippi to work up some material and they returned to Nashville in May 1954 to record a session for Hickory Records, the record division of Acuff-Rose. Hickory released all four titles to scant acclaim during 1954. Fred Rose wrote a note to Pee Wee Maddux expressing disappointment in the sales but though that Ernie Chaffin had, in Rose's words, "gained an entry". Within a few weeks however Rose was dead and Ernie was never called back for another session.

If Rose had not accepted their material, Maddux was determined to start up an independent label to issue his work with Ernie. It was this option that he now began to explore. Fine Records was started in Biloxi as a joint venture between Maddux and Prof. Marion Carpenter who was a local band director and Ernie's manager. At some point promoter Yankie Bahanovich seems to have become involved. Their first venture, Ernie's original recording of "The Heart Of Me", was released in early 1956.

A letter in the December 1956 edition of "Jamboree" seems to indicate that a second single was planned on Fine Records but this was forestalled by good news from Memphis. By the time he received the news from Memphis that Sam Phillips liked his work and wanted to sign him, Chaffin had already been recorded for over the years.

Chaffin could have been a major figure in country music: he had an intimate vocal presence that appealed to the same market that would later make Jim Reeves a star. He also had the benefit of some topclass material from Maddux. From a commercial point of view, Ernie Chaffin had a dangerously skewed perspective, but his priorities have brought him peace of mind - something to which few of his contemporaries at Sun can lay claim.

After his tenure with Sun Records, Ernie Chaffin moved through a variety of small labels. "Set 'Em Up Joe" (Village 7778), recorded at Cosimo Matassa's Studio in New Orleans, was the number one country record in New Orleans for 17 weeks. However, Ernie Chaffin never saw a dime from it. "I never got on any big labels because my family always came before business. Hank Williams once told me I'd never make it big because I let my music come after my family. I always felt like the Lord came first, my family came second and my music came third. Maybe that's why I never did make a hit. I remember one time I had a contract with Sammy Kaye in New York to sing two ballads every Saturday night. My son was a year old at the time and we were having a lot of physical problems with him so I refused to go. That was a big opportunity that I failed to take advantage of but I'm not sorry at all because I still have my son. He's grown and big and healthy".

Ernie Chaffin may never become more that a footnote in the history of country music but he made some fine recordings. The combination of his very distinctive voice, Pee Wee Maddux's material and the Sun production technique was maginal. It was at once haunting and melodic. His latest recording (1987), were country gospel with his family joining him.

Ernie's wife, Avalon Jean, was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in 1984 but didn't die until 1990, an unusually long time. Some of those years were good; the cancer was in remission for a while. But the last two years were very rough. Ernie remarried in 1993. In 1997, he built a house for himself and his new wife, Hilda, on two acres in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. On April 16th he was attaching some shutters and putting on the final touches. A neighbor needed to have some dirt levelled and Ernie volunteered to help. He hopped on his tractor and began the work. He miscalculated the grade in a hilly area and the tractor rolled over on top of him. Nobody was there to help move the machine that had pinned him, and emergency medical teams were simply too far away. By the time they arrived, Ernie Chaffin was dead. His longtime collaborator, Pee Wee Maddux, committed suicide. His new wife witnessed the entire event helplessly.

Ernie Chaffin outlived steel player Ernie Harvey, who died in 1994 at the age of 64. He had toured for many years with Lefty Frizzell. Pee Wee Maddux died by his own hand in 1993. He was despondent over his failing health. Maddux had earlier been caught up the the legal battles swirling around his former employer, Reverent Jessup. Maddux was a long time associate of the Jessups and when they were arrested in November, 1964 on federal charges for mail fraud (promising cures for cancer in return for donations to their ministry), Maddux was included in the indictment. (CE) (HD)


CHAPEL, JEAN - Sun recording artist, born Opal Jean Amburgay on March 6, 1925, in Neon, Kentucky, who, like Elvis Presley, switched to RCA Records in 1956. She recorded for several record labels and wrote over 400 songs, more than 170 of which were published in her lifetime. Amburgey was born into a family of six children in Neon, Kentucky. At the age of 11 she learned guitar and banjo, and performed with her sisters as the Sunshine Sister band. Together they left home when Jean was 13 and were hired to play daily on WKLP-AM in Lexington, Kentucky in 1938.

They moved to Atlanta, Georgia in 1940 to sing on WSB Barn Dance; she began using the nickname Mattie at this time. Her sister Irene would later record with Columbia Records under the name Martha Carson.

In 1947, she married Salty Holmes and in 1950 they moved to Chicago, Illinois to appear on National Barn Dance on WLS-AM. Soon Jean began appearing on the Grand Ole Opry opposite Holmes. Opal Jean's first recordings appeared for the Hickory label in 1954. Jean Chapel recorded an answer to Elvis Presley's "Good Rockin' Tonight" titled "I Won't Be Rockin' Tonight" (SUN 244). Sun promoted her as the Female Elvis, but the nickname stuck more successfully to Janis Martin.

Two songs by Jean Chapel appeared on side 2 of a 1956 disc jockey promotional EP (RCA DJ- 7) that featured Elvis Presley's "Good Rockin' Tonight" on side 1. After Chapel divorced Holmes in 1956, she moved to Nashville and devoted herself primarily to songwriting. Chapel composed songs that have been recorded by Roy Rogers and Eddy Arnold. She also recorded under the names Opal Jean, Jean Amber, and Mattie O'Neal during the early 1950s. Jean Chapel and her sister Martha Carson and a third sister named Bertha, the family trio recorded as an all-girl hillbilly band known variously as the Coon Creek Girls and the Amburgay Sisters. Jean's brother, Don Chapel, was the second husband of singer Tammy Wynette, actor Burt Reynold's former girlfriend.

During the 1960s, Jean Chapel concentrated on club work, touring extensively in the process. Her greatest success came in the late 1960s as a songwriter. She enjoyed a number 1 hit in 1967 when Eddy Arnold cut her song "Lonely Again". Her songs were also cut by artists as diverse as Patsy Cline, Rosemary Clooney, George Jones, Dean Martin, Hank Snow and Big Joe Turner. Jean Chapel - a name she used for a relatively brief period of her career, retired at age of 65 and moved to Florida. Jean Chapel died on August 19, 1995 in Port Orange, Florida.


CLEMENT, JACK – Is one of the few people associated with Sun Records who are more famous for what they did after the Sun years than during the heyday of rockabilly. Clement is a highly talented record producer, musician, occasional recording artist and genuine 'character', known as ''the minstrel'' or ''cowboy''. Clement had made his name largely in country music, discovering Charley Pride and Don Williams and delivering their music to a world audience. Clement played on important but subordinate role at Sun between 1956 and 1958 as songwriter, studio engineer and musical catalyst.

Through this time, he was constantly at odds with Sam Phillips about wanting to develop the Sun sound, to make it more musical. It is entirely possible that Johnny cash would not have broken into the pop market in such a big way without Jack Clement.

Born as Jack Henderson Clement on April 5, 1931 in Memphis, Tennessee, raised and educated in Memphis, Jack Clement was performing at an early age. Clement lived there until 1948 when he signed up for a year stint in the U.S, Marines.

At home he'd loved music of all kinds but especially the radio broadcasts of Roy Acuff and Merle Travis. The guitar wizardry of Travis taught him that music cold be either simple or complicated but that it had to be good. He would never tolerate second-raters even when recording the simplest of three-chord rockers. He couldn't get to see Merle Travis perform, but he did go down to Smilin' Eddie Hill's ''High Noon Roundup'' show which took place every day in a Memphis department store window and went out over radio WMC. He would join the crowd around the store and listen to Hill, Harmonica Frank, Slim Rhodes, Wayne Raney and the Delmore Brothers, and especially to the Louvin Brothers' light harmonies and plaintive hillcountry songs. The Marine base where Clement was stationed was just outside Washington, D.C., and here in 1948 he was first exposed to bluegrass music. ''That was when I fell in love with the five-string banjo'', he recalled, ''and I just had to get one and practice on it straight away''. Soon, he was proficient enough to play duets with Roy Clark, later a country superstar but then a resident artist at a Washington club called ''The Famous''. On Saturday nights, he would travel down to Maryland with Scotty Stoneman's band. Scotty was the mainstay of the popular Stonemans. He played fiddle, with mandolin, banjo and bass support from Jack Clement, Buzz Busby and Jimmy Stoneman. The group was completed by Ralph Jones on dobro and Clement recalls Jones being one of the finest oldtime country musicians he ever knew. In 1952, Jack returned briefly to Memphis. Soon, he was off to Wheeling, West Virginia with Buzz Busby doing, ''a bluegrass comedy duet thing, kinda like Homer & Jethro''. Also at that time Jack played in Baltimore and Boston and he made his first record in 1953, for the Sheraton label in Boston, Massachusetts. ''This was in 1953. We had been playing a radio show in Baltimore when Aubrey Mayhew, who managed Hawkshaw Hawkins, asked us to do a show in his WCOP Hayloft Jamboree in Boston. While we were doing that James Daliano, a famous french horn player, came in and said he wanted to record us for his Sheraton label. Daliano was the owner but he let Aubrey run the label. We recorded my first two published songs, ''I can't Say Nothing At All'' and ''I Think I'll Write A Song''. They were by Buzz and Jack, and we did them in the style of Webb Pierce''.

Sheraton Records only distributed locally in the north-east, so nothing came of this development and Jack got tried of the duo. Being a developing ''crazy'', he went off to join an Hawaiian band in Washington. He then wound up back to Memphis in 1954. That year he answered an advert for training dance instructors and he became an employee of the Arthur Murray School of Dancing on Main Street and to study English at the Memphis State University from 1953 to 1955.

On evenings and weekends, Jack Clement shows with a western-swing influenced country band run by a pal of his, truck driver Slim Wallace. Wallace's Dixie Ramblers played a regular spot at a club in Paragould, Arkansas, and while returning one night Jack and Slim plotted their entry into the record business. Slim put up most of the 450 dollars they needed to buy an old Magnecord tape deck from disc jockey Sleepy Eyed John, and Jack built himself a studio in Slim's garage. The garage was on Fernwood Drive, so the label was to be called Fernwood Records.

The first Fernwood disc does not exist. It was to be ''Trouble Bound'' and ''Rock With Me Baby'' by Arkansas wild man Billy Riley. After working on the songs, Jack Clement needed somewhere to have his tapes mastered for transfer to disc. On the advice of Bill Fitzgerald at Music Sales Distributors, Jack went to Sun Records. Sam Phillips reward Clement's tape of Riley singing ''Trouble Bound'' and offered both Jack and Billy Riley a job. Clement joined Sun on June 15, 1956. His only remaining interest in Fernwood was to use Sun's facilities to make masters, and to add the echo to the number one hit ''Tragedy'' by Thomas Wayne. This had been recorded at Hi Records since the garage studio was still incomplete. ''Sam Phillips always wondered how they got that echo'', says Jack with a grin, ''but I figured it didn't take but a few minutes so why should I tell him''.

On the question of whether Sam Phillips really controlled the development of the Sun sound, whether he was ''the man'' or just lucky, Jack Clement is in no doubt. ''All of Sam's early success was entirely Sam's. Elvis, Carl, Cash. My work was with developing Cash's sound, and with Bill Justis and Charlie Rich. I was into making things musical. Sam was not, but he understood one thing that I didn't at that time. He understood ''feel in music''. I was interest in machines and the way recordings would be better. Sam liked empty, hollow, tubby sounds, but he knew a thing or two I didn't. He let me do that I liked, but he retained ultimate control of what was issued. The first time Same gave me an artist to work with, it was Roy Orbison. I recorded ''Rockhouse'' with Roy and it was good. But Roy was not into what the Sun studio was capable of back then''. Jack spent many hours working with several artists that he particularly liked. He began to recall them with obvious pleasure. ''Cash. Sam gave me Johnny Cash from ''Home Of The Blues'' onwards. Sonny Burgess. He was a fine artist but he didn't really fit into a groove, same with Conway Twitty who never made anything that sounded much like a record. Then Ernie Chaffin and Mack Self, these were excellent country singers''. In Jack Clement's view, Sun was not making records quite ''musically'' enough. He was responsible for getting Cash into the pop market and for trying a range of experiments with vocal backings and steel guitar sound. What he did like at Sun was firstly the depth of talented artists, and secondly the relaxed atmosphere. He could do what he liked; work all night on a session, write songs in Taylor's cafe next door, like Cash's ''Guess Things Happen That Way'', or even build a bathroom in the control room. He once told Sam he could built an office for promotion girl Barbara Barnes for a hundred dollars. So he canceled sessions and set to with the woodwork. He also spent time helping to master recordings for his buddies on rival labels, and on developing his own musical sound as a performer.

The Jack Clement sound was country, but it was not Sun sound. It was acoustic, with ringing tones instead of the muddy Cash bass sounds. It was worked out with the help of Clement's buddy, Jimmy C. Wilson, Jack says, ''Wilson was nearly as crazy as me. He was a bit of a nut. He lived in rooms above Taylor's and he was a great player if he was in the mood. He had a pet coon which he used to bring in and cain to the piano. He used to dismantle and rebuild old guns up in his room and he set fire to the place one time. After that he loosed off a rocket, a home-made thing, up there and they threw him out. He went to California and married Nudie the tailor's daughter''. In February 1957, Clement and Wilson, plus coon, took off for the RCA Studios in Nashville. They hired bass player Bob Moore and recorded for songs. ''Ten Years'' was the major contender, a light, pleasant country balled with an epic story song feel to it. It's the Jack Clement style, and it was repeated in October when Jack recreated the sound at Sun on ''Black Haired Man''. This was a fast, rhythmic development of the cash beat, a gunfighter balled of real class and a fairly successful record. The flip ''Wrong'', is light singalong country pop with a prominent acoustic guitar from Jack.

There, Clement worked with future stars such as Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins and Johnny Cash. But most importantly, he discovered and recorded Jerry Lee Lewis while Sam Phillips was away on a trip to Florida, one of those recordings, "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On'', was selected in 2005 for permanent preservation in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress. In 1957, Clement wrote the song "Ballad Of A Teenage Queen" that became a crossover hit for Johnny Cash. Other Cash hits written by Clement included "Guess Things Happen That Way", which was number 1 country and number 11 pop in 1958, and the humorous "The One On The Right Is On The Left", which was a number 2 country and number 46 pop hit in 1966. Clement performed "Guess Things Happen That Way" on the Johnny Cash Memorial Tribute show on CMT in November 2003.

Leaving Sun Records early in 1959 with his part in a string of million-selling productions behind him, Jack Clement used the proceeds of his song copyrights to buy equipment and to set up Summer Records on Main Street in Memphis. Apart from an atrocious novelty called ''Motorcycle Michael'', Summer bombed. Clement kept busy, though, fooling around with productions for Pepper Records (including his own song, ''Return Of A Teenage Queen''), Hi Records (Tommy Tucker's ''Miller's Cave'') and for Echo Records, which he formed with Stan Kesler and Clyde Leoppard and for which he built a studio on Manassas Avenue. In the fall of 1959 Jack Clement had blown all his money and, in his words, ''decided I had to do some work''. He called Chet Atkins in Nashville and was hired as junior producer for RCA, then the most important label in the industry.

After Clement's first stint in Nashville, he went to Beaumont, Texas, to work with music publisher Bill Hall. While there, he pitched ''She Thinks I Still Care'' to George Jones and arranged ''Ring Of Fire'' for Johnny Cash. In 1965, he returned to Nashville, and went on to become a significant figure in the Nashville music business, establishing a publishing business, and his own recording studio, making records for stars such as Ray Stevens and his biggest coup Charley Pride, but he also signed Townes Van Zandt, the Stonemans, and several others left-of-center country artists. With Charley Pride money, he built a studio on Belmont Boulevard next to Shelby Singleton's reconstituted Sun Records before moving a few blocks south

In 1971, he co-founded the J-M-I Record Company, he signed Don Williams to his label, but felt betrayed when Williams wriggled out of the deal to sign with ABC. From the 1970s onward, Jack Clement newly named Cowboy Arms Hotel and Recording Spa became Nashville's ground zero for off-kilter country.

Jack Clement wrote a number of highly successful songs that have been recorded by singing stars such as Johnny Cash, Dolly Parton, Ray Charles, Carl Perkins, Bobby Bare, Elvis Presley, Jim Reeves, Jerry Lee Lewis, Cliff Richard, Charley Pride, Tom Jones, Dickey Lee and Hank Snow. He was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1973. He also produced albums by Townes Van Zandt and Waylon Jennings.

Clement was involved in a few film projects as a singer or songwriter on soundtracks, and produced the 1975 horror film Dear Dead Delilah that marked the last film performance by actress Agnes Moorehead. In 1987 Clement was approached by U2 to record at legendary Sun Studio in Memphis, Tennessee. He had never heard of U2 but took the session based on the urging of someone else in his office. The result was a portion of the U2 album Rattle and Hum ("When Love Came To Town" with BB King, "Angel of Harlem" about Billie Holiday, and "Love Rescue Me" with backing vocals by Bob Dylan), as well as the Woody Guthrie song "Jesus Christ," which appeared on 1988's "Folkways: A Vision Shared, A Tribute to Woody Guthrie & Leadbelly. Portions of the 2 sessions also appear in the film ''Rattle and Hum''.

In 2005, a documentary on Clement entitled Shakespeare Was a Big George Jones Fan was created by Robert Gordon and Morgan Neville, pieced together from Clement's home videos and interviews with peers, including Jerry Lee Lewis and Bono. Clement currently hosts a weekly program on Sirius XM Satellite Radio's Outlaw country (channel 60) from 2pm to 6pm (Eastern) on Saturdays. Jack Clement has been inducted into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame and the Music City Walk of Fame.

On June 25, 2011, a fire destroyed Jack's home and studio on Belmont Boulevard in Nashville. Jack was unhurt, but many priceless recordings and memorabilia were lost. Jack has two children. A daughter, Alison, also a singer and writer, and a son, Niles, an engineer and photographer. Alison Clement has a website also where you can read about her experiences in the music business as the daughter of a renowned Legendary Sun Producer.

On the occasion of Sam Phillips' death, Jake Clement spoke movingly at the memorial service, barely able to staunch tears as he recalled some of their late night telephone conversations.

On April 10, 2013 it was announced Jack Clement would be inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. A virtual jack of all trades in the entertainment businesss, Cowboy Jack Clement, 82, died Thursday August 8, 2013 at his Nashville home following a lengthy illness from liver cancer.


CLIMATES, THE - a legendary vocal ensemble, signed with Sun Records, in 1966 and had several hits in the 1960’s such as ''Breakin’ Up Again'', ''No You For Me'', ''All My Weakness'', ''Tell Him Tonight'', and ''Don’t Be Cruel''. The latter was also recorded by the legendary Elvis Presley and made it to the top of the charts. The Climates were the first black artists to become number one on a white radio station in the South (WHBQ-3 months and WMPS-1 month). In 1967, The Climates charted number two in France, Italy, and England, second only to the Beatles, making the front page of Billboard Magazine that year.

On June 20, 1992, Sam Phillips, President of Sun Records, declared the group legendary artists. They each received Proclamations from the state and the city of Memphis, and that day was declared ''“Climates Day''. Sam once said, ''These guys of the Memphis Sound, James Rosser, Raymond Edwards, David Glenn, and Robert Chisem, were truly trendsetters with their flashy outfits and their well-polished performances that were so disciplined''.

The group has had the pleasure of being backed by Memphis greats such as Isaac Hayes, Booker T. and the MG’s, The Markeys, Tennie Hodges and the Hi Rhythm Band, and some of the former Barkays. Being successful at an early age, The Climates were helpful to others by letting them be their opening act. Some of the artists that opened for them are J. Blackfoot of the Soul Children, The New Comers, and Ann Peebles.

Even now, The Climates are featured on the new legendary album called, ''Into The 1960's The Complete Sun Singles, “From the Vault Vol. 5 CD.” This album and CD features various artists with songs from their collection.

Recently, Rodger Friedman of Fox News New York reviewed new Climates CD as being one of the top 5 CD’s for the year. The Climates are stronger than ever. The group is under the leadership of Robert Chisem, the only original member in the ensemble. The new members of The Climates are Melvino Smith (1st & 2nd Tenor), Ricky Adkinsson (1st, 2nd Tenor/Lead), Ms. Angela (Contralto), and Warren Miller (2nd Tenor/Bass). This group is very versatile. Each member is a lead vocalist. In 2006, their song ''Rainin’ In Memphis'' was featured on WDIA’s CD (America’s First Black Radio Station), ''The History, The Music, The Legend''. Ace Records in England also recently released a new compilation CD entitled, ''More Perfect Harmony'', featuring one of the Climates’ songs, ''No You For Me'' from the Sun-Days. The Climates have recently finished a new CD entitled, ''Rainin’ In Memphis'', which will released in January 2008, and Memphis’ own, Carl “Blue” Wise produced it. It has the sound of yesterday, but today’s real music. With all their history and background, you know it is going to be a hit! If you are looking for a legendary sound that started it all, this group is the one The C-L-I-M-A-T-E-S!


COLE, J.C. - Remains little more than a name on some acetate recordings found in Memphis by collector Fred Davis apparently recorded at the Memphis Recording Service in the early 1950s. What little more there is tells us that a man named J.C. was playing guitar and singing in Mississippi and West Memphis, Arkansas in the late 1940s and went with a fellow musicians, Forrest City Joe, to Chicago in 1948 where they lived at South Ellis Avenue.

Joe recorded for Aristocrat in Chicago on December 2, 1948 with J.C. Cole apparently playing guitar. His bass string strumming on that session keeps good time, for sure, and it could very well be the same man playing the Delta style guitar on the four songs included in the box, the acetates apparently made but not issued or logged by Sam Phillips. They appear to contain one clue, in ''No Right Blues'' the singer-guitarist appears to refer to himself as ''Tony''. However he was probably just imitating the pronunciation of singer Tommy McClennan (''Toe-me'') whose ''Deep Blue Sea Blues'' was the pattern for Cole's recording. Cole's subsequent activities are unknown and he is not thought to have recorded again.

That would be explained if he was the J.C. Cole who died in Madison county near Jackson, Tennessee in 1956, aged 60. But there are other men named J.C. Cole in the population censuses and so our man, but not his music, remains a mystery. (MH)


COLLEGE KIDS, THE (DICK PENNER) - Born Allen Richard Penner, In November 1936, Chicago, Illinois. Dick Penner had two releases on Sun, one solo single and one as half of a duo. However, he is probably best known as the cowriter of "Ooby Dooby", Roy Orbison's immortal rockabilly classic. Born in Chicago, but his family moved to Dallas, Texas the following year.

Unlike most of his contemporaries at Sun Dick grew up in comfortable surroundings. He acquired an early liking for country music and by age 16 he had taken up the guitar. He listened to hillbilly music and rhythm and blues and recalls Johnnie & Jack and Clyde McPhatter among his favorites. Soon after taking up the guitar, he played his first gig for the Methodist Youth Fellowship in a church basement. He sang Hank Williams's then-current hit, ''I Heard That Lonesome Whistle Blow''.

The following year, his musical career started in 1953 at the 'Big D' Jamboree in Dallas where Dick and his partner Dave Young performed Johnny & Jack songs and comedy routines. ''There was wrestling on Tuesday night and country music on Saturday night'', said Penner. ''The Ed McLemore Sportatorium was a big corrugated steel building that seated a lot of people. I remember that Elvis came through there one time. He already had a strong regional identity and there was an electricity in the air when he turned up. The guys had driven in from Amarillo, Texas, which is way the hell out in west Texas and they were 45 minutes or an hour late. They got right out of the car and got on stage. Presley's music was so different I was thrilled. It was a real learning experience and I wanted to be like that. (In fact, Elvis played the Big D Jamboree on several occasions and never played Amarillo the night before, but the essence of Penner's story is probably correct, if the detail isn't. Penner later dated Presley's appearance to June 18, 1955).

In 1954 Penner enrolled in North Texas State College in Denton, and performed on campus as a solo act, before he met Wade Moore quished it. Together they wrote "Ooby Dooby" in February 1955. With one of them unaware of what the other was doing, Penner signed the song to Sun's Hi-Lo Music and Moore signed it to Peer International. According to Penner, Peer paid Phillips for one hundred percent of the song, but the song is currently credited to both companies.

"Wade and I took a six pack of beer onto the flat roof of the fraternity house and it took us three minutes", Penner told Dominique Anglares. The song came to the attention of fellow student Roy Orbison, who recorded a demo of the song with his band, the Wink Westerners, and sent it to Columbia Records. The label was not interested in Orbison, but pitched the song to Sid King and the Five Strings, who recorded it on March 5, 1956, in Dallas. According to most available sources, Roy cut "Ooby Dooby" himself one day earlier, on March 4. If this is correct, the tiny Je-Wel label must have done a real rush job with the record, because by the time Roy rerecorded the song for Sun (March 27, only 23 days later), the record had not only been released, but already attracted the attention of Sam Phillips at Sun. But it is not impossible. Sam issued the Sun version of "Ooby Dooby" in May, after releasing the under-age Orbison from his Je-Wel contract. It peaked at number 59 on Billboard's pop charts and was covered by Janis Martin for RCA. There were later versions by Jerry Lee Lewis (recorded September 1957, but unissued until the early 70s), Matt Lucas and Creedence Clearwater Revival, among others.

Wade and Dick were signed to Sun in September 1956 and had their only joint session on December 16 of that year. The result was the single "Bop Bop Baby"/"Don't Need Your Lovin' Baby" (Sun 269, issued in April 1957), credited to Wade and Dick, the College Kids "Bop Bop Baby", unusual because of its minor key, was used on the soundtrack of the Johnny Cash biopic "Walk The Line", where it is played on the car radio in the spring of 1956, "Don't Need Your Lovin' Baby" is really a solo vehicle for Penner. An alternate version came out under his own name on two different Sun compilations.

Before the single had been released, Penner returned to the Sun studio by himself on February 16, 1957. At least five sides were cut, but only "Cindy Lou" and "Your Honey Love" were released at the time (Sun 282), unfortunately for Penner on the same day, November 3, 1957, as "Great Balls Of Fire", which got all the promotion from Sun. The melody of "Cindy Lou" is remarkable, as it does not have any chord changes. Very few songs are performed in a single chord. The strident guitar player on this track is Don Gilliland. Two other songs from this session, "Fine Little Baby" and "Move Baby Move" were issued on a French bootleg Sun single in the mid-1970s (Sun 615) and in 1995, "Someday Baby" turned up on the CD "Unissued Sun Masters" released on Charly CPCD 8137.

After graduating from college in 1958, Penner went into the Army for six months before resuming school as a graduate student. He stayed with academia. In a sense, walking into a lecture theater is performing as much as stepping onto the stage at the Paramount Theater in Hope, Arkansas, but with little of disappointment that comes from driving hundreds of miles to play for a handful of people.

Dick Penner quickly accepted that he was not cut out for the music business and opted for an academic career instead. He finished up as a Professor of English literature at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville Until he retired in 2000. Since retirement, he has traveled widely. France, Greece, Nova Scotia, the Netherlands, Belgium, and many places in the United States. His last contact with the Phillips family came in 2005 when Sam's son, Knox, called to tell him that ''Bop, Bop Baby'' was to be used in the Johnny Cash biopic, ''Walk The Line''. Meantime, ''Ooby Dooby'', the song that took a few minutes to write on the frat house roof nearly sixty years ago, is still a little oil well in Wade and Dick's back yards.

Looking back on his brief time at Sun, Penner concluded, ''Sam could recognize whether a song was going to be commercial or appealing. For example, I had a tendency to sing ballads in a very sentimental or dreamy way. He wanted something with more of an edge to it. Something sexier. I remember I was sitting on one of the stools in the studio singing a ballad and Sam stopped us and said, 'Imagine you're making love to this woman', but my experience was so limited, it was hard to come up with any scenes you could really call romantic. Sam certainly had a charisma about him. He wasn't one for casual conversation. He was very intense in the studio. I remember he had a purple Cadillac convertible and one night he said, 'Come on, I'll take you back to the house'. He was barefoot and he got into this posh purple convertible. It was such spontaneous music. I read an article recently about a producer who had programmed some music into the computer and he had introduced some errors into the coding so that it would sound more human. That all seems so foreign compared with the time in Sam Phillips' studio''.


COLLEGE KIDS, THE (WADE MOORE) - The story of Wade and Dick had usually been told from Dick Penner's perspective. It's not that Penner ever sought to short-change Wade Moore's contribution, it's more that they worked together only briefly and kept in tough intermittently. As Wade & Dick (The College Kids) they made one record for Sun, in fact, just one record in all. Wade Lee Moore was born in Amarillo, Texas on November 15, 1934. Raised and growing up in Amarillo, Wade enjoyed listening to the Four freshman, the Hi-Lo's, Frankie Lane, Frank Sinatra, and the Four Aces. He decided to attend North Texas State University and studied music.

That's were he met Dick Penner and they became fraternity brothers. A report in campus newspapers said that Moore was singing and playing the ukulele when they met, and had performed in several operettas back in Amarillo. Penner dated their meeting to January 1955. Soon after that initial meeting, Wade and Dick wrote ''Ooby Dooby''.

Wade Moore graduated in 1957 and married Ann Weatherly. He followed his brother's footsteps, entering law school at Baylor, but soon decided that law was not for him. He traveled with Roy Orbison for six months, performing as a supporting act. After Ann became pregnant, Moore settled in Amarillo, working as a stockbroker for seven years. Moving on to Houston, Texas, he launched a company that produced resincoated sand.

Wade Moore and his family lived in Houston for over 40 years, raising two children. He could never quite forget ''Ooby Dooby'' because it kept coming around, but music took a back seat in his live. ''He sang and whistled everywhere he went'', said his daughter, Lane Cowart. ''He took my sister and me to see musicals and concerts of all sorts. He was often asked to sing at weddings, funerals and parties for his friends. He had a beautiful singing voice.

In 1994, Wade Moore joined a church in Houston and sang in the choir for about 12 years. After Moore broke his hip in 2011, he and his wife moved into an assisted living facility in Dallas. His health has declined since this happened, but he and his wife continue to take care of each other. Wade’s love of music didn’t end in Denton, Texas. He continued to have success with his songs being recorded by other bands such as ''Credence Clearwater Revival'' and ''The Traveling Wilbury's''. His songs were also in feature films, ''Star Trek-First Contact'', and ''Walk The Line''. He had a beautiful singing voice and was often asked to sing at weddings, funerals, and parties.

On July 20, 2015, Wade Moore passed away at the age of 80 in Allan, Texas, and is buried on July 30 at Ridgeview Memorial Park in Allan Texas.


COOK, KEN - Rockabilly singer and pianist is almost completely obscure, born on May 13, 1937 at Ranger, Texas. All we know is that Roy Orbison brought him from Texas to Sun Records. Cook had an almost astonishing vocal similarity to Roy, and Sam Phillips was persuaded to issue one single by him on Phillips International.

For his part, Orbison always refused to talk about Cook, leading to speculation that maybe Ken Cook was bonking Roy's girlfriend, Claudette while Roy was on tour.

Ken Cook's "Problem Child" was recorded on September 4, 1958 that also produced Ken's first single ''Crazy Baby'' b/w ''I Was A Fool'' (PI 3534) for Phillips International. To that point, Roy's version of ''Problem Child'' hadn't been released. Ken Cook died on April 27, 2004.


COTTON, JAMES - Born James 'Jimmy'' Cotton in Tunica, Tunica County, Mississippi, on July 1, 1935. His father was a preacher and his mother played the harmonica. Born, raised and worked on a farm as child and singing in the local church in the 1940s.

In 1944, he ran away from home at 14 to live with Sonny Boy Williamson II, (also known as Rice Miller) who taught him to play harmonica and frequently worked on streets, local juke joints, and parties for tips in Tunica, Mississippi.

Worked with Sonny Boy Williams II in Helena, Arkansas at the King Biscuit Time, for KFFA-radio and frequent on tours and working in juke joints through the Mississippi / Arkansas Delta in the late 1940s.

James Cotton occasional worked in bands of Howlin' Wolf, Willie Nix, and others in West Memphis in 1950 and he has been an enduring figure on the blues scene for almost forty years. A journeyman performer, - play drums, play guitar and harmonica - he has worked and recorded constantly and consistently since the early 1950s. James Cotton came from the thriving West Memphis scene, playing on the streets when he was nine or ten years old.

In 1950, Cotton worked with and influenced by Sonny Boy Williamson II at the Be-Bop Hall in West Memphis, Arkansas and assumed leadership of Sonny Boy Williams Band working in local gigs and toured with the band through Tennessee and Arkansas in the early 1950s and worked frequently as single in the local juke joints and clubs in West Memphis. He also appeared with Willie Nix at the Broadway Furniture Store Show on KWEM-radio in West Memphis, frequently appeared on the Hart's Bread Show on KWEM-radio; and worked outside the music in the West Memphis area.

In 1955, Cotton has married and have 2 children. After Sam Phillips started Sun Records, he contacted in 1953 Cotton at KWEM with a view to recordings through 1954. Cotton joined Muddy Waters Band in Memphis and toured, worked and recorded off-and-on with the band out of Chicago from 1954 through 1966.

He frequently worked at the 798 Club Sulvio's and other in Chicago in late 1950s into early 1960s. He appeared with Muddy Waters Band at the Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1959 (portion are released on United Artist label); worked with Muddy Waters at the New Port Jazz Festival in Newport, Rode Island in 1960 (portion are released on the Chess label and portion shown in the film The Subterraneas); he also toured with Muddy Waters Band and working on concert dates through England, Europe in 1961; worked at the British Beaulieu Jazz Festival in London, England in 1961; recorded for Columbia label in London, England in 1961 and worked with the Muddy waters Band at the Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1961; recorded with Otis Spain for the Vanguard label in Chicago, Illinois in 1965; recorded and accompanied to Johnny Young for the Arhoolie label in Chicago, Illinois in 1965, and worked at the Downbeat Jazz Festival in Chicago, Illinois in 1965.

In 1966 James Cotton formed his own band to work in local club dates in Chicago, Illinois; recorded for Loma label in Chicago, Illinois; worked with Mother Blues in Chicago, Illilois in 1966; at the Bowery in Chicago, Illinois in 1966; at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco, California in 1966; at the Folk Music Festival in Berkeley, California in 1967 (portion shown on syndicated TV); recorded for Verve label in New York City in 1967; worked at the Town Hall in New York City in 1967; at the La Cave in Cleveland, Ohio in 1967; the Living End in Detroit, Michigan in 1967; the Grand Ballroom in Detroit, in 1967; at the Second Fret in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1967; the Riverboat in Toronto, Canada in 1967.

In 1968, Cotton appeared at the Fillmore East in New York City; at the Troubadour In Los Angeles, California in 1968; the Loew's King Theater in Brooklyn, New Yersey in 1968; the Cafe A-Go-Go in New York City, New York in 1968; he also performed at the Sky River Rock Festival in Sultan, Washington in 1968; the Fillmore West in San Francisco, California in 1968; recorded for the Vanguard label in San Francisco, California in 1968; worked at the Kaleidoscope in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1968, the Miami Pop Festival in Hallandale, Florida in 1968.

In 1969 Cotton appeared at the The Eagles in Seattle, Washington; appeared on Hugh Hefner's "Playboy After Dark" for WOR-TV in New York City in 1969 (syndicated); worked at the The Felt Forum in New York City in 1969 and worked with Muddy Waters at the Auditorium in Chicago, Illinois in 1969; the International Pop Festival in Lewisvilly, Texas in 1969; the Sky River Rock Festival in Tenino, Washington in 1969; at the State University of New York in Buffalo, New Yersey in 1969; at the Colonial Tavern in Toronto, Canada in 1969-70, the Ann Arbor Blues Festival, Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1969; at the Jazz Workshop in Boston, Massachusetts in 1969-70; worked with Muddy Waters Band in Ungano's, New York City in 1969.

In 1970, James Cotten appeared at the Dial M For Music on CBS-TV; worked at the Pepper's Lounge in Chicago, Illinois in 1970 to 1972; at the Blue Flame Lounge in Chicago, Illinois in 1970-71; at the Lennie's in Boston, Massachusetts in 1970-72; the Town Hall in New York City in 1970; recorded for Capitol label in Los Angeles, California in the early 1970s; worked at the Coq D'or in Toronto, Canada in 1971, the Kileinhan's Music Hall in Buffalo, New Yersey in 1971; at the University of Detroit, Michigan in 1972; the Esquire Showbar in Montreal, Canada in 1972; appeared in the UK film short "Playing The Thing" in 1972; worked at the Siena Col Blues Festival in Memphis, Tennessee in 1972; at Joe's Place in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1972; the Good Rockin' Lounge in Chicago, Illinois in 1972, and the Central Park Music Festival in New York City in 1973.

In 1973, Cotton toured with Muddy Waters Band at the Auditorium in Chicago, Illinois; the Theresa's Lounge in Chicago, Illinois in 1973 to 1974; the Grendel's Lair Coffeehouse in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1973; the Avery Fisher Hall in New York City in 1973, the La Bastille in Houston, Texas in 1973; the Paul's Mall in Houston, Texas in 1973, the Shaboo Inn in Mansfield, Connecticut in 1973; Sandy's in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1973-74.

In 1974-75, Cotton appeared at the Main Point in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania; at the Monterrey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California in 1974; the Last Change Saloon in Poughkeepsie, New York in 1974; the Checkerboard Lounge in Chicago, Illinois in 1974; the Electric Ballroom in Atlanta, Georgia in 1974, at the University of Houston, Texas in 1974; the Pepper's Hideout in Chicago, Illinois in 1974; the Sweet Queen Bee's in Chicago, Illinois in 1974; the Rainbow Room in Detroit, Michigan in 1974; recorded for the Buddah label in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1974; at the Waster concert Cocao Beach, Florida in 1974; performed at the Convention Centerin Dallas, Texas in 1974; at the Mondavi Winery Summer Festival in Oakville, California in 1975.

In 1975, James Cotton toured with Johnny Winter and working on concert dates across the United States in 1975 and worked with Johnny Winter at the Spectrum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1975; recorded for the Biddah label in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1975; worked at the Boston Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1975; performed at the Aquarius Tavern in Seattle, Washington in 1975; the Ratso's in Chicago, Illinois in 1975-76; at Peyton Place in Chicago, Illinois in 1975; the Keystone in Berkeley, California in 1975-19 76; at the Bottom Line in New York City, New York in 1975-76; the Sophie's in Palo Alto, California in 1976; worked at My Father's Place in Roslyn, New York in 1976; in Max's Kansas City in New York City, New York in 1976; at the Outside Inn in Buffalo, New Yersey in 1976; at the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California in 1976; recorded with Muddy Waters for the Blue Sky label in Westport, Connecticut in 1976; worked at the Palladium in New York City, New York in 1977; at the Elliot's Nest in Rochester, New York in 1977.

James Cotton toured with Muddy Waters Band and Johnny Winter working at concert, college dates across the United States in 1977; worked in Ivanhoe in Chicago, Illinois in 1977; at the Liberty Hall in Houston, Texas in 1977; and the Belle Starr in Buffalo, New York in 1977. James Cotton is one of the better live performers in the blues and he is still active in Chicago and currently make records for Alligator Records.

After battling throat cancer in the late 1990s, James Cotton stopped singing. In 2008, he and Ben Harper inducted Little Walter into the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame. His latest recordings appeared on Allogator Records in 2010. He has considerably pared back his touring schedule, but for many, many years James Cotton came to a town (or a country) near you.

James ''Jimmy'' Cotton died at a medical center in Austin, Texas from pneumonia on March 16, 2017 at the age of 81. (CE)


CUNNINGHAM, BUDDY BLAKE - Originally born in 1919 and raised in Jackson, Mississippi, Buddy Blake Cunningham had a career as a minor league pitcher to concentrate on singing. Instead he pitched himself as a vocalist, albeit in the style of forties' crooner, Rus Morgan. Using a song from Lew Douglas, an arranger who had once worked with Tommy Dorsey in his hometown of Chicago, Cunningham cut his own master and sold tapes to Sun.

In July 1954 he was living in Memphis very close to Sam Phillips, and he was the closest thing to a star on the Sun roster that month too. His Valley recording of "Angels In The Sky", which, like this record, was also directed by Cliff Parman had been a good regional seller earlier in 1954.

The first Phillips International release extended the Sun career of Buddy Blake Cunningham. Blake had been last heard from three years earlier on Sun 208, a record most collectors remember with a shudder. The deservedly rare "Right Or Wrong" b/w "Why Do I Cry" makes most short lists for the least favorite and most anomalous early Sun release. For whatever reason, Blake's style held considerable appeal for Sam Phillips, who worked overtime with the local singer, scheduling sessions at 706 Union in March, April, May and June 1957. Blake left more that a dozen unissued sides from these dates which a quarter of a century of Sun archaeologists have never deemed worthy of resurrection. "Right Or Wrongly", Buddy Blake has never been the poster boy for Sun record collectors.

Still, Sam Phillips gave Buddy a second kick at the can on Phillips International in 1957, and Buddy's son, B.B., went on to become a luminary in the local scene as a member of the Hombress. Buddy himself went on to start a collection agency which may have repo'd the automobiles of several members of the Sun rooster. After his final session at 706 Union, the by now well-versed Blake departed to set up his own Cover Records operation in Memphis from the downtown Exchange Building in 1959.

Assisted by his son Blake Baker, who became a jack of all trades for the label: singer, songwriter, session player, producer and general handyman. One of the first records on Cover was B.B.'s "Trip To Band Stand" (Cover 5931), an obvious cash-in on Bill Parsons's "All American Boy". Credited to simply "B-B", it was one of the few vocal Cover releases by Cunningham Jr., who had six 45s issued on his father's label between early 1959 and 1962. Of the instrumental tracks, the one is like the best is "Ivory Marbles", a pleasant piano rocker, which has been reissued on several compilations. "Beale Street Twist" (Cover 4622, 1962) was credited to Lyn Vernon, apparently a pseudonym of Cunningham. By then, Cunningham Jr. had taken over the running of the label from his father after his death in 2000.

During its 7-year lifespan, Cover Records issued rock and roll, rockabilly, rhythm and blues, jazz and straight pop, virtually all by local Memphis artists. A nice overview of the label's output can be found on the CD "Hot Rockin' Music - From Memphis: The Cover Recording Company Story", issued by Dave Travis in 2000 (Stomper Time STCD 10). It includes 13 tracks by B.B. (Junior, that is.) Probably the best known Cover release is "Ain't That A Dilly" by Marlon Grisham, which is available on countless compilations.


DAMON, JIMMY – was born on April 27, 1938, Jimmy Demopoulos in Memphis, Tennessee, was son of a Greek immigrant, Nick Demopoulos, who ran the local American Legion 24-hour restaurant in Memphis about a mile from the birthplace of the Stax Records soul label. Damon met local entertainers such as Elvis Presley, Stax singer Rufus Thomas, and Johnny Cash at the cafe. His father's best friend was Wallace E. Johnson, founder of the Holiday Inn hotel chain. Lots of people stay at Holiday Inn.

Jimmy Demopoulos had his first success at 14 when he recorded the teen ballad "If I Had My Way" b/w ''Hopeless Love'' (PI 3537) for Phillips International records in Memphis. Local bandleader Bill Justis - who had his own hit in 1957 with "Raunchy", heard Demopoulos sing and recommended the teenager to Sun Records founder Sam Phillips. The late Charlie Rich played piano on his session.

At the age of 16, he co-hosted a regional TV show and dance party called "The Big Beat''. By 1957 Demopoulos had his own fan club. It consisted mostly of teenage girls. They came up with a motto: Push Demop to the top. He thought Chicago could take him to the top. Jimmy changed his name from Demopoulos to Damon in 1968, and left Memphis for Chicago three years later. Damon says, "At one time Chicago was the greatest one-night city in America. All the conventions were here. Things were still alive''.

Damon is a saloon singer, nice and easy. And no one does it better. Jimmy Damon is proud to be a saloon singer. He has been gigging around Chicago since 1971, when dim candles and long playing records still stood for something. Damon has played the Empire Room.

When Damon arrived in Chicago, one of his first gigs was at the, now defunct, Cousin's Club, a 1970s nightspot for subterranean swingers in the basement of Benihana of Tokyo, 166 E. Superior. Damon sang pop covers of Lou Rawls' "Lady Love" and Peter, Paul and Mary's "Leavin' on a Jet Plane." Alan King and Count Basie are a couple of the big shooters who would drop into the Cousin's Club when they were in town. Damon played the room for three years. This is where he learned to become a singer.

Jimmy Demopoulos or Damon, the popular fixture on Chicago’s cabaret and nightlife scene, died on Saturday April 27, 2013 on his 75th birthday at the Rush University Medical Center’s Horizon Hospice Care Unit in Chicago. According to Jimmy's daughter, Dana Damon-Trentadue, her father had been afflicted by a rare blood disease, something that strikes ''one in a million'', that eventually attacked his heart and caused his death. Damon was a saloon singer, nice and easy. And no one does it better.


DEBERRY, JIMMY - Long time associate of Walter Horton, recorded in 1939 for Vocalion. Although an important member of the Memphis blues scene little known of him bar the fact that he only had one leg on Sun Records.

Jimmy DeBerry was born in Gumwood, Arkansas, on November 11, 1917, the youngest of three sons of Savannah Ford and Albert DeBerry Sr. Deberry spent most of his pre-teen years just south of Memphis in Holly Springs, Mississippi.

He always wanted to be a musician, an achievement made easier when in 1926 he moved to Memphis to live with his aunt Leola. He took up the ukule and hung around Will Shade and various members of the Memphis Jug Band, as well as Jack Kelly, leader of the rival South Memphis Band, and Frank Stokes, one of the patriarchs of Memphis blues.

In the spring of 1934, while staying with his brother Albert, he lost his lower right leg in a train accident. When he returned to Memphis, he took up the banjo and studied music with violinist Lilly McAdoo, whilst holding down jobs as a porter and dishwasher at the Peabody Hotel. That may have been the location of the recordings he made for the American Record Company (ARC) in July 1939 as Jimmy DeBerry and his Memphis Playboys after Deberry became friends with Jack Kelly and Little Buddy Doyle.

Exempted from war service, DeBerry gigged around Memphis with Lilly McAdoo and even played hillbilly music for Memphis's Boss Crump before he moved to St. Louis in 1942 and remained there until the early 1950s, when he relocated to Jackson, Tennessee. He became one of a number of musicians who broadcasting over WDIA and KWEM as a member of Willie Nix's band.

Presumably, it was this work that brought him to Sam Phillips' notice. He and Walter Horton, accompanied by Houston Stokes on drums, recorded "Easy"/"Before Long" (SUN 180) in February 1953. Sam Phillips recorded DeBerry again the following May with pianist Mose Vinson and drummer Raymond Jones, from which "Take A Little Chance"/"Time Has Made A Chance" were issued on SUN 185.

For the rest of the 1950s, DeBerry moved around the country before settling in Sikeston, Missouri in 1960 where he did field work. After a year-long search, Steve LaVere located him there in 1972 and brought him to Memphis for some festival appearances, and he and Walter Horton recorded together once again. The results were issued on two Crosscut albums in 1989. Jimmy DeBerry returned to Sikeston, where he died on January 17, 1985. His total recorded output amounted to five-and-a-half singles, and three unissued songs, all of them with the low-key plaintive charm that has almost disappeared from the blues. (CE)


DEE, JEAN (UPDATE) - You might not recognize the name Jean Dee, but you still might have heard her voice. She was born Yvonne McGowan on Christmas Day in Oklahoma and has recorded and performed under a variety of many different names and genres. Some of the different names she has used include Yvonne O'Day, Vonnie Taylor, Vonnie Mack, Jean Dee and Yvonne DeVaney, which she still uses today. At the age of two, she began singing and yodelling, and by 11 she won a contest playing classical piano. She also played guitar and bass.

While still in high school, she teamed up with her sister Mary, with Yvonne playing guitar and Mary on accordion, and had a duet song and tap dancing act. They performed with Roy Rogers and Trigger once!

Some of the labels she's worked with include Capitol Records, Columbia Records, Decca Records, Phillips International, Spar Records, King Records, Chart Records, Compo Records and for her own YMD Music Group, which she founded. If that sounds like she really gets around, she does! But, by recording for all those different labels, she got to perform with a variety of artists. Some of those include Merle Lindsay's Western Swing Band, Red Foley, Pee Wee King, Minnie Pearl, Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys, Tommy Duncan, The Anita Kerr Singers and a former featured artist here on Music For Every Mood, The Jordanaires, who back her on today's song. If you listen closely, you can tell it's their trademark sound!

Her biggest claim to fame would probably be her songwriting talents. She's written songs that have been recorded by Dean Martin, Vic Dana, Pat Boone, Billy Walker, Dottie West, Wanda Jackson, Bonnie Guitar, Hank Snow, The Hardin Trio, Carl and Pearl Butler, The Wilburn Brothers and The Cheltenham Singers, out of England.

Some of the many songs she's recorded herself, under different names, include ''Snowflakes'', ''I Just Want To Be With You'', ''Love Is A Gamble'', Does It Hurt You To Remember'', ''I Live For You'', ''Please Forgive Me'', ''Blue Mountain Waltz'', ''Slowly I'm Losing You'', ''Open Arms'', ''If You Don't Somebody Else Will'', ''Sweethearts On Parade'', ''My Greatest Hurt'', ''Step Into My World'', ''Dim The Car Lights'', ''Pick Me Up On Your Way Down'', ''Teach Me To Live Without You'' and ''Tell Me A Lie'', among countless others. She's enjoyed a very full recording career!

She has received a BMI Citation of Achievement Award for her writing and holds the honorary Commission Rank of Commodore in the Oklahoma Navy. Some of her latest releases include The Yvonne DeVaney Collection of 2003.


ED DETTENHEIM (ED HALL) - Born in Shreveport on February 23, 1934, Dettenheim took up guitar and then bass. He learned to play left handed first and switched to right, but he was never great a lead player, simply he could not move that picking with his right hand fast like flatpickers, but he could put harmony and rhythm to anything a picker could play. Dettenheim took the name Eddie Hall and Thomas Givens took the name Tommy Blake. "As to why he picked the name Blake I can only guess", said Hall. "Tommy was broadcast literate.

A single sylable last name that makes a harsh auditory impact makes for easy recall. Blake's sure makes a more lasting first impression than a flowing two-sylable name like Givens. Tommy would have been very much aware and into stuff like that. He was the best salesman I ever knew. He just couldn't stop selling unless I intervened", said Dettenheim. Ed Hall went to Louisiana Sociology University to work toward a degree in psychiatric social work. Hall later worked as a superintendent of several state institutions for the developmentally challenged.


DICKINSON, JIM - born as James Luther Dickinson in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 15, 1941, was an American record producer, pianist, and singer who fronted, among others, the Memphis based band, Mudboy & The Neutrons. Jim Dickinson moved to Memphis, Tennessee at an early age. After attending school at Baylor University, he returned to Memphis and played on recording sessions for Bill Justis, and at Chips Moman's American Studios.

Dickinson recorded what has been called the last great record on the Sun label, "Cadillac Man" b/w "My Babe" by the Jesters, playing piano and singing lead on both sides, even though he was not an actual member of the group. In the late 1960s, Dickinson joined with fellow Memphis musicians Charlie Freeman, Michael Utley, Tommy McClure and Sammy Creason; this group became known as the "Dixie Flyers" and provided backup for musicians recording for Atlantic Records.

Perhaps their best-known work was for Aretha Franklin's 1970 ''Spirit In The Dark''. In December 1969, Dickinson played piano on The Rolling Stones' track "Wild Horses" at Muscle Shoals Sound Studio in Alabama, although it wasn't released until 1971, and in that year on Flamin' Groovies' album Teenage Head. In 1972 Dickinson released his first solo album, "Dixie Fried", which featured songs by Bob Dylan, Furry Lewis, and the title song by Carl Perkins.

In the 1970s he became known as a producer, recording Big Star's Third in 1974, as well as serving as co-producer with Alex Chilton on the 1979 Chilton album Like Flies on Sherbert. He has produced Willy DeVille, Green on Red, Mojo Nixon, Neon Wheels, Jason & The Nashville Scorchers, The Replacements, Tav Falco's Panther Burns, and Screamin' Jay Hawkins, among many others, and in 1977 an aural documentary of Memphis' Beale Street, Beale Street Saturday Night, which featured performances by Sid Selvidge, Furry Lewis and Dickinson's band Mud Boy and the Neutrons. He has also worked with Ry Cooder, and played on Dylan's album Time Out of Mind. In 1998, he produced Mudhoney's, Tomorrow Hit Today.

His sons Luther and Cody, who played on his 2002 solo effort ''Free Beer Tomorrow'', and the 2006 Jungle Jim and the Voodoo Tiger, have achieved success on their own as the North Mississippi Allstars.

Dickinson also made a recording with Pete (Sonic Boom) Kember of Spacemen 3 fame. "Indian Giver" was released in 2008 by Birdman Records under the name of Spectrum Meets Captain Memphis, with Captain Memphis, obviously, referring to Dickinson.

In 2007 Dickinson played with the Memphis-based rock band, Snake Eyes. The band, formed by Memphis musician Greg Roberson (former Reigning Sound drummer), featured Jeremy Scott (also from the Reigning Sound), Adam Woodard, and John Paul Keith. While the band disbanded in October 2008, Dickinson and Roberson went on to form another Memphis group, Ten High & the Trashed Romeos. This band included Jake and Toby Vest (of Memphis band The Bulletproof Vests) and Adam Hill. Ten High & the trashed Romeos recorded two albums, the first including all original compositions written by Dickinson and the band. The second album consists entirely of covers of 1960's Memphis Garage Rock songs.

Jim Dickinson died on August 15, 2009 at Methodist Extended Care Hospital in Memphis following triple bypass heart surgery.


DIXIELAND DRIFTERS, THE – were a group of young bluegrass-based musicians who operated out of the Chattanooga area. They made several records between 1958 and 1961 on the BB and Do-Ra-Me labels of Nashville and Hap Records of Chattanooga, but their first recordings were the two songs they recorded for Sun Records in 1957. The Drifters have remained a little-feted outfit and would have been less so were it not for the fact that their Dobro player Norman Blake went on to become a renowned guitar picker in the folk and Americana end of the country music world.

Norman Blake was born in Chattanooga and raised in Sulphur Springs, Georgia where he still lives. He started on country radio very young after quitting school at sixteen in 1954. That year he played mandolin in a duo on WDOD (Wonderful Dynamo Of Dixie) in Chattanooga.

By 1956 he had helped from the Dixieland Drifters with banjo player Robert ''Bob'' Johnson and they worked the WNOX Tennessee Barn Dance show in Knoxville and for a time were based in Rome, Georgia. In 1957 they had some guest spots on the Grand Ole Opry and they were photographed that year performing on Ernest Tubb's Midnite Jamboree show in Nashville with essentially the same line-up that came to Memphis in February 1957. On Sun, the band comprised Norman Blake (dobro), Robert Johnson (guitar/banjo), Harold Bradford (fiddle/guitar), Cecil Powell (mandolin), and Howell ''Hal'' Culpepper (vocal). It appears that they came to Sun to work with Jack Clement, himself a former bluegrass musician. This was apparently their first recording work and to their folky, acoustic sound Clement added the drumbeat of Sun session man Jimmy Van Eaton. Clement obviously heard a sound in his head but although several takes were made of ''I'm Gonna Find Her'' and ''Maybe Tomorrow'', these sides were never scheduled for release and it is possible that Sam Phillips never heard them. They remain just one of the very many examples of the demos and demo-plus standard session tapes that remained in the Sun vaults.

The Drifters continued as a group through the late 1950s and early 1960s but Blake and Johnson also worked with fellow Chattanooga musician Walter Forbes as The Lonesome Travelers, appearing on the Opry and recording for RCA. The Drifters recordings also featured singer ''Houston'' Buck Turner delivering such titles as ''How Big A Fool'' and ''Uncle John's Bongoes''. Norman Blake went on to make over thirty albums and to appear as a star picker with the likes of Johnny Cash, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and Alison Kraus. His music was featured in the movie ''Oh Brother, Where Art Thou''. (MH)


DOBBINS, JOSEPH & THE FOUR CRUISERS - It's still far from certain that Joseph Dobbins recorded his solitary Chess single in Sam Phillips' studio, but it's beyond dispute that Dobbins was a fixture on the Memphis scene for decades, rarely leaving town. True, there's no documentation to suggest that Phillips recorded Dobbins, but there are plenty of other recordings on Sun and other labels supposedly produced by Phillips for which no documentation exists.

Like Louis Jordan, Joseph Dobbins was born in Brinkley, Arkansas. The presumed date is September 9, 1909, some fifteen months after Jordan. The son of devout Christians, Dobbins (Dobbin on his Chess 78) grew up in Brinkley, but the bright lights of Memphis were just seventy miles away.

''I was learning church music'', he told Jack Hurley and Harry Godwin in 1967, ''but that didn't move me. After the first World War, I came to Memphis. It was wide open. If you could play any kinda blues at all, you had a job. First job I had in Memphis was playing at the Chicago House from dusk until dawn, seven nights a week for $3.40 a week. Then a real nice roadhouse at Beale and Hernando raised me to five dollars. Big dance floor, a small side room for sandwiches, a card room, and a larger room for dominoes and craps tables. That was about 1925 or 1926''.

After a stint as a bus washer for the Memphis Street Railway, Dobbins became a mechanic before getting injured and returning to music after Prohibition was repealed. ''I quit again in 1939'', he said. ''Told myself I'd never play no more. I went to work, learning to be a real good waiter''. He claimed to have written the songs on his Chess single in 1942 or 1943, although 1952 0r 1953 seems likelier. After the single came out, he quit playing once again and became a waiter. ''Later'', he said, ''in my off time, I went to work at the Gayoso Hotel and I had a chance to practise quite a bit, and I started playing again and I played up to about four years ago (1963)''.

When Hurley and Godwin interviewed Dobbins, he was playing again in clubs around town, but insisted that he would return to sacred music. In June 1970, he recorded for Adelphi's ''Memphis Blues Again'' LP, and recorded again in October, but died that December.

Neither as original nor as earthy as the Delta musicians who came to Sam Phillips' doorstep, Dobbins hands us a little audio snapshot of what you might have heard at a Beale Street club between midnight and dawn sometime between the wars. (CE)


DONN, LARRY - was born as Larry Gillihan Donn in Bono, Craighead County, Arkansas, on June 7, 1941, the only child of Leonard Edison "Edd" and Sybil Baugh Gillihan. He attended the Bono School and in the early 1950's, he heard his first rockabilly music from Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Sonny Burgess, and Billy Lee Riley as they performed around the Northeast Arkansas area. Larry Donn (the name he recorded and performed under), decided it was time he got in on the act, so he formed his first band in 1957 at the ripe old age of 16. In 1958, Larry Donn and his band made several recordings for Sun Records but nothing was issued today.

In 1959 he recorded a song called "Honey Bun" which was released on the Vaden label, out of Trumann, Arkansas. "Honey Bun" and the flip side, "That's What I Call a Ball", were regional jukebox hits, but have since become rockabilly standards performed by musicians all over the world. In the 1980's, Europe rediscovered American rockabilly music and rockabilly discovered a whole new audience. Larry Donn became very well-known in Europe for his 1950's rock and roll recordings. Beginning in 1989, he toured in England, Germany, France, and Sweden nine times, performing for thousands of fans. Today his CDs are sold worldwide. An Original 45 rpm record of "Honey Bun/That's What I Call a Ball" on the Vaden Label fetches up to $2,500, and is in the "top twenty" of most collectible rock and roll records.

In the 1960s Larry Donn worked as a radio announcer at KNEA in Jonesboro, Arkansas, KLCN in Blytheville, Arkansas, KTMN in Trumann, Arkansas, and WBSR in Pensacola, Florida. He also worked at KAIT-TV in Jonesboro, Arkansas, as a news anchor. Larry Donn released 5 albums and several 45 rpm records in his lifetime. In the 1970's and 2980's he toured the United States, playing NCO clubs at military bases all over the country. In his later years, Larry Donn played piano in Billy Lee Riley's band, until Riley's death in 2009. Larry Donn also wrote a column, "Rockabilly Days", in the leading American Roots Music ublication from the United Kingdom, called "Now Dig This", for 17 years. By L. J. Gillihan, with credit to Mark Randall. Larry Don Gillihan died on May 1, 2012 in his hometown Bono, Arkansas at the age of 71.


DORMAN, HAROLD - Harold Kenneth Dorman was born on December 23, 1926 in Drew, Mississippi, was an American rock and roll singer and songwriter. Dorman's music career began when he left the army in 1955.

His first sessions were recorded for the legendary Sun Records in 1957, but were never released. Two years later Dorman was signed to Rita Records, owned by former Sun artist Billy Riley and guitarist Roland Janes, who had played with Jerry Lee Lewis.

Dorman's first single was his own "Mountain Of Love", one of five tracks he recorded at the Hi Records studios in Memphis. The record started to sell well in Georgia, at which point strings were added to the master tape and it was re-released. The single ultimately reached number 21 in 1960.

Dorman continued to record for Rita for another year; then he recorded again for Sun Records until 1962, but failed to produce any further chart hits. In 1964 Johnny Rivers recorded "Mountain Of Love" and took it to number 9 in the Billboard charts. Dorman's only other notable success came when country singer Charley Pride cut his "Mississippi Cotton Picking Delta Town". Pride also covered "Mountain Of Love". Though it was Dorman's only hit record, it proved to be a popular song for covers like Johnny Rivers, and Ronnie Dove all hit the U.S. chart with the song, and it was also recorded by Bruce Springsteen, The Beach Boys, Tommy Cash, and Narvel Felts. Although disabled by two strokes in 1984 Dorman continued writing songs and, in 1988 Harold Dorman died on October 8 at the age of 61. (Bear Family Records posthumously reissued an album of Dorman's recordings in 1999.)


DOUGLAS, SHY GUY - Was from Franklin, Tennessee and worked as a singer and musician in and around Nashville, mostly while holding down a day job in catering and transport. He had no known link to Memphis other than a box of session tape containing the three songs included and an association with promoter Red Wortham, the man who connected the Prisonaires with Sun in the weeks before June 1953. Douglas's recordings were dated June 1953, and either Douglas went to Memphis to record or Wortham carried his tape to Memphis around the time he accompanied the Prisonaires there.

Thomas Douglas was born on November 8, 1919 and worked as a cook on the railroads before and after a stint in the Army in the 1940s. He worked in the stockyards for a while, and later catered at several Nashville restaurants. He learned to play harmonica during quiet moments on the railroad and in the 1950s and 1960s apparently spent a lot of time with DeFord Bailey Jr., son of the harmonica player from the Grand Ole Opry, playing local 'jigs', where musicians from many different bands got together for impromptu jam sessions.

People who remembered him said he was a singer and harmonica player. One person said he played piano but this was not confirmed by his wife, Johnnie, though she said he did take his ''Shy Guy'' moniker after he started to sing Nat Cole's hit record of 1945, ''I'm A Shy Guy''.

Douglas first recorded in 1949 for Wortham at the Bulleit studio on Nashville's Broadway. His ''Raid On Cedar Street'' was tested on Delta Records and quickly leased to MGM who hoped to sell as many copies as the song it was modelled on, Louis Jordan's then-current hit ''Saturday Night Fish Fry''. Described as a small, neat man, Douglas was primarily a singer during the Delta/MGM period, working at the New Era and the Revillot clubs. He worked with a pianist named Richard Armstrong who featured on his MGM disc. Tom Douglas also traveled with the Bijou-based Jerry Jackson Revue, which operated as a kind of tent show with music, dancers, comedians, and a carnival, in residence six weeks a year in Hot Springs, Arkansas, during horse-racing season. Red Wortham spotted him at the Bijou Theater and acted as his manager and promoter while he played clubs all through the surrounding area; the two became what Johnnie Douglas described as ''best buddies... he was white, but if you're musicians, you're family''. Johnnie was a hairdresser and the Douglas house became known as a stopping off point for musicians; ''if they needed their hair fixed or they were in Nashville and down on their luck they had a place to stay with us''. Johnnie remembered Tom bringing home B.B. King, Joe Turner, Billy Eckstine and many others including Little Richard - ''Tom let him sleep in the hair parlor and he would get me to press and curl his hair just like a girl''.

In the spring of 1953, Douglas recorded for Nashville's Excello label, coming into their studio as part of a package with the Kid King Combo. His recordings included ''Detroit Arrow'' and ''New Memphis Blues'', a song written by Red Wortham and which Wortham said had been recorded for Sun although no trace of it has been found. The Excello disc appeared in May 1953 and it may be that Wortham pitched a demo session he had already recorded to Sun, featuring Douglas with a pianist and guitarist in support, when he realised his protege had taken himself off to another label. The pianist on the Sun tapes may have been Richard Armstrong, a record dealer in Nashville remembered ''an old black guy, fairly articulate'', telling him in about 1990 that he had been the piano player with Shy Guy Douglas when they ''made a session for Sun''.

Thomas Douglas recorded for Carlvert and other Nashville labels through the 1950s and 1960s including Red Wortham's Sur-Speed. He retained a day job, though, and was about to retire from his State employment in transportation when he died in Nashville on October 16, 1984. (MH)


DORY, HUNKY (CHESTER MCDOWELL) - Hunky Dory was the copyrighted name of a popular disc jockey on Memphis radio station WLOK during the 1950s. During his peak years, the part of Hunky Dory was played by disc jockey-promoter-entertainer-entrepreneur Chester McDowell. McDowell, originally from Beaumont, Texas, was part of a growing tradition of disc jockey personalities (men like the more famous Dewey Phillips) who entertained their listeners with far more than pale patter between discs.

McDowell, who studied music in high school and sang gospel quartets as a young man, was a World War II veteran who was working on radio in Shreveport, Louisiana in 1951 when Dewey Phillips was developing his reputation in Memphis.

Integration of radio audiences was a lot further along than what went on in the outside world. The music you listened to in the privacy of your own home was nobody's business but your own. When no one was watching, whites, especially young whites, could enjoy Rosco Gordon or B.B. King's music, for example. The flipside was also true; a surprising number of blacks gathered around their radios to savor the charms of Elvis Presley. Musical barriers were tumbling in Memphis. There were two radio stations that catered to a largely black audience in the Tristate area: WDIA and WLOK. WLOK typically served the younger demographic. Their parents' generation was more likely to listen to WDIA. This is not to say that WDIA was staid or unhip; with characters like Rufus Thomas manning the microphones, there was still plenty of energy being broadcast from dawn to dusk.

Enter Chester McDowell aka Hunky Dory, who became a stalwart of WLOK from 1952 through 1958. But McDowell wanted more than Djing. When he got his hands and ears on the youthful group heard on these tapes, dollar signs flashed before his eyes. At the least, a record contract for the group seemed a possibility with McDowell as manager. But even that wasn't enough for the flamboyant McDowell who was interested in more than managing. McDowell also saw himself as a vocalist, if he could just find himself some backing voices. Maybe this quartet, whose strong vocalizing we hear on these demos, was just what the doctor ordered.

In late 1957 and early 1958 Sun Records seemed the best local destination for his efforts. McDowell a prominent disc jockey and Sam Phillips, a prominent record label owner, were well aware of each other. Remember, just 3-4 short years earlier, in pre-Elvis days, Sun had been a big time player in the rhythm and blues market. Even in its post-Elvis days, Sun Records had a national reputation. True, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, and Jerry Lee Lewis seemed a long way from black quartets, but it was still worth a try. Sam Phillips was making money and making stars. Why shouldn't Chester McDowell get himself a piece of the pie?

It's here that our sleuth work hits a wall. Just who was this tight little quartet we hear on these demos? There are many possibilities but nothing certain except that this quartet was steeped in the gospel tradition but were not averse to crossing the line into pop. They could be one of the second tier (younger) Memphis quartets – the Jubilee Hummingbirds or the Heavenly Echoes perhaps. Most mainstream gospel quartets had as a matter of course ''junior versions'' of themselves, up and coming singers who knew their repertoires and could step in when the need arose if the first tenor became sick or had to take a night (or a week) off. The Hunky Dory quartet could have been such an aggregation – maybe linked to the Sunset Travelers or the Southern Wonders who had recorded for Duke. Peacock but were off the road by now. Then again, another Memphis disc jockey, Dick Cole, known as ''Cane'' because a bout of polio had left him using a walking stick, made records for Modern in the early 1950s and subsequently promoted a group called the 4 Canes, sometimes known as the 4 Kings, that recorded in Memphis on Stompertime, Stax, M.O.C and Goldwax between 1957 and 1966. A group called the Veltones made an unissued session at Sun around 1958 and according to Rob Bowman's research were the same group as the Canes. Any of these could have shared members with Hunky Dory.

Whoever the younger singers were who joined Chester McDowell on the Sun tapes as Hunky Dory, their audition began with ''I Wonder Why'' and ''I Want My Baby Back'', if the sequence on the tape box is to believed. When pressed for more material, it seems likely that the group reverted to several gospel standards that would have been familiar fare when they sang together on Tuesday night in one of their homes, or on Wednesday night or Sunday morning in church. Then, at a separate session, two new songs were recorded with instrumental accompaniment.

Before the Sun sessions could come to anything, the Memphis World reported at the end of July 1958: ''Hunky Dory Quits WLOK For Houston Radio Post. This city's most popular disc jockey, Chester Hunky Dory McDowell resigned radio station WLOK Wednesday and left for Houston, Texas, where he will have a similar post at KYOK there''.

When he got to Houston, McDowell lost little time in demoing many of the same songs, perhaps using the same quartet, for Duke/Peacock Records. Apparently label owner Don Robey was more impressed with the package than Sam Phillips had been and gave McDowell a recording contract. It is likely that, as a blues/gospel disc jockey, McDowell would have had a history of business dealings with Robey and McDowell may have been someone Robey wanted to keep in his good graces. Although Robey was in the business of selling gospel quartets on his Peacock label, he focused McDowell on a more bluesy, soulful sound and McDowell's first release appeared on Duke 302 (Robey's secular affiliate label). It featured ''I Wonder Why'', which can be heard here in its original demo form. The flipside, ''Baby Don't Leave Me'', is also heard here as a Sun demo. A later McDowell release appeared on Duke 316 but featuring two non- Hunky Dory songs. Note that the Duke records were credited to Chester McDowall and neither mentioned the name Hunky Dory which, as we noted earlier, remained the property of WLOK in Memphis.

As Chet McDowell, our man was featured in Billboard's DJ Spotlight in 1965 by which time he was well settled in Houston, married with four children, and apparently past his days as an aspiring singer. (CE) (MH)


DULING, ''GUITAR RED'' VINCENT – In an unusual reversal of migratory trends, guitarist Vincent Duling was born in Illinois and ended his days in Memphis. When researcher Bob Eagle interviewed him in 1972 he was living in Lawton, Oklahoma and working clubs with pianist Dennis Binder. Duling said he'd been born in Chicago on September 2, 1931 (his parents were Norris Duling and Alberta Brown) and had known other future guitar stylist Earl Hooker and Bo Diddley as he grew up.

He said he'd ''been playing guitar in Jewtown since the age of 11'' and was playing Sonny's Show Lounge at 51 Street and Peoria, billed as ''Guitar Red'', when he met Binder in the early 1950s and the two decided to work together. Guitar Red played some sessions at Chess including unreleased recordings with Binder and drummer Bob Prindell.

In May 1955 Red and Prindell were on Binder's recording of ''The Long Man'' for United Records along with Raymond Hill and Bobby Fields. Binder was in the habit of traveling South to play and he, Red and Prindell would normally stop at Sun Records on the way. On one occasion, Sam Phillips decided to record the Binder group with Guitar Red as both vocalist and bent-note guitar stylist. No record was forthcoming but Red continued to play clubs and recording sessions. He was on Billy Emerson's 1959 Chess recordings. In the 1960s he formed a soul-based band with Binder called the Versatile All Stars and then stayed out west with Binder and Prindell. It is unclear when and why he moved to Memphis but he died there in March 2001. (MH)


DYCKE (DYKE), JERRY - Gerald C. Dyche was Manager of the Holiday Inn in Topeka, Kansas in 1968 when he sent a demo tape to Sam Phillips in Memphis. As Jerry Dyke, he was also resident entertainer at the Inn, specialising in an uptown form of country music. His show was based on the music of Elvis Presley and Glen Campbelll. ''I think the most dramatic moment in my career was Sam Phillips calling me on the phone and asking me to record for him. To me, it was like hearing from Cecil B. DeMillie if I'd been trying to get into movies'', recalled Dycke.

Phillips had telephoned in his capacity as President of Holiday Inn Records at a time when the company had the idea of promoting selected Holiday Inn cabaret artists as recording stars. The experiment did not come off, but Dycke made two singles for Holiday Inn, ''Come In Mr. Lonely'' and ''Habit I Can't Break''. Having been with the label two years, he transferred to Sun International in 1970.

Although a songwriter of some ability, Dycke most memorable record was the old country gospel tune ''Will The Circle Be Unbroken'' produced by Knox Phillis for Sun. Dycke's strong voice carries the theme plaintively, gaining power as the minimal backing builds towards the end and the record takes on a church choir effect.

A Bachelor's degree in biology is one of the more unlikely qualifications for a spot on Sun Records, but Dycke had been dabbling in the record business since his school days. Born in 1941 in Auburn, Kansas, he signed with Rev Records in Phoenix in the late 1950s. A week later, the label went out of business and Dycke had to wait until 1962 for his recording debut. Nugget Records issued ''Tennessee'' and ''When Mu Heart Speaks''. Then Dycke had several records on the Aries label in 1967, followed by Holiday Inn in 1968. These were all rather low key affairs until Shelby Singleton picked up Dycke's Memphis recording of ''Will The Circle Be Unbroken'' and promoted it heavely in the country market.

By the time, Dycke had appeared in minor parts in a couple of movies and graduated from Holiday Inn lounges to Las Vegas. He was driving a Mercedes and seemed set for some degree of recording success. Filling in a press blurb for Singleton in 1971, Dycke gave his ambition as a million selling record to start with. ''Then I'll go from there''. He added, sensibly, ''If that doesn't happen I'll probably play clubs till I get tired of it''.

Ultimately, it didn't happen on Sun for Jerry Dycke despite the good recordings and several well-written songs he had to offer. So... if you've ever in a Holiday Inn lounge bar in Kansas, you might look out for Gerald C. Dyche.


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