© October 30, 2015 Bear Family Records (CD) 500/200rpm BCD 17254 (1-18) mono digital
JERRY LEE LEWIS AT SUN RECORDS THE COLLECTED WORKS

A Bear Family Records Product. 18-CD boxset with 2 hardcover clothbound books, 300 pages, in a clothbound slipcase. The story began at Sun Records almost 60 years ago. Now every surviving song and every surviving take that Jerry Lee Lewis recorded for Sun is here. All other sets are obsolete! Years of painstaking comparisons and tape vault research! 18 generously full CDs, 623 tracks, more than 100 previously unheard versions! All mono versions! All stereo versions! All original Sun era overdubs! Two comprehensive hardbound books: one with the discography and commentary, and another of photos, many of them previously unpublished!

These 18 CDs place you in the studio as Jerry Lee Lewis records one epochal session after another for Sun Records between 1956 and 1963. In the history of recorded music, no one created such an incredible and indelible body of work in such a short time. Jerry Lee spanned the breadth of American music: gospel, rhythm and blues, blues, country, pop, and of course rock 'n' roll. Incredibly, he only recorded one LP during the course of his career at Sun. Another LP mixed some older and some newer recordings, and that was it before Sun was sold. The floodgates opened after the sale in 1969. There have been countless Jerry Lee Lewis anthologies since then, more than anyone could possibly tabulate, many of them drawing on the incredible wealth of unissued songs. But now you can get rid of them all. This is the guaranteed ultimate Jerry Lee Lewis on Sun listening experience. You can hear recordings created in the studio. Some were done in one take. If that's all it needed, that's all it took. Some were painstakingly recorded and re-recorded through days and sometimes weeks. It's all here. Every complete take, every incomplete take, every piece of chatter. It took two years of analysis to compare all the sources, but now it's done. And it took years of research to find rare and published photos, and date them properly.

Producers:
Sam C. Phillips, Jack Clement, Billy Sherrill, and Scotty Moore
Re-Issue Producers:
Andrew McRae, Pierre Pennone, and Richard Weize
Tape Research:
Andrew McRae and Pierre Pennone
Tape Comparison and Analysis:
Valery ''Valerik'' Orlov and Willem Moerdijk
Compilation:
Willem Moerdijk and Andrew McRae
Disc Transfer and Mastering:
Christian Zwarg
Liner Notes:
Andrew McRae
Discography:
Valery ''Valerik'' Orlov and Pierre Pennone
Musicians and Sessions Detail:
Willem Moerdijk
Cover Illustrations:
Evelyyne Gerstenberger

Photos and Illustrations:
Wim de Boer, Horst Dieter Fischer collection, Rob Illingworth, Graham Knight,
Kay Martin, Augusto Morini, Now Dig This magazine, Pierre Pennone,
Jean-Louis Rancurel

Photo Restoration:
Sam Malbuch
Artwork:
Mychael Gerstenberger

Consultant:
Hank Davis

Acknowledgments:
Bear Family is indebted to all those involved in the production of earlier Jerry Lee Lewis box set collections, including Colin Escott, Martin Hawkins, Hank Davis, Cliff White, Barrie Gamblin and others associated with such works duly credited at the time.

Thanks also to:
Terry Adams, Freddy de Boer, Peter Checksfield, Chas Hodges, Per Kallin,
Anne Palmer, Scott Parker, Thomas Rund, J.M. Van Eaton
(in conversation with Hank Davis), and Myra Lewis Williams.

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

ALL ABOUT THE JERRY LEE LEWIS SUN TAPES Jerry Lee Lewis At Sun Records: The Collected Works, gathers together every authentic, original recording that Bear Family Records has been able to find Jerry Lee at work, on his own account, in the Sun studios. It's as simple as that; a straightforward, sonic encyclopedia of every traceable note he sang and played at Sun, just as they were electronically etched onto magnetic tape between November 14, 1956 and August 28, 1963. Many of the recordings are interspersed with vignettes of studio chatter, preserved for posterity as the spools kept rolling between rehearsals and takes; from the mildest self-rebuke at a false start, to the legendary, emotional confrontation with Sam Phillips during which Lewis contemplates the dangers to his immortal soul having embarked upon the recording of ''Great Balls Of Fire''.

Thus CDs 1 to 15 (BCD 17254) comprise, in a chronological sequence, all extant recordings Jerry Lee made at Sun, including a small number of damaged and clipped tapes, exactly as cut in the studio. Any recording that proved to be available at source in stereo only have been down-mixed to mono to achieve the desired continuity in sound, thereby enabling the systematic delivery of everything concerned as a coherent body of work. It will be noted that this continuum includes eleven recordings which, in the accompanying discography, are designated ''undubbed masters'', a term that some readers may, with some justification, consider paradoxical. The expression merely reflects the fact that the basic tracks concerned are the original studio tapes of recordings that were subsequently reinforced with a vocal chorus and/or instrumentation prior to their initial release.

Complementing the main presentation, all the stereo mixes dating from 1960 to 1963 that have come to light in the Sun archives then follow, commencing on the latter part of CD 15 and continuing on CDs 16 and 17. Save only for minor repairs being applied to one or two damaged items, the tapes concerned have been reproduced faithfully; no stereo remixing has been undertaken by Bear Family. CD 18 then draws together the masters, as originally issued, of those recordings that were overdubbed, or otherwise re-engineered, for release during Lewis's tenure at Sun. These encompass not only the tracks from 1957 to 1960 that feature dubbed vocal choruses but also the spliced master of both ''High School Confidential'' and ''I've Been Twistin''', as released on the singles Sun 296 and Sun 374 respectively. All these records as first issued are, of course, rather better known than the unadorned performances featured in the main concatenation; although the accent in this set is on authenticity, the exclusion of these embellishments on a point of principle simply couldn't be justified. And those who do wish to be reminded of a rather less well judged application of the technique of splicing, when Sam Phillips and his fellow producer Jack Clement conspired in cobbling together snippets from Lewis's hit records to synthesise the novelty item ''The Return of Jerry Lee'' will find this at the very end of the set.

The eighteen CD also covers a selection of less familiar augmented recordings, where a vocal overdub or instrumentation was added to the original work on an experimental basis. Foremost amongst these is a tape of ''Settin' The Woods On Fire'' embellished shortly after Lewis had finished his work in the studio. This, and the other overdubs featured, pass muster on the grounds that these alterations were generated contemporaneously by the original studio personnel. In the case of ''Settin' The Woods On Fire'' the recording dubbed with guitar, bass and drums, was first released in 1971 amongst the series of albums issued by Sun International Corporation following Shelby Singleton's purchase of the Sun catalogue. A not insignificant number of such tapes were concocted, many burdened with unappealing supplements that add little of interest to the raw productions. IN one or two instances, the items in question have been published on latterday CD Sun compilations but, given that the underlying original recordings are made available within this set, the enhanced tapes have not necessarily been included here. Rather, it has been decided to select a representative sample of such overdubs simply to unveil the process.

It should be also noted that a number of other tapes corrupted with added instrumentation, when leased in the mid-1960s to the budget label Pickwick, have been left to gather dust on the obscure vinyl on which they emerged fifty years ago. Adhering to the same principle, any tarnished material that Shelby Singleton contrived to transform from the original without, it might be said, a great deal of subtlety, will not be found in this box set. The only duets accommodated here are entirely genuine. And for the avoidance of any doubt, this set does not, of course, incorporate anything of the so-called ''re-processed stereo'' effect exhibited on Sun International LPs released between 1969 and 1972.

There is a further qualification. We are not concerned here with Jerry Lee's several engagements at Sun as a session musician during late 1956 and early 1957, when he played piano on the recordings of Billy Riley, Carl Perkins and others. The observation both of this principle and, it has to be said, issues of copyright, explain why the celebrated ''Million Dollar Quartet'' tapes, dating December 4, 1956, likewise do not feature in the box set.

Since the discovery in the late 1980s of tapes from a 1960 session that revealed ''The Great Speckled Bird, ''Don't Drop It'' and ''Keep Your Hands Off Of It (Birthday Cake)'', no ''new'' distinct titles as such by Jerry Lee Lewis have been found in the Sun storeroom. Since that time, in terms of unreleased material, fans have had to be satisfied by the occasional unheralded first outing of an alternate take, such as those of ''It'll Be Me'' and ''How's My Ex Treating You'' which slipped out on obscure US CD issues in 1996 and 1999 respectively, or an extra few seconds of a recording prematurely faded out on earlier releases, cases in point being ''Ramblin' Rose'', ''Hong Kong Blues'' and ''Money''. The full-length tapes of the latter have, of course, been used in compiling this collection.

Rumours of undiscovered titles nonetheless persist. The first to be mentioned in this connection is invariably Lewis's interpretation of ''We Three'', a 1940 hit for The Ink Spots. When introducing the song at a live show in Memphis in June 1961, Lewis stated ''...we intend to have it coming out on record pretty soon'', but was it recorded at Sun? The indications are positive. The surviving performance, familiar to fans thanks to an audience tape made public on a bootleg LP in 1972, bears witness that ''We Three'' had been worked on diligently; Jerry Lee's arrangement and a memorable piano solo suggest that it was well practised. Were it to have been recorded professionally, it would certainly have been worthy of a release. Noticeably, it possesses the hallmarks of Lewis's reading of another 1940s pop song, ''My Blue Heaven'', recorded in the Sun studio at 369 Madison Avenue on June 14, 1961. Moreover, on the ''live'' tape, ''We Three'' immediately precedes a jaunty recital of ''Hello Josephine'' which mirrors the arrangement of the song as cut at the same June 14 session. So it's not inconceivable that ''We Three'' was recorded in the studio and that the tape was lost or, heaven forefend, re-cycled. Perhaps it lies forgotten in a box abandoned in someone's attic outhouse, having been purloined from the official repository decades ago.

However, leaving aside that enigma, what have we actually got here that's ''new''? More than one hundred items included in this set are being issued officially for the first time, albeit as many as forty of these have been circulating privately on home-copied CDs amongst a few of Lewis's hard-core fans over the last twenty years or so, having somehow slipped out of the archives. Even so, at least fifty of the recordings here presented have escaped prior detection and have remained unheard until now.

Listening to these ''new'' takes, it is hard to understand quite how and why such an eccentric cut of ''It'll Be Me'' (BCD 17254-2-22) remained unacknowledged and unreleased. Equally, there are some remarkable prototype cuts of ''High School Confidential'' that have, it seems, lain undiscovered or been ignored for more than half a century. The tape boxes involved were examined by at least one authority back in the 1970s but it appears that these alternates were overlooked. One might argue that these earliest readings of the song are representative of a different, experimental, version of the song rather than being simply ''alternate takes'', which makes their fate in remaining unreleased until now all the harder to explain.

It has also been possible to accommodate a number of previously unheard false starts, fragments of incomplete ''lost'' takes and snippets of conversation and banter in the studio. At the same time, published examples of the latter have, where necessary, been restored to their rightful places in the continuum; for whatever reasons a number were, on earlier releases, re-edited with a cavalier disregard for their true origins and placed ahead of recordings to which they were wholly unrelated.

A great debt is owed to the producers of the several progenitors of this collection, including the first box set of Lewis's Sun recordings, the twelve LP set ''The Sun Years'', released in 1983 by Charly Records in the UK. Charly's ambitious approach which, for fans of early rock music, took the idea of a retrospective of an artist's work at a single company to an unprecedented level, established a template that was later adopted for the even more extensive eight CD box set issued during 1989 both by Charly Records and by Bear Family. At last, the collector could find almost every Lewis Sun recording thought worth having in one, or another, convenient package, the painstaking assembly of a library of scores of LPs, involving the repeated purchase of the same recordings of familiar songs for want of a particular title or an alternate take, was made a redundant exercise.

On all three occasions the compliers decided to present everything in a simple chronological order insofar as the dates of origin could reasonably be ascertained, it having been stated in the notes accompanying the 1983 vinyl set that a number of assumptions had been made to fill in the extensive blanks where conclusive information was unavailable, i.e. for almost entire two year period from November 1956 to the end of 1958. Notwithstanding this and similar disclaimers upon the release in 1989 of the rival CD products, Charly's ''The Sun Years'' and Bear Family's ''Classic'', such assumptions have subsequently come to be regarded by many as facts.

Thus the prevailing wisdom surrounding the chronology of Lewis's work at Sun dates from the materialisation of Charly's twelve LP collection and the dispositions arrived at in 1983 which since that time, subject only to minor revision in 1989, have remained largely unchallenged. To be fair, those involved were at pains to quality the vast majority of the quoted recording dates during the period concerned with either of the words ''probably'' or ''possibly''. Furthermore they conceded that much of their understanding, not only in respect of the allocation of particular recordings to discrete sessions but also the attribution of the names of backing musicians to specific events, amounted to nothing more than guesswork.

In 1993, Charly withdrew from sale its 208-track 1989 set and averred that it had produced ''The Ultimate'' collection of Jerry Lee's work at Sun, spread over twelve CDs nominally containing 318 separate tracks. Although the size of the box was increased by some fifty per cent it was again a case of simply adding to the inventory numerous alternates of familiar songs, the vaults having been emptied of any new titles per se with the release of ''Don't Drop It'' and others some four years previously. However, rather than proffer six or seven consecutive takes of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' or ''Breathless'', in ''The Ultimate'' Charly adopted an atypical course compared to that taken in the compilation of the earlier sets. The modus operandi was the marshalling of songs by reference to express themes; a collection of rock titles here, ''country roots'' there, ''rhythm and blues covers'' on the next CD and so on and so forth. This neatly avoided the tricky question of the assumed chronology, serious doubts about which, with the benefit of hindsight, were already beginning to surface.

The problem with ''The Ultimate'', leaving aside the misidentification and repetition of several recordings and the inadvertent exclusion of two titles altogether, was that from a fan's perspective the concept just didn't produce the goods. Amongst the well intentioned jumble, with different takes of individual titles scattered at random across the twelve CDs, there was no opportunity to make sense of how a particular song had been worked on by the musicians in the studio and how it had evolved into a finished master, something which the earlier sets had selectively allowed; rather, both the listener and, as it had turned out, the compilers, could become all too easily confused in trying to assess the distinctions between take ''x'' and take ''y'' of a particular title.

And so, to the current set, ''The Collected Works''. It has already been pointed out that the filing of session details at Sun had been notoriously lax, or, for much of the time, had been subject to deliberate obfuscation on the part of Sam Phillips. The rules of the American Federation of Musicians specified that recording sessions might comprise up to three hours work, involving work on four titles, but no more than that. Sam was required to submit returns to the union demonstrating compliance with these rules and it would seem that he wasn't averse to producing paperwork that would somehow stand up to official scrutiny, no matter that it bore little relationship to what had actually gone in the studio. As Colin Escott put it in his 1989 essay accompanying the ''Classic'' box set, Sam's reports were, to all intents and purposes, ''largely a work of fiction''. So, during the years 1956 to 1959, a key discipline had effectively been disregarded at Sun. And this was, of course, the period in respect of which such information would have proved most useful to the archivist, given that it was when Jerry Lee was at his most prolific in the recording studio, working intensively and regularly on the development of his hit records.

To complicate matters further, Phillips habitually used up any remaining free space at the end of previously recorded tapes and sometimes re-cycled them completely; this is yet another of the underlying causes of confusion about how sessions evolved, given that certain recordings had a habit of ending up in tape boxes where they bore no obvious relationship to many of the other contents. This consideration also begs the question of just what was lost by the indiscriminate erasure of many rehearsals and outtakes. What price just one ''alternate'' of ''Mean Woman Blues''?

In the absence of any definitive indication about exactly when particular recordings had been made, it was felt that there was every justification in trying to reassemble the jigsaw puzzle of the hundreds of tapes that have survived. The intention was to examine and where appropriate re-evaluate, though certainly not to traduce, any earlier studies of the subject. For the greater part the work of the 1983 team of experts has been revalidated. But it is deemed appropriate to amend the nominal chronology at certain points, in view of some fairly obvious anomalies in the 1983 list and with the benefit of thirty years hindsight.

The starting point was a conspicuous misunderstanding about the recording of Frankie And Johnny''. Having analysed various aspects of the performance it was realised that this track could not, as had been supposed by those involved in the compilation of the 1980s box sets, date from March 1958 but that it was much more likely to be the product of a session some nine months later. Listen to the drums and guitar; the much fuller sound indicates that this tape is out of place when set amongst relatively unpolished jewels such as ''Hello Hello Baby'' and ''Your Cheatin' Heart'', whereas it does share many of the atttributes of ''Lovin' Up A Storm'' and ''Big Blon' Baby'', songs with which it has now been realigned.

Prompted by that reflection, what else might be amiss? This narrative will not explain every change to the chronology; listeners accustomed to the 1983 running order can make comparisons and assess for themselves the conclusions put forward here. Perhaps some cherished notions have been subjected to what may be regarded by some as inappropriate revisionism, but the team which worked on this project throughout much of 2013 and 2014 is confident of the outcome of its findings.

It's only fair to acknowledge that one facility the pioneering researchers lacked was the luxury of time, a benefit granted in rather greater measure to those reassessing their work some thirty years later. The compilers of this set have been listening to the antecedent publications countless times over the course of several decades, rather than being new to much of the material and then having to make appraisals in a period of just a few weeks. Moreover, the ease of communication afforded by the internet, with the ability to exchange sound files instantaneously across vast distances, fostered the creation of a ''virtual'' committee that could pore over the details of each track with relative ease.

Modern technical conveniences not available to original researchers in the comfort of their own homes in the 1980s have provided other advantages. For example, the comparison of tapes from different sources is made possibly by listening at the same time to two recordings, with appropriate adjustment of their respective speeds as separate channels, in one test stereo track. In this way an undetected minor variation between successive takes may suddenly be made very apparent. Conversely, the existence of a supposedly distinct recording may be disproven; the dismissal of the identification of a bogus third take of ''Ramblin' Rose'' being an example of this.

Equally, for all the sins ascribed to digitalised sound files there's no doubt that ''flac'' files and MP3s provide an immense convenience when it comes to analysing subtle distinctions between successive takes of the same song. The fact that we can now enjoy no fewer than nine takes of ''Little Green Valley'', rather than the three previously determined, may well be down simply to the six new additions having been overlooked by the 1983 team, due both to time pressures and to the remarkably analogous sound across the entire suite of recordings. Is it possible that some alternates were dismissed by those erstwhile investigators in the belief that the tracks in the ''newly found'' batch were merely copies of other tapes found in another box? The nine variants of ''Little Green Valley'' also give a lie to the maxim that Lewis never recorded a song the same way twice; eight of nine are superficially consonant and one can spend hours poring over the detailed differences to tell them apart. Similarly, the manifold examples of ''Great Balls Of Fire'', ''Milkshake Mademoiselle' and High School Confidential'', though usually more recognisable as distinct entities, still require analysis of the slightest detail, be it a glissando buried in the mix during a guitar solo, or the substitution of an endearment such as ''sugar'' in place of ''honey'' somewhere in the lyric, to tell them apart with complete confidence.

The underlying methodology employed to arrive at the new timeline is much the same as that used hitherto, with the few irrefutable facts, such as the release of Lewis' singles, being taken as pointers to the recording dates of specific titles. Although an attempt has been made to define a calender of events, it often remains necessary to qualify the supposed date with an appropriate reservation. Consequently the emphasis is very much on treating the period concerned ''in the round'', and on simply charting the evolution of the Lewis sound over periods of months and years rather than trying to reconstruct what, given the deficiency of source date, will inevitably be an imprecise diary.

In so doing, we chart progress not simply in respect of individual titles, for example across the more than twenty takes of ''High School Confidential'', but also from one song to the next, as in the cases of ''Ubangi Stomp'', ''Rock 'N' Roll Ruby'' and ''So Long I'm Gone'', a trio which are obvious bed-fellows. This is an important principle to follow given that there are so many songs of which only one performance was recorded. In this way, we can accommodate everything into the story of the development of the Lewis sound and highlight, where appropriate, the significance of a notable aspect of one recording to other titles in a linked sequence.

The written analysis is purposely selective. A few of the songs that Lewis performed once only at Sun, or at least where only one take has endured, will not necessarily receive a mention here; the accompanying discography is the authoritative guide to the content. Nor does this text furnish comprehensive details of the origins of all the songs that Lewis recorded; it is reasoned that such facts will be known to many readers by virtue of earlier releases while in the twenty-first century online resources can easily be referred to for this information. A core function of this text is simply to emphasise the slight distinctions between separate takes of the same song where the listener might not be expected, without spending a disproportionate amount of time and effort, to be able to segregate recordings with confidence. But those who independently wish to analyse each track to establish their singularity may, of course, chose to leave this essay aside!

In providing this commentary it is hoped that the listener will become all the more cognisant of the often painstaking work undertaken, on the part of Lewis, the backing musicians and the recording technicians, in arriving at the finished product. This thought prompts a further word of explanation. The authors of the first detailed account of Jerry Lee's work at Sun, Martin Hawkins and Colin Escott, having invited Jerry Lee to help in trying to establish the facts, had been told ''I played on them, what the hell else do you need to know''? It remains difficult to offer definitive pointers to who else was actually involved on specific occasions, although some guidance is offered in the accompanying discography. The presence of Roland Janes as guitarist on most of the early sides is not in doubt, not least thanks to Jerry Lee habitually identifying him at the start of each guitar solo, while Jimmy Van Eaton is likewise an almost constant companion on the recordings made at 706 Union Avenue.

There is nonetheless cause to mistrust previously published session lists detailing the supposed involvement of certain personnel; and to be candid, good reason to be wary of some of the revisionism presented here! This work is not devoid of speculation. But much of that now postulated reflects the careful analysis of individual performance traits, while any obvious anomalies in earlier works have been addressed. For example although the Charly discographies stuck resolutely to the idea that Sidney Manker was the sole guitarist involved in the session which produced ''Ooby Dooby'', this suggestion openly disregards the fact that Jerry Lee is heard calling Roland to attention in the usual way before the delivery of his readily identifiable contribution.

It also needs to be said that the assertions of some of those directly involved have been treated with a degree of circumspection, given that all too frequently they contradict one another, and the statements volunteered sometimes don't tally with the few documented facts. In Rick Bragg's exposition' (''Jerry Lee Lewis: His Own Story'' - Rick Bragg: Harper Collins Publishers, 2014), Jerry Lee claims not to have known the name of the drummer on the ''historic recording'' of ''Great Balls Of Fire'', while his recollection of the bass player's identity, ''Sidney Stokes'', is at odds with that of Jay W. Brown, who suggests in his own book (''Whole Lotta Shakin''' - J.W. Brown with Rusty Brown: Continental Shelf Publishing 2010) , that it was Al Stanger. As Lewis also told Bragg, ''...people like to remember things in a certain way''. In this instance, though, they might both be right; the most positive lead we can follow out of the melee of memories is that these rival stories lend weight to the proposition that the recording of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' was by no means as straightforward as many would have us believe.

by Andrew McRae, 2015

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 1 Contains 1956-1957

"Crazy Arms", originally recorded by Kenny Brown and Marilyn Kay for the small Pep label, "Crazy Arms" had been at or near the top of the country charts for months in the hands of Ray Price. Although it was late in the game, Phillips decided to test the waters with Jerry's version. Ralph Mooney wrote the lyrics of "Crazy Arms" after his wife temporarily left him because of his drinking.

And another story is: it didn't take long for Jerry Lee and teenage drummer Jimmy Van Eaton is forge a musical alliance. They had it here, the first time they met and recorded. Exactly which titles were recorded and in what sequence is a matter of conjecture at this point. One thing we can be sure of is that by the time they reached ''Crazy Arms'', which became Jerry Lee's first Sun release, they were soaring together. There was nobody there to fill in the blanks: no bass, no guitar, no strings, no voices. Just Jerry and Jimmy, whose combined ages at this point didn't total 40 years.

Van Eaton is doing so much more than keeping time, it's almost comic. He's kicking and prodding, and providing drum rolls and counter-rhythm. It's like having Jerry Lee accompanied by a marching band. When Jerry launches into his 16-bar piano solo, J.M. follows suit and begins to solo on his drums. Much of what Van Eaton does here he would continue to do for the next seven years in the Sun studio, but never so much of it in such a compressed time and place. ''Crazy Arms'' runs under three minutes (2:45, to be exact) and there's enough drumming to fill a dozen records. The amazing this is neither of these young men knew exactly what they were doing. They were ''feeling each other out'' musically, taking risks, seeing if the other would follow. They did, and we get to listen to it happen all over again 60 plus years after it ignited spontaneously that afternoon on November 14, 1956.

1 - Crazy Arms (1) (Master Sun 259) (2:45) 1956
(Chuck Seals-Ralph E. Money) (Pamper Music)

This tune, long thought to be that rarest of species, a Jerry Lee Lewis composition, is in fact a loose adaptation of Irvin Berlin's "Waiting At The End Of The Road", first a hit for Paul Whiteman in 1929, then a minor hit for Frankie Laine twenty years later. Although Jerry did a “solo” performance at the end of the famed Million Dollar Quartet session on December 4th 1956, there’s only been one released studio re-cut and that was for the 1963 ‘Golden Hits’ album, he also cut an interesting version of the song for Elektra in 1980 but this remains unreleased.

Moments like this in music history don't come about very often. What Billboard called "distinctively smart wax" launched a career that has transcended time, style and personal tragedy.

2 - End Of The Road (Master Sun 259) (1:49) 1956
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Knox Music Incorporated)

''Born To Lose'', his superb mid-tempo country performance wasn’t released until 18 years later on the U.K. Phonogram ''Rockin’ & Free'' LP. The 1969 re-cut from the album ''Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Volume 1'' is slower and more refined, but beautifully sung and played. It’s a very difficult choice, but if push comes to shove then I think the Sun cut has the edge…

3 - Born To Lose (2:41) 1974
(Frankie Brown aka Ted Daffan) (Copyright Control)

An obvious early favourite of Jerry’s, ''Blue Heaven'' was recorded at three separate sessions during the first couple of years of his career (four if you include the playful run-through at the end of the Million Dollar Quartet session), though none were released until years after he left the label. The 1956 version (actually 2 takes) was taped here at his very first professional session (along with both sides of his first single and ''Born To Lose''). Sounding a little hesitant compared to later versions, this wasn’t released until the ground-breaking ''The Sun Years'' vinyl box-set in 1983.

Much better (and faster) is the 1957 version, first released on ''Olde Tyme Country Music'' in 1970, unlike the 1958 version (which features a couple of additional musicians to the earlier takes) which again wasn’t released until ''The Sun Years'' in 1983.

4 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (1.1) (2:10) 1993
5 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (1.2) (2:40) 1983
(Gene Autry) (Shapiro Bernstein & Corporation)

1-5 Recorded November 14, 1956 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer Jack Clement and-or Sam Phillips

Amongst Jerry Lee Lewis' earliest recordings are two examples of early twentieth-century ''folk blues'', again demonstrating the broad range of the material which he so easily embraced and adapted to his own style. The opening passages of each of two takes of ''Deep Elem Blues'' are in very much the same vein but, once past the mid-point of each, Lewis draws upon discrete sets of lyrics. The less familiar of the two have greater poignancy and perhaps deserve to have been more widely heard, in preference to those on the reading of the song selected for release in September 1970 on the Sun International LP ''Ole Time Country Music''. The rather less disciplined piano solo may have counted against its prospects when Shelby Singleton reviewed the tapes; or maybe, having heard the first half of the alternate take, no-one bothered to listen beyond the second verse.

The "Deep Elm Blues" is an American traditional song. The title of the tune refers to historical African American neighborhood in downtown Dallas, Texas, known as Deep Ellum, and a home to music legends Blind Lemon Jefferson, Blind Willie Johnson, Leadbelly, and Bill Neely. Sometimes the song's title is also spelled "Deep Elem" or "Deep Ellum."

The first known recording was made by the Cofer Brothers under the name of The Georgia Black Bottom on Okey Records. The Shelton Brothers recorded various versions of this song, the first being cut in 1933 with Leon Chappelear under the pseudonym of Lone Star Cowboys for Bluebird Records. They recorded it again in 1935 for Decca Records followed by "Deep Elm No. 2" and "Deep Elm No. 3". Les Paul (as Rhubarb Red) recorded "Deep Elem Blues" and "Deep Elem Blues No. 2" on Decca in 1936. The Sheltons also recorded it in the 1940s as "Deep Elm Boogie" for King Records. Other versions of the song were made between 1957 and 1958 by Jerry Lee Lewis for Sun Records; Mary McCoy and the Cyclones for Jin Records, and, later, by Jerry Garcia, the Grateful Dead, Levon Helm, the Infamous Stringdusters, Rory Gallegher and most recently by Redhorse Black.

In end 1962/early 1963 Charlie Feathers recorded ''Deep Elm Blues'' backed with ''Nobody's Darlin''' for Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn was owned by Sun's owner Sam Phillips, who bought shares in the hotel chain when it first began and most likely launched the label as a promotional device. Again, it's a very sought-after record, but only because it has Feathers' name is on it.

6 - Deep Elem Blues (1) (2:44) 1987
7 - Deep Elem Blues (2) (2:46) 1970
(Bob Attlesey-Joe Attlesey) (Copyright Control)

One of the many songs recorded during his early months at Sun that wasn’t released until many years later, this ''Silver Threads Among The Gold'' is a beautiful version of an old country song. It was first released on Sun International’s ''Sunday Down South'' in 1970, an album of mostly gospel songs shared with Sun outtakes by Johnny Cash. The re-cut is given a mid-temp ''High Heel Sneakers'' beat, and backed by instruments that include horns and steel guitar, an interesting experiment that didn’t quite work. Recorded during the sessions for ''Southern Roots'', this was finally released in 1987 on Bear Family’s ''The Killer: 1973-1977'' box-set.

"Silver Threads Among The Gold", first copyrighted in 1873, was an extremely popular song in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today it is a standard of barbershop quartet singing. The lyrics are by Eben E. Rexford, and the music by Hart Pease Danks.

In 1930, an Associated Press story published in the New York Times gave some background on the writing of these lyrics. We quote the article: "Silver Threads Song Traced to Poet’s ''Re-Hash'' on Order'' Shiockton, Wisconsin. The love ballad, ''Silver Threads Among The Gold'', which has stirred the hearts of more than one generation, was not the inspiration of an aging poet but a ''re-hash'' produced on order. The story developed after the unveiling of a monument here in honor of the author of the words, Eben E. Rexford, who died in 1916. Rexford made a living by writing verse and flower and garden articles for magazines. When he was 18, he wrote and sold for $3 some verses entitled ''Growing Old''. Later, H. P. Danks, composer of the music for ''Silver Threads'', wrote to him requesting words for a song. Rexford dug into his scrapbook and revised ''Growing Old''.

When Rexford spoke about the song, he explained that he worked his way through college by writing, and it was when he was in college that Danks sent him a request for lyrics, offering to pay three dollars for each song. Rexford submitted nine songs and received $18.00, but no accounting of which six had been accepted or which three had been rejected. In telling the story of the song, Rexford said that he didn't know whether he had been paid $3.00 for it or nothing, since he didn't know if it had been among the six accepted or the three rejected. Rexford first heard the song when a company of Oneida Indians gave a concert in Shiocton, Wisconsin and sang it there. The sheer popularity of the song can be illustrated, among other ways, by news stories which continued to reference it for many years. For example, in 1932, it won a poll of WABC (AM) (New York) listeners asked to name their favorite songs, despite it already being 60 years old.

The song was the most frequently recorded song of the acoustic recording era, starting with its first known recording by Richard Jose in 1903. Later 20th century recordings of the song include those of John McCormack, Bing Crosby (1948), Jerry Lee Lewis (1956 and 1973), Georg Ots (in Estonian language and Finnish language, 1958), Tapio Rautavaara (in Finnish, 1967) and Jo Stafford with Paul Weston's Orchestra and the Gaslight Singers (1969).

8 - Silver Threads Among The Gold (2:06) 1970
(Eben E. Rexford-Hart Pease Danks) (Copyright Control)

The frantic 1956 ''Crawdad Song'' (first released on the ''Olde Tyme Country Music'' album in 1970) has a real party atmosphere with screams and yelps in the background, reminiscent of some of Gene Vincent’s early sides. The 1975 version is very different, with a slow and bluesy “High Heel Sneakers” beat and prominent harmonica, though both versions are great in their own way. Whenever Jerry’s very occasionally performed the song ‘live’ (such as on the 1987 ''Live In Italy''album, and at London’s 100 Club as recent as 2008) he usually chooses a tempo somewhere between the two studio versions.

''Crawdad Song'' aka ''Sweet Thing'' was written by Woody Guthrie and recorded his version of the song on April 24, 1944 on an Smithsonian 10”Shellac Acetate 1635, backing with with Cisco Houston on guitar and Sonny Terry on harmonica.

Crawdads are known to some people as crayfish and crawfish; they are eaten by both humans and fish, and among Cajuns they are a delicacy. Crawdads are essential to some people's livelihoods and possibly survival as their basic food source; this song has been popular even where crawdads are scarce. It was a play party song (a dance where the closest a man gets to a woman is holding hands or locking arms at the elbow), and among African Americans it was a blues. "Sweet Thing" was the blues from which the song came; fiddlers and banjo pickers adapted to their tempo and the lyrics became more satirical about poverty. There was a time when most young men in Texas and Oklahoma knew the song. The first known recording to be issued was by Honeyboy and Sassafras (Brunswick 417), cut in Dallas, Texas, in 1929, followed by Girls of the Golden West, Lone Star Cowboys, The Tune Wranglers, and a few others. In his unpublished manuscript, "Woody and Lefty Lou's One Thousand and One Laffs and Your Free Gift of One Hundred and One Songs," dated April 1938, Woody typed fourteen lines for individual verses; for lyrics for the best-known version.

9 - Crawdad Song (1:50) 1970
(Woody Guthrie) (Pont Neuf Music-Atway Music)

''Singing The Blues'', this 1956 version is typical of his early Sun recordings, with superb “pumping” piano and a youthful energetic feel. It wouldn’t have sounded out of place on an early album, and no doubt would’ve been released if Sam Phillips had released more of them (only two albums were released during Jerry’s 1956-1963 Sun period, and one of those was a semi “hits” collection), but instead had to wait until Sun International’s ''Monsters'' collection in 1970. The 1973 version is taken at a more sedate pace, and is notable for some superb slide bottle-neck guitar. Recorded at the all-star London sessions, it somehow wasn’t included on ''The Session'', and had to wait until Bear Family’s ''The Complete Session Volume Two'' album in 1986. Personally I’ve always found ''The Session'' a little overrated, but this is one of the more enjoyable recordings from those January 1973 sessions.

"Singing The Blues" is a popular song written by Melvin Endsley and published in 1956. The song was first recorded and released by Marty Robbins in 1956. (It is not related to the 1920 jazz song "Singin' The Blues" recorded by Frank Trumbauer and Bix Beiderbecke in 1927.) Robbins version made it to number one on the Billboard Country and Western Best Sellers chart for 13 weeks in late 1956 and early 1957 and peaked at number seventeen on the US pop chart.

The best-known recording was released in October 1956 by Guy Mitchell and spent ten weeks at number 1 on the U.S. Billboard chart from December 8, 1956, to February 2, 1957. An example of the U.S. recording is on Columbia 40769, dated 1956, with the Ray Conniff Orchestra. Mitchell's version was also number 1 in the UK Singles Chart for three (non-consecutive) weeks in early 1957, one of only four singles to return to number 1 on three separate occasions, with the other three being "I Believe" by Frankie Laine, "Happy" by Pharrell Williams and "What Do You Mean?" by Justin Bieber. Tommy Steele recorded his version of "Singing the Blues" made number 1 in the UK Singles Chart for one week on 11 January 1957, sandwiched by two of the weeks that Guy Mitchell's version of the same song topped the charts. Steele's recording of the song was not a chart success in the US. In 1983, Gail Davies recorded a cover version, taking her version into the top 20 of the Hot Country Singles chart in the spring of 1983. The song is often revived, and on three occasions new recordings of "Singing the Blues" have become UK Top 40 hits. These latter-day hit versions were by Dave Edmunds (1980), Daniel O'Donnell (1994), and Cliff Richard & the Shadows (2009).

10 - Singing The Blues (2:07) 1971
(Melvin Endsley) (Acuff Rose World)

''Honey Hush'' must be the unluckiest song in Jerry’s repertoire, as all three versions didn’t see the light of day until many years later (a further cut for Elektra in 1980 hasn’t been released at all!). A Big Joe Turner jump-blues tune, lyrics such as “If you don’t leave me alone I’ll knock you down with a base-ball bat” were hardly suitable for the 1950s pop charts. Nevertheless, all cuts sound inspired. This 1956/1957 version wasn’t released until the 1971 ''Monsters'' album, while the 1973 ''Southern Roots'' outtake (with none other than Carl Perkins on guitar) wasn’t released until the late 1980s, the same as the ''Boogie Woogie Country Man'' reject from the following year. All three are more than worthy versions.

Big Joe Turner, although he assigned the rights to his wife, Lou Willie Turner, and recorded ''Honey Hush'' in May 1953 in New Orleans, Louisiana and released that August by Atlantic Records. It was a number 1 song on the U.S. Rhythm and Blues chart for eight weeks, and number 23 on the pop chart.

Turner, a big Kansas City blues shouter, had been spending all his time out on the road, while Atlantic's Ahmet Ertegün was getting nervous that his backlog of Turner recordings was running low. When Turner was near New Orleans, Ertegün insisted he record. Atlantic's New Orleans recording studio was booked up, so Turner recorded some sides in the studio of a radio station, WSDU. He did not have his own band but was able to round up the raucous trombonist Pluma Davis and his band, The Rockers, as well as the wild boogie rhythm pianist, James Tolliver. Other musicians on the recording were Lee Allen on tenor saxophone and Alvin "Red" Tyler on baritone saxophone.

Like the session, the song is largely adlibbed traditional blues verses with various incongruous lines thrown in to a standard 12-bar blues. It opens with the bold statement, "Aw let 'em roll like a big wheel in a Georgia cotton field, Honey hush''! The title in this song Turner revealed his typical attitude toward a woman who will not do what he tells her to do, while the tailgate trombone gives the woman's raucous answers back. Although his songs talk about relationships as misery, his emotion in the song is upbeat. To quote Arnold Shaw in his book Honkers and Shouters.

The advent of rock and roll narrowed the content of songs to adolescent preoccupations and made simple the complicated rhythms of rhythm and blues. The explicitly sexual content was too adult, as was the singer's strong voice tone as well as his raw assumptions about life. A year later, in 1954, a Turner song very similar to this one, "Shake, Rattle and Roll," with its boogie-woogie rhythm and squawking saxophone was cleaned up by Bill Haley to become a huge hit as rock and roll changed the face of music. Turner turned to recording songs by rock and roll writers, but his blues shouter voice betrayed him and his career faded.

However, not long after the rock and roll craze hit, a new audience of intellectuals, college students, and eventually beatniks, and then another with European blues fans joining in, gave singers in partial retirement or obscurity new opportunities although they had to clean up some to fit the new role of authenticity, fueled by the writings of Samuel Charters, demanded by these new audiences. For urban blues singers, having grown up in cities, it was convenient to be labelled as country singers to fit the criteria of purity.

In 1959, Turner re-recorded "a much tamer, lamer, teenage rock and roll version of "Honey Hush" for Atlantic which was a mild hit and his last one. Turner returned to performing with jazz combos as the rock and roll founders settled in to please the suddenly important teenage market. Early covers include the 1956 version by Johnny Burnette's The Rock and Roll Trio (Coral 61719) and the song has since been covered by Jerry Lee Lewis, Screaming Lord Sutch, Foghat, Paul McCartney, Coco Montoya, Fleetwood Mac, George Jones, Elvis Costello, NRBQ, and John Lindberg Trio, and others.

11 - Honey Hush (2:06) 1971
(Lou Willie Turner) (ATV Music Publishing)

Jerry Lee's four recordings of Leadbelly's ''Goodnight Irene'' demand some attention. In the first alternate, the most telling diagnostic element is the exceptional use, at 2 minutes 24 seconds, of the determiner ''that'', as opposed to ''the'' ahead of ''river''. Take 2 serves up sufficient contrasts to the others courtesy of the much busier than usual right-hand on the keyboard providing background fills. One might then listen concurrently to the first one hundred seconds of both the undubbed tape of the issued master and the final alternate wondering just how to tell them apart, before Jerry Lee motions to bring the latter to a premature halt. It turns out he's just changing gear; an early example of the technique he would use to good effect on several later occasions in his recording career.

Before Jerry had any big hits, ''Goodnight Irene'' was overdubbed with a vocal group for Jerry’s first album ''Jerry Lee Lewis'' (Sun LP 1230) the following year. This is performed very respectfully at a slow tempo (though one of the alternate takes from the session is partly rocked-up), unlike the far sprightly 1975 re-cut for the ''Odd Man In'' album. Unfortunately the latter is marred by a rather distracting 2nd vocal in the background, which “bled” into the piano microphone prior to him doing a vocal overdub.

"Goodnight Irene" or "Irene Goodnight'', is a 20th-century American folk standard, written in 3/4 time and first recorded by American blues musician Huddie ''Leadbelly'' Ledbetter in 1933. The lyrics tell of the singer's troubled past with his love, Irene, and express his sadness and frustration. Several verses make explicit references to suicidal fantasies, most famously in the line "sometimes I take a great notion to jump in the river and drown'', which was the inspiration for the 1964 Ken Kesey novel Sometimes A Great Notion and a song of the same name from John Mellencamp's 1989 album, ''Big Daddy'', itself strongly informed by traditional American folk music.

The specific origins of "Goodnight Irene" are unclear. Leadbelly was singing a version of the song from as early as 1908, which he claimed to have learned from his uncles Terell and Bob. An 1892 song by Gussie L. Davis has several lyrical and structural similarities to the latter song; a copy of the sheet music is available from the Library of Congress. Some evidence suggests the 1892 song was itself based on an even earlier song which has not survived. Regardless of where he first heard it, by the 1930s Leadbelly had made the song his own, modifying the rhythm and rewriting most of the verses.

Leadbelly continued performing the song during his various prison terms, and it was while incarcerated at the Louisiana State Penitentiary that he encountered musicologists John and Alan Lomax who would go on to record hours of Leadbelly's performances. A few months prior to his release in 1934, Leadbelly recorded a number of his songs, including "Goodnight Irene", for the Library of Congress. An extended version of the song that includes narratives connecting the verses appears in Negro Folk Songs as Sung by Leadbelly. "Goodnight Irene" remained a staple of Leadbelly's performances throughout the 1930s and 1940s. However, despite popularity within the New York blues community, the song was never commercially successful during his lifetime. In 2002, Leadbelly's 1936 Library of Congress recording received a Grammy Hall of Fame Award.

In 1950, one year after Leadbelly's death, the American folk band The Weavers recorded a version of "Goodnight, Irene". The single first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on June 30, 1950 and lasted 25 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 1. Although generally faithful, the Weavers chose to omit some of Leadbelly's more controversial lyrics, leading Time magazine to label it a "dehydrated" and "prettied up" version of the original. Due to the recording's popularity, however, The Weavers' lyrics are the ones generally used today. Billboard ranked this version as the number 1 song of 1950.

The Weavers' enormous success inspired many other artists to release their own versions of the song, many of which were themselves commercially successful across several genres. Frank Sinatra's cover, released only a month after The Weavers', lasted nine weeks on the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on July 10, peaking at number 5. Later that same year, Ernest Tubb and Red Foley had a number 1 country music record with the song, and the Alexander Brothers, Dennis Day and Jo Stafford released versions which made the Best Seller chart, peaking at number 26, number 17 and number 9 respectively. Moon Mullican had a number 5 country hit with it in 1950, and a version by Paul Gayten and his Orchestra reached number 6 on the Billboard Rhythm And Blues chart in the same year. On the Cash Box chart, where all available versions were combined in the standings, the song reached a peak position of number 1 on September 2, 1950, and lasted at number 1 for 13 weeks. The song was the basis for the 1950 parody called "Please Say Goodnight To The Guy, Irene" by Ziggy Talent. It also inspired the 1954 "answer" record "Wake Up, Irene" by Hank Thompson, a number 1 on Billboard's country chart. In 1958 Jim Reeves covered the song for his LP "Girls I've Known''. In 1959, Billy Williams version reached number 75 on the US Billboard pop chart. And in 1962 the version of Jerry Reed reached number 79 on the US pop chart. In 2015 Keith Richards recorded the song, and gives praise to Leadbelly in several interviews.

"Goodnight Irene" is sung by supporters of English football team Bristol Rovers. It was first sung at a fireworks display at the Stadium the night before a Home game against Plymouth Argyle in 1950. During the game the following day, Rovers were winning quite comfortably and the few Argyle supporters present began to leave early prompting a chorus of "Goodnight Argyle" from the Rovers supporters, the tune stuck and "Goodnight Irene" became the club song.

12 - Goodnight Irene (1) (3:09) 2015 Sun Unissued
13 - Goodnight Irene (2) (3:02) 1983
14 - Goodnight Irene (3) (Undubbed Master) (2:55) 1986
15 - Goodnight Irene (4) (3:05) 1985
(Huddie Ledbetter-John Avery Lomax) (Red Balloon Technology)

The "Marines' Hymn" is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps, introduced by the first Director of USMC Band, Francesco Maria Scala. It is the oldest official song in the United States Armed Forces. The "Marines' Hymn" is typically sung at the position of attention as a gesture of respect. However, the third verse is also used as a toast during formal events, such as the birthday ball and other ceremonies.

The lyrics are contained in the book Rhymes of the Rookies published in 1917. The author of these poems was W.E. Christian. The book is available online in several formats. The book consists of a series of poems regarding military life prior to World War I.

Some lyrics were popular phrases before the song was written. The line "To the shores of Tripoli" refers to the First Barbary War, and specifically the Battle of Derne in 1805. After Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon and his Marines hoisted the American flag over the Old World for the first time, the phrase was added to the flag of the United States Marine Corps. "The Halls of Montezuma" refers to the Battle of Chapultepec on 12/13 September 1847 during the Mexican-American War, where a force of Marines stormed Chapultepec Castle. While the lyrics are said to date from the 19th century, no pre-20th century text is known. The author of the lyrics is likewise unknown. Legend has it that a Marine on duty in Mexico penned the hymn. The unknown author transposed the phrases in the motto on the Colors so that the first two lines of the Hymn would read: "From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli", favoring euphony over chronology. The music is from the Gendarmes' Duet (the "bold gendarmes") from the revision in 1867 of the Jacques Offenbach opera Geneviève de Brabant, which debuted in Paris in 1859.

Some websites claim that the Marine Corps secured a copyright on the song on 19 August 1891, but this is in error; the copyright was vested on 18 August 1919. In 1929, the Commandant of the Marine Corps authorized the three verses of the Marines' Hymn as the official version. This older version can be heard in the 1950 film Halls of Montezuma. On 21 November 1942, Commandant Thomas Holcomb approved a change in the words of the first verse's fourth line from "On the land as on the sea" to "In the air, on land, and sea" to reflect the addition of aviation to the Corps' arsenal. Various people over the years wrote unofficial or semi-unofficial extra verses to commemorate later battles and actions, for example, this verse commemorating the occupation of Iceland during World War II.

16 - The Marines' Hymn (2:24) 1975
(Jacques Offenbach-Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Copyright Control)

'Dixie'' written on Sunday, April 3, 1859 for a minstrel show. The next night, the song was introduced by the Bryant Minstrels in New York City at Mechanics Hall. "Dixie" was first performed in the South in Charleston and Newcomb. Before General Pick - the troops' morale. Abraham Lincoln requested that the song be played by the Union band upon hearing the news of General Lee's surrender at the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. "Dixie" was one of several tunes played by the U.S. Army band as Elvis Presley boarded the USS General Randall to sail to West Germany in 1958.

Performers who choose to sing "Dixie" today usually remove the black dialect and combine the song with other pieces. For example, Rene Marie's jazz version mixes "Dixie" with "Strange Fruit", a Billie Holiday song about a lynching. Mickey Newbury's "An American Trilogy" (often performed by Elvis Presley) combines "Dixie" with the Union's "Battle Hymn of the Republic" (also called "From Dixie with Love") and the negro spiritual "All My Trials". Bob Dylan also recorded a version of the song for the 2003 film Masked and Anonymous.

Some consider the song a part of the patriotic American repertoire on a par with "America the Beautiful" and "Yankee Doodle." For example, Chief Justice William Rehnquist regularly included "Dixie" in his annual sing-along for the 4th Circuit Judicial Conference in Virginia. However, its performance prompted some African American lawyers to avoid the event.

For many white Southerners, "Dixie," like the Confederate flag, is a symbol of Southern heritage and identity. Until somewhat recently, a few Southern universities including the University of Mississippi maintained the "Dixie" fight song, coupled with the Rebel mascot and the Confederate battle flag school symbol, despite protests. Confederate heritage websites regularly feature the song, and Confederate heritage groups routinely sing "Dixie" at their gatherings. In his song "Dixie on My Mind," country musician Hank Williams, Jr., cites the absence of "Dixie" on Northern radio stations as an example of how Northern culture pales in comparison to its Southern counterpart.

17 - Dixie (1:31) 1974
(Daniel Decatur Emmett-Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Public Domain)

6-17 Recorded November/December 1956 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer Jack Clement and-or Sam Phillips

There is virtually nothing left to say about this session. On only his second release, a young Jerry Lee Lewis produced the cornerstone of his recording career. Sam Phillips had already learned that the best way to record young Jerry Lee was to turn him loose in the studio, asking him to reach his archival memory and play whatever came to mind. Jack Clement hit the big time by placing his composition on this flipside of Jerry Lee's second single (Sun 267). "It'll Be Me" is rockabilly's ode to reincarnation. A comparison with other known takes of this song reveals just how different and truly unusual the arrangement of the issued version is. All it took was a life performance during the summer of 1957 on Steve Allen's network TV show, and the Killer's career was up and running. In Billboard's words, "This platter by Lewis is taking off like wildfire".

During the course of recording the early takes of ''It'll Be Me'', Jerry Lee concurrently toyed with his own arrangement of a number he'd come across a couple of years earlier while learning his trade at the Blue Cat Club in Natchez. The genesis of ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'', which had already been a modest hit for rhythm and blues songstress Big Maybelle, remains the subject of argument to this day, what is certain is that Lewis made the song his own, rendering such debate almost irrelevant. Whereas the development of ''It'll Be Me'' had been meticulous, with subtle refinements being introduced into successive takes, Lewis simply launched into what was destined to become his magnum opus with characteristic abandon. In so doing, he put to good use the opening riff employed both in ''End Of The Road'' and in ''It'll Be Me'', albeit for the latter he had it moved a couple of notches up the keyboard. Four takes, spearheaded by an eight-bar snipped of fifth, survive of the early run-throughs of ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'', all of which are solid enough but lack the magic ingredient.

This is an instance where it may be helpful to give close consideration to certain aspects of the recordings to help determine their dissimilarity. After a number of false starts, the first two complete takes of ''It'll Be Me'' have distinctive openings that make them readily identifiable. By take 3 the jaunty eight-bar introduction has been settled upon but there are still sufficient variations in Jerry Lee's delivery of the first line in each recording to tell them apart with some ease. Notice how, in take 3, the word ''hear'' is, ironically, almost inaudible, while in take 4 there is an emphasis on the word ''knocking'' and finally, in the master of the single version, it's on ''somebody''.

18 - It'll Be Me (1.1) (Chatter & Take) (2:4) 1989
19 - It'll Be Me (1.2) (4 False Starts) (1:05) 1983
20 - It'll Be Me (1.3) (2:37) 1987
21 - It'll Be Me (1.4) Chat, Take, Chat) (3:07) 1983
22 - It'll Be Me (1.5) (2:53) 1995
23 - It'll Be Me (1.6) (Single Master Sun 267) (2:46) 1957
(Jack Clement) (Knox Music Incorporated)

Billy Riley and his band played a little club in Blytheville, Arkansas, called the Twin Gables, on the waydown. It was just Jerry, his cousin Jay Brown, who had accompanied him to the studio when they cut ''Crazy Arms'' on November 14, 1956, and had by now acquired an electric bass, Roland Janes, Jimmy Van Eaton,and the club was barely big enough to accommodate a group of even that size. In fact there was just room for Jerry and Jimmy. van Eaton on the bandstand, Jay and Roland Janes had to stand on the floor, and every time Jimmy Van Eaton socked the drums, dust sifted down from the heavy draperies tacked up on the ceiling to deaden the sound, coating the new jackets they had bought to play the Jamboree.

It was a four-hour job, so you really had to throw just about every song you might be able to play together as a band into each set, and then some. Not long into the evening Jerry Lee Lewis played a boogie-woogie figure to introduce a song he said he used to sing when he was down in Ferriday, and the band fell in behind him. Before he had even gotten halfway through, Roland Janes said, the people just started going crazy,''bopping all over the floor, you know how they do in Arkansas''. And as soon as they finished, the audience wanted to hear it again. ''Play that ''Shakin'' song'', they kept calling out. ''They just loved it, man, they insisted on hearing it over and over''. And the same thing happened when they played the Big D Jamboree the next night and then an upstairs club nearby after the show. The song was ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On''.

It had first been recorded in 1955 without any real chart success, or anything like the boogie-woogie approach that Jerry Lee brought to it, by rhythm and blues belter Big Maybelle. Jerry had first heard it performed by a Natchez disc jockey named Johnny Little John at the little club across the river from Ferriday where he ordinarily performed. According to Jerry, ''and he was playing drums and singing, and I stood there and listened, and I said, 'Man, that is fantastic'. I said, 'That's a hit'. And I started doing it pretty close to exactly they way he done it. Word for word. The way he would say, 'Easy, Let's get down real low. Stand it in one spot, and wiggle it around a little bit'. I picket it up from, I didn't steal it. I just kind of took it''.

When they played it for Sam Phillips, he didn't hesitate for a minute. Memories differ, but if they didn't cut it on the spot, they went back into the studio the next day, and after four or five takes they had it.

There has never seen a more breathtaking iconic moment. Jerry Lee kicked the rhythm off, just the way he always did, it was at heart a boogie-woogie number after all, with Jimmy M. Van Eaton on drums and Roland Janes' muted guitar coming in close behind. But where in the early takes the vocal is mannered,almost as if the singer is not fully committed to a consistency of approach, with tempo flirting with the frenetic, and the piano wavering in its attack, the final take exudes a sense of pure command and rumbling authority that, as brilliant as all of his previous studio extemporizations may have been, had never been altogether realized before.

This sence of authority is unmistakably aided by the liberal application of slapback not just to the vocal but to the piano as well, and by the almost total eradication of Jay W. Brown's electric bass, which had been disconcertingly present in earlier takes. Most of all, there is a sence of sheer uninhibited fun, underscored by a selective use of glissando and the controlled variations of tone archieved in both the recordings and performing process. When Jerry Lee swings into his first solo with an ''Aww, let's go'', the record takes off,though nothing physically changes, and then when he calls out, ''Ro, boy'', to invite Roland Janes' string bending solo, there is simply no turning back.

The record concludes with the Johnny Little John spoken passage that may well take its original inspiration from Clarence ''Pine Top'' Smith's 1929 classic, ''Pine Top's Boogie Woogie'', in which the singer is directing similar double entendres at an unseen audience, who are bidden to dance to the music at his direction. ''Now when I say, 'Hold yourself''', says Pine Top. ''I want you get ready to stop / And when I say, 'Git it', I want you to shake that thing''. In this case Jerry Lee, after directing the band to ''get real low one time now'', turns his attention to one particular, imagined girl, whom he exhorts to ''kind of stand in one spot, wiggle around just a little bit'', before concluding, ''That's when you got something''. At which point he turns his attention back to the band, delivering a single irrefutable command (''Now let's go one time'') before capping the exuberantly throbbing finale with yet another glissando.

Neither Jimmy Marcus Van Eaton, nor Roland Janes had any point of comparison in their musical experience. They were, unquestionably, participants in the process, they were undeniably contributors, but there was no doubt in either of their minds that, without in any way underestimating their own contributions,they had never encountered such genius before, and they doubted that they ever would again. To Sam Phillips, what it all came down to was that Jerry Lee had found his voice, that, for all of the insecurity that Sam suspected lay just beneath the swagger, ''he had that basic sureness about what he was doing. And he believed that what he was doing was good''. For Jack Clement, whose recollection of the moment was as poetically true as it was factually fogged, ''We'd been working and working on a song I wrote called ''It'll Be Me'', and it was getting a little stale, and the bass player spoke up and said, 'Hey, Jerry, let's do that song we've been doing on the road that everybody likes so much. So I said, 'Okay, ell, let me go turn on the machine'. So I walk in the control room and sit down, just as, they're playing the chord, and we did it. No dry run, no nothing, just blap, there's ''Whole Lot Of Shakin''. One take. Now that was fun''.

Maybe that's the best description of how it actually happened, even if there were in fact at least three or four alternate takes, because that's what it sounds like. For all the discipline that was required, for all the careful attention to feel and sound, it came out as pure and unself-conscious as if it were a first take, as if it could never have been anything but what it was. It was the perfect definition of everything that Sam Phillips strove for in his ''little laboratory of sound''; a thoroughly professional recording that sounded as if it had been put together with a minimum of polish and maximum of spontaneity.

24 - Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On (1.1) (Fragment) (0:17) 2015 Sun Unissued
25 - Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On (1.2) (2:42) 1983
26 - Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On (1.3) (2:45) 2015 Sun Unissued
27 - Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On (1.4) (2:47) 1987
28 - Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On (1.5) (2:49) 1986
(Dave Curley Williams-Sunny David (aka Ray Hall) (Robert Mellin Music)

18-28 Recorded Probably January/February 1957 at Sun Recording Stdio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

Jerry Lee Lewis like wise treated ''Ole Pal Of Yesterday'' with a great deal of respect and left us with little to help in distinguishing one from any other of four very similar takes of the song. Let's start with the easy one. The first of the four to be issued, though the last in the sequence presented here, fortuitously serves up a classic default marker; a glissando, executed only in this take, is heard at 1:55 during the course of the solo.

Next, consider take 2; this can be eliminated from the discussion by reference to the final line of the song, which is alone in not being prefaced with the word ''yes''; as is the case with the remaining two, take 1 and 3, while take 4 features a more casual ''yeah''. To split takes 1 and 3, listen carefully at around 1:05 to 1:10 in both; in the first, the line ''does your memory stray'' is anticipated by the word ''well'' while ''stray'' is delivered conventionally; in the second there's no ''well'' and the word ''stray'' is stretched on a rising inflection into two syllables. There's not much to pick between any of these alternates, but the clues are there.

29 - Ole Pal Of Yesterday (1) (2:36) 1992
30 - Ole Pal Of Yesterday (2) (2:37) 1986
31 - Ole Pal Of Yesterday (3) (2:36) 1983
32 - Ole Pal Of Yesterday (4) (2:36) 1974
(Gene Autry-Jimmy Long) (Songs Of Universe)

29-32 Recorded Probably February 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 2 Contains 1957

Jerry Lee Lewis took an extended break from the studio work throughout April and May 1957, during which he toured extensively in the mid-west and in Canada. But before leaving Memphis he worked on a second, so-called ''slow'' arrangement of ''It'll Be Me'' would itself in due course reap further rewards for Clement when it found a place on Lewis's first album and/or EP that year or so later. Again, successive takes demonstrated steady progress until the LP/EP master was settled upon.

With the exception of the initial pair and the last of the seven, these takes are not that easy to differentiate but there are some useful pointers. The opener is straightforward, as it is missing the emblematic ''knock on the door'' drum intro. Take 2, once it is underway following a false start, establishes the template for what is to come but this effort is set apart by Jerry Lee's vocal histrionics as they come out of the instrumental break. In take 3, during the same passage, the phrase ''in the night\\ is noticeably hurried compared to the norm. Take 4 alone features, in the fourth verse, the idea of ''something funny'' as opposed to ''a funny face'' being seen ''in a comic book''. In take 5 an untypical piano break confirms that we're on new ground. The second, LP master then follows; the main point of reference is simply that this is the most recognisable take, against which the variations perceptible in the others can be measured although one vocal nuance which can be highlighted is the clipped way in which the term ''sugar bowl'' is sung in the penultimate line. Take 6 has been presented as a postscript here because it presents a change of tempo that isolates it from the mainstream development of the song.

1 - It'll Be Me (2.1) (2:29) 1983
2 - It'll Be Me (2.2) (3 False Starts) (0:24) 2015 Sun Unissued
3 - It'll Be Me (2.3) (2:14) 2015 Sun Unissued
4 - It'll Be Me (2.4) (2:16) 2015 Sun Unissued
5 - It'll Be Me (2.5) (4 False Starts) (0:30) 2015Sun Unissued
6 - It'll Be Me (2.6) (2:15) 2015 Sun Unissued
7 - It'll Be Me (2.7) (2:20) 1992
8 - It'll Be Me (2.8) LP Master) (2:15) 1958
9 - It'll Be Me (2.9) (2:10) 1987
(Jack Clement) (Knox Music Incorporated)

10 - All Night Long (1) (Chatter & Take) (2:06) 1983
11 - All Night Long (2) (2:03) 1974
(Traditional Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Copyright Control)

''Old Time Religion" recorded here by Jerry Lee Lewis, is a traditional gospel song dating from 1873, when it was included in a list of Jubilee songs, or earlier. It has become a standard in many Protestant hymnals, though it says nothing about Jesus or the gospel, and covered by many artists. Some scholars, such as Forrest Mason McCann, have asserted the possibility of an earlier stage of evolution of the song, in that "the tune may go back to English folk origins" (later dying out in the white repertoire but staying alive in the work songs of African Americans). In any event, it was by way of Charles Davis Tillman that the song had incalculable influence on the confluence of black spiritual and white gospel song traditions in forming the genre now known as southern gospel. Tillman was largely responsible for publishing the song into the repertoire of white audiences. It was first heard sung by African-Americans and written down by Tillman when he attended a camp meeting in Lexington, South Carolina in 1889.

A popular version of "Old Time Religion" was done by The Caravans in 1954 with a young James Cleveland singing lead. Vocals in the group also included Cassietta George, Albertina Walker, Louise McDowell and Johneron Davis.

12 - Old Time Religion (1) (1:55) 1983
13 - Old Time Religion (2) (1:37) 1970
(Charles Davis Tillmans) (Copyright Control)

"When The Saints Go Marching In", often referred to as "The Saints", is an American gospel hymn. Though it originated as a Christian hymn, it is often played by jazz bands. This song was famously recorded on May 13, 1938 by Louis Armstrong and his Orchestra. The song is sometimes confused with a similarly titled composition "When The Saints are Marching In" from 1896 by Katharine Purvis wrote the lyrics and James Milton Black composed the music.

The origins of this song are unclear. It apparently evolved in the early 1900s from a number of similarly titled gospel songs including "When The Saints Are Marching In" (1896) and "When The Saints March In for Crowning" (1908). The first known recorded version was in 1923 by the Paramount Jubilee Singers on Paramount 12073. Although the title given on the label is "When All The Saints Come Marching In," the group sings the modern lyrics beginning with "When the saints go marching in...". No author is shown on the label. Several other gospel versions were recorded in the 1920s, with slightly varying titles but using the same lyrics, including versions by The Four Harmony Kings (1924), Elkins-Payne Jubilee Singers (1924), Wheat Street Female Quartet (1925), Bo Weavil Jackson (1926), Deaconess Alexander (1926), Rev. E. D. Campbell (1927), Robert Hicks (aka Barbecue Bob, 1927), Blind Willie Davis (1928), and the Pace Jubilee Singers (1928). The earliest versions were slow and stately, but as time passed the recordings became more rhythmic, including a distinctly up tempo version by the Sanctified Singers on British Parlophone in 1931. Even though the song had folk roots, a number of composers claimed copyright in it in later years, including Luther G. Presley and Virgil Oliver Stamps, R.E. Winsett, and Frank and Jim McCravy. Although the song is still heard as a slow spiritual number, since the mid-20th century it has been more commonly performed as a "hot" number. The tune is particularly associated with the city of New Orleans. A jazz standard, it has been recorded by a great many jazz and pop artists.

Both vocal and instrumental renditions of the song abound. Louis Armstrong was one of the first to make the tune into a nationally known pop tune in the 1930s for Decca Records. Armstrong wrote that his sister told him she thought the secular performance style of the traditional church tune was inappropriate and irreligious. Armstrong was in a New Orleans tradition of turning church numbers into brass band and dance.

14 - When The Saints Go Marching In (Undubbed Master) (2:11) 1983
(Traditional-Jerry Lee Lewis) (Range &Hill Music

1-14 Recorded Probably February 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

15 - It All Depends (1) (Undubbed Master) (3:01) 1983
(Billy Mize) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

This standard, Jerry here cut three superb (but similar) takes during his early months at Sun, both performed fairly fast and with the trademark ''pumpin'' piano much in evidence. One take was issued on ''Olde Tyme Country Music'' in 1970, while the alternate take was first issued on ''The Sun Years'' in 1983. The re-cut is performed much slower, the prominent harmonica gives it a similar feel to his 1975 ''Odd Man In'' album and for once the overdubbed duet vocal (by Sheryl Crow) probably genuinely enhances what was a more than OK track beforehand. Released on the ''Mean Old Man'' EP in 2009 and again on the album of the same name this year, it’s an undoubted highlight of both the EP and the album.

"You Are My Sunshine" is a popular American song and it was first recorded in 1939. It also happens to be one of Louisiana's state songs. The songwriters for this song are Charles Mitchell and James Davis. While Jimmie Davis who sung the 2nd version of this song used his association with this song for immense political mileage when running for governorship of Louisiana.

This song is soaked in history and it has been featured in numerous films, television shows, television commercials, and radio commercials additionally numerous sporting teams, such as Wigan Athletic Football Club too have used this song. Today this song is a extremely well known song and is a standard for traditional country music and traditional jazz performers. The song "You Are My Sunshine" is frequently called "The Sunshine Song".

16 - You Are My Sunshine (1) (2 False Starts) (0:26) 2015 1st False Start Sun Unissued
17 - You Are My Sunshine (2) (2:14) 1983
18 - You Are My Sunshine (3) (2:12 1970
(James H. Davis-Charles Mitchell) (Peer International)

Elizabeth "Libba" Cotten (née Neville) born on January 5, 1893, was an American blues and folk musician, singer, and songwriter. A self-taught left-handed guitarist, Cotten developed her own original style. Her approach involved using a right-handed guitar (usually in standard tuning), not re-strung for left-handed playing, essentially, holding a right-handed guitar upside down. This position required her to play the bass lines with her fingers and the melody with her thumb. Her signature alternating bass style has become known as "cotten picking".

Elizabeth Nevills was born in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, to a musical family. Her parents were George Nevill (also spelled Nevills) and Louisa (or Louise) Price Nevill. Elizabeth was the youngest of five children. At age seven, Cotten began to play her older brother's banjo. By eight years old, she was playing songs. At the age of 11, after scraping together some money as a domestic helper, she bought her own guitar. The guitar, a Sears and Roebuck brand instrument, cost her $3.75. Although self-taught, she became very good at playing the instrument. By her early teens she was writing her own songs, among ''I Don't Love Nobody'' voiced here twice by Jerry Lee Lewis with his pumping piano style with the sharp guitar accompaniment by Roland Janes and the drumming of Jimmy Van Eaton, but one of which, "Freight Train", became one of her most recognized. Cotten wrote "Freight Train" in remembrance of the nearby train that she could hear from her childhood home.

Around the age of 13, Cotten began working as a maid along with her mother. On November 7, 1910, at the age of 17, she married Frank Cotten. The couple had a daughter named Lillie, and soon after young Elizabeth gave up guitar playing for family and church. Elizabeth, Frank and their daughter Lillie moved around the eastern United States for a number of years between North Carolina, New York, and Washington, D.C., finally settling in the D.C. area. When Lillie married, Elizabeth divorced Frank and moved in with her daughter and her family.

Cotten had retired from the guitar for 25 years, except for occasional church performances. She didn't begin performing publicly and recording until she was in her 1960s. She was discovered by the folk-singing Seeger family while she was working for them as a housekeeper.

While working briefly in a department store, Cotten helped a child wandering through the aisles find her mother. The child was Penny Seeger, and the mother was composer Ruth Crawford Seeger. Soon after this, Elizabeth again began working as a maid, caring for Ruth Crawford Seeger and Charles Seeger's children, Mike, Peggy, Barbara, and Penny. While working with the Seegers (a voraciously musical family) she remembered her own guitar playing from 40 years prior and picked up the instrument again to relearn almost from scratch.

In the later half of the 1950s, Mike Seeger began making bedroom reel to reel recordings of Cotten's songs in her house. These recordings later became the album Folksongs and Instrumentals with Guitar, which was released on Folkways Records. Since that album, her songs, especially her signature track, Freight Train, which she wrote when she was 11, have been covered by Peter, Paul, and Mary, Jerry Garcia, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Devendra Banhart, Laura Gibson, Laura Veirs, His Name Is Alive, Doc Watson, Taj Mahal and Geoff Farina. Shortly after that first album, she began playing concerts with Mike Seeger, the first of which was in 1960 at Swarthmore College.

In the early 1960s, Cotten went on to play concerts with some of the big names in the burgeoning folk revival. Some of these included Mississippi John Hurt, John Lee Hooker, and Muddy Waters at venues such as the Newport Folk Festival and the Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife.

The new-found interest in her work inspired her to write more material to play, and in 1967 she released a record created with her grandchildren, which took its name from one of her songs, Shake Sugaree. Using profits from her touring, record releases, and from the many awards given to her for her own contributions to the folk arts, Elizabeth was able to move with her daughter and grandchildren from Washington, D.C., and buy a house in Syracuse, New York. She was also able to continue touring and releasing records well into her 1980s. In 1984, she won the Grammy Award for "Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording" for the album on Arhoolie Records, ''Elizabeth Cotten Live''. When accepting the award in Los Angeles, her comment was, "Thank you. I only wish I had my guitar so I could play a song for you all." In 1989, Cotten was one of 75 influential African-American women included in the photo documentary, ''I Dream A World''. Elizabeth Cotten died in June 29, 1987, at Crouse-Irving Hospital in Syracuse, New York, at the age of 94.

19 - I Don't Love Nobody (1) (1:25) 1992
20 - I Don't Love Nobody (2) (2:10) 1974
(Elizabeth Cotten) (Copyright Control)

''Long Gone Lonesome Blues'' is a prime example of the session dynamic that both Roland Janes and Jimmy M. Van Eaton described. Jerry Lee would simply start to play and it was up to his sidemen to scramble until they caught up with him. The result, as on this track, is that it ends a lot more solidly than it begins. Even if you're not a studio musician, it stands to reason that you can play with more authority when you know the key, the tempo, and the song title.

That being said, this performance still has a lot to recommend it. It also underscores the fact that Hank Williams songs were a part of everyone's musical consciousness, at least in Tennessee in February 1957, barely four years after the singer's death. Two things to help put this track into context: (1) it stems from an early February 1957 session and was only the 22nd song title Jerry Lee recorded for Sun, and (2) if session logs are to be believed, it was followed almost immediately by the master recording of ''Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On'' (Sun 267). Would you have guessed listening to this Hank Williams title that within minutes the same musicians would produce one of rock and roll's classic recordings?

"Long Gone Lonesome Blues" is 1950 song by Hank Williams played on this session by Jerry Lee for Sun Records. The song was Hank Williams' second number one on the country and western chart. "Long Gone Lonesome Blues" stayed on the charts for twenty-one weeks, with five weeks at the top of the country and western chart. The B-side of the song, entitled "My Son Calls Another Man Daddy," peaked at number nine on the country and western chart.

"Long Gone Lonesome Blues" is quite similar in form and style to Williams' previous number 1 hit "Lovesick Blues." Biographer Colin Escott speculates that Hank deliberately utilized the similar title, tempo, and yodels because, although he had scored five Top 5 hits since "Lovesick Blues" had topped the charts, he had not had another number 1. Williams had been carrying the title around in his head for a while but it was not until he went on a fishing trip with songwriter Vic McAlpin that the inspiration to write the song took hold: "They left early to drive out to the Tennessee River where it broadens into Kentucky Lake, but Hank had been unable to sleep on the trip, and was noodling around with the title all the way. As McAlpin told journalist Roger Williams, he and Hank were already out on the lake when McAlpin became frustrated with Hank's pre-occupation. ''You come here to fish or watch the fish swim by''? he said, and suddenly Hank had the key that unlocked the song for him. ''Hey''! he said. ''That's the first line''!

As he sometimes did, Williams bought out McAlpin's meager share in the song and took sole credit. The tune was recorded in Nashville at Castle Studio with Fred Rose producing on January 9, 1950 and featured Jerry Rivers (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Bob McNett (lead guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), and Ernie Newton (bass). The song's bluesy guitar intro, high falsettos, and Hank's suicidal yet irresistibly catchy lyrics, sent it soaring to the top of the country charts on March 25, 1950.

21 - Long Gone Lonesome Blues (2:04) 1974
(Hank Williams) (Warner Chappell Music)

At a later stage here, Lewis entertain everyone in the studio with a casual yet innovative third version of ''It'll Be Me'' which, unaccountably, has been overlooked in any re-issue programme until now. This shows Jerry Lee a tad irreverent, and quite what Jack Clement would have made of it can only be guessed at. For all one knows, he may have been disappointed that Lewis didn't pick up on the original analogy and replace the line about u lump in a sugar bowl with an explicit reference to the scatological inspiration, although there's certainly a hint in the final refrain that Jerry Lee almost did exactly that. The rest of us can simply celebrate the fact that in 2015, fifty-eight years after this light-hearted gem was recorded, it's finally available for us to enjoy.

22 - It'll Be Me (3) Sun Unissued (2:38) 2015
(Jack Clement) (Knox Music Incorporated)

The master take of ''Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On'', is readily set apart from its forebears by the introduction of the ''slapback'' echo that invests the performance with its distinctive and memorable character. This process was never better illustrated than by the words of hank Davis, in his 1983 essay ''The Sun Sound'', published in association with the Charly box sets, viz; ''...the driving, pounding sound came from miking the piano just right and feeding the sound back on itself at just the right rate in order to fatten it up. By the time the drums join and Jerry Lee begins to sing, the record id throbbing with its own hypnotic life. Words like ''pounding'' or ''incessant'' don't even scratch the descriptive surface. In a sense, the entire record is the rhythm section. No wonder Jerry Lee's vocal or piano glissandi work so well, anything that moves in counterpoint to or breaks the underlying tension is bound to succeed''.

Rockabilly pianist Roy Hall, who, under the pseudonym of Sunny David, wrote ''Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On'' with black musician Dave Williams, also recorded his own version, before Lewis inspired a generation of teens by injecting the song with his inimitable brand of boogie-woogie, country, gospel and rhythm and blues-infused hellfire. Released in May 1957, the single rose to number eight in the United Kingdom, reached number three on what was then known as the Billboard Top 100, and became an rhythm and blues and country chart-topper. In the process, it launched the career of the piano-pounding, rocket-fuelled wildman whose manic, overtly sexual live performances provoked parental nightmares. As it happens, the self-described ''Killer'' only enjoyed four Top 20 hits before the scandal of his marriage to a 13-year-old cousin brought the successes to a screeching halt. Yet, courtesy of a wide-ranging career that has now spanned seven decades and comprised an impressive body of work, Lewis’s legend has remained intact, and the tale of how he first came to prominence is, like the man himself, quite unique.

After four recordings, disc jockey Johnny Littlefield received Roy Hall's latest Decca release in the mail in the fall of 1955. He immediately began playing the record in the air. He also began singing the song in his nightclub, the Wagon Wheel also called the Music Box in some sources). One of the members of his house band was piano player Jerry Lee Lewis. Reportedly, Lewis began begged Littlefield to allow him to sing the song in the club. Lewis has said that he first remembers hearing "Big Mama Thornton's recording of "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" sometime in 1955. Obviously, Lewis meant Big Maybelle, not Willie Mae Thornton. In any case, Jerry Lee Lewis incorporated "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" into his act. On April 15, 1957, Jerry Lee Lewis appeared "Whole Lotta Shakin' Going On" on the Steve Allen show.

Jerry Lee didn't write many songs but he sure did breathe new life into virtually everything he performed. "Whole Lotta Shakin'" is a case in point. Listen to earlier versions of the song by Roy Hall or blues shouter Big Maybelle. What Jerry Lee has brought to this massive hit is truly worthy of composer credit.

23 - Whole Lot of Shakin' Going On (2) (Master Sun 267) (2:54) 1957
(Dave "Curly" Williams-Sunny David (aka Roy Hall) (Marlyn Music-Robert Mellin Music)

Jimmy Rogers (aka "The Singing Brakeman", "The Blue Yodeler", and "The Father of Country Music" recorded ''My Carolina Sunshine Girl'' on October 20, 1928 in Atlanta, Georgia, backed with ''Desert Blues'' for Victor (V-40096).

24 - My Carolina Sunshine Girl (1:51) 1974
(Jimmie Rodgers) (Peer International)

"Shame On You" performed here by Jerry Lee Lewis is a western swing song written by Spade Cooley and became Cooley's signature song. The title comes from the refrain that starts each verse: ''Shame, shame on you. Shame, shame on you''. In the song, the singer is rebuking his straying girlfriend.

First recorded by Spade Cooley, it was released January 15, 1945 (OKeh 6731). With vocals by Tex Williams, it reached number 1 spending 31 weeks on the charts. The "B" side, "A Pair Of Broken Hearts", also a hit reached number 8. The recording was Cooley's first after taking over the band from Jimmy Wakely, and the first of an unbroken chain of six hits which led to him being on the cover of Billboard in March 1946. "Shame On You" was the first song whose rights were owned by the Hill & Range publishing company, which later grew to become a dominant force in country music.

Later in 1945, "Shame On You" was recorded by The Lawrence Welk Orchestra with Red Foley. Their version also went to number one on the country charts. The B-side of the song, entitled, "At Mail Call Today" went to number three on the country charts. Coast Records, based in Los Angeles released a version by Walt Shrum and His Colorado Hillbillies. "Shame On You" has also been recorded by several other western swing bands.

25 - Shame On You (2:10) 1974
(Spade Cooley) (Hill and Range Songs Incorporated)

''Drinkin' Wine'' a long-time favourite of Jerry’s (legend has it that this was the first non-religious song he ever performed in public way back in circa 1949), and every version is great in it’s own way. The first version from 1957 has a very memorable piano intro (I wish he’d recreate it ‘live’) though due to the subject matter (getting paralytic drunk) it had to wait until the 1971 ´Monsters’ album before it was released. The 1958 version (actually 2 takes) wasn’t released until the 1983 ''The Sun Years'' box-set, and the 1963 Smash cut was one of the highlights of the 1966 ''Memphis Beat'' LP. Lastly, the 1973 cut from ''The Session'' was also released as a single (times had changed since 1957), deservedly reaching the United States pop top 40. The song is still more often than not part of Jerry's stage show today.

Granville ''Stick'' McGhee, in the military, Granville often played his guitar and one of the songs, that McGhee was best known for his co-written song "Drinkin' Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee". The original lyrics of the song were as follows: ''Drinkin’ that mess is our delight, and when we get drunk, start fightin’ all night. Knockin’ out windows and tearin’ down doors, drinkin’ half-gallons and callin’ for more. Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Pass that bottle to me''! This song was one of the earliest prototypical rock and roll songs and was covered by Jerry Lee Lewis for his Sun International LP ''Monsters'' (Sun 124, April 1971) and Mike Bloomfield's Electric Flag (as "Wine"). The song lent its name to the alcoholic fruit drink, spodi.

In 1946, Granville and Brownie McGhee collaborated and modified the song into a clean cut version for Harlem Records. The song was released a year later in January 1947 at the price of 49 cents. The song did not get much airplay time until two years later, when Granville recreated the song for Atlantic Records. As a result, it rose to number 2 on the Billboard Rhythm And Blues chart, where it stayed for 4 weeks, spending almost half a year on the charts overall.

His songs attracted countless covers over the years. The first cover was by Lionel Hampton featuring Sonny Parker, then Wynonie Harris, and lastly, Loy Gordon and His Pleasant Valley Boys with their hillbilly-bop rendition. His song "Drinkin' Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee" maintained its popularity throughout the 1950s by various artists, including Malcolm Yelvington, recorded on October 10, 1954 for Sun Records (Sun 211), and Johnny Burnette (Coral 9-61869) in 1957.

26 - Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee (1) (2:36) 1971
(Stick McGhee) (Leeds Music Incorporated)

15-26 Recorded Probably February 5, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

27 - Pumping Piano Rock (2:04) 1974
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

The first of the nine takes of ''Little Green Valley'' stands apart from the rest, featuring as it does Jerry Lee's malapropism ''constellation'' in place of ''consolation'', although the balance of the sound suggests that this might date from a separate occasion than the others. It is equally possible that the distinction, notwithstanding the vocal aberration, is simply down to a re-balancing of the levels at which individual instruments were miked, bringing the piano to the fore on the ensuing majority. Without having any definitive pointers as to when they were recorded it was thought appropriate to present all nine takes en bloc. Leaving aside the atypical first cut, the remaining eight lend themselves to being examined in four pairs. Take 2 and 3 both represent a storming attack on the song. The most obvious points of reference to distinguish one from the other are in the instrumental break; take 2 features a glissando absent from take 3 and, in the first of the two, there's no mention of ''Roland Boy'' until after he has come to the fore, instead of the customary introduction ahead of the solo.

Take 4 and 5 display a lighter touch and the tempo is reduced, the first obvious point of differentiation, revealed in the second of the two, is a brief upward piano figure at 0:36, missing from its predecessor. There's also plenty of evidence in the respective guitar solos of these two to tall them apart; in take 5 Roland Janes invests the ''valley'' with a sunnier, more cheerful outlook. The sixth take stands apart as the only take in the entire series to end with an upward run on the keyboard. Its nearest match is the seventh; in both of these variants the phrase ''…and that's the thought'' at 0:37 is delivered in a higher register than heard previously.

The remaining pair are marked both by the greater prominence of the guitar and by a departure from the established pattern in Jerry Lee's opening, where he helps regulate the rhythm by striking a beat with his left hand in the second bar, repeating a brief ''one-two-three-- pattern. These takes might be assumed to be identical were it not for two factors; one quite obvious, the other less so. In the second of the two takes the guitar is right up front almost from the off, but lest it be supposed this might be an engineered addition, a more telling reference point is at 0:51 on take 8 where there's a descending piano figure that isn't heard on the final attempt.

Carson Jay Robison was an American country music singer and songwriter, he wrote this ''Little Green Valley'', and Jerry Lee Lewis recorded here several takes at Sun Records. Although his impact is generally forgotten today, Robison played a major role in promoting country music in its early years through numerous recordings and radio appearances. He was also known as Charles Robison and sometimes composed under the pseudonym Carlos B. McAfee. Carson Jay Robison was born in Oswego, Kansas. The son of a champion fiddler, he became a professional musician in the American Midwest at the age of 15, primarily as a whistler working with Wendell Hall, "The Red-Headed Music Maker", on the early 1920s music hall circuit. He worked as a singer and whistler at radio station WDAF (Kansas City, Missouri).

In 1924 he moved to New York City and was signed to his first recording contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company. Also that year, Robison started a professional collaboration with Vernon Dalhart, one of the era's most notable singers. Through this relationship, Robison realized huge success, mainly as a songwriter but also as a musician, accompanying Dalhart on guitar, harmonica, whistling, and harmony vocals. In one of their first collaborations, Robison accompanied Dalhart on the landmark recording of "Wreck Of The Old '97" backed with "The Prisoner's Song" (1924), widely regarded as country music's first million-seller. During this period, Robison also became a successful composer of "event" songs, which recounted current events or tragedies in a predictable fashion, usually concluding in a moral lesson. Some popular examples of his topical compositions include "The Wreck of the Number Nine" and "The John T. Scopes Trial", about the famous Scopes Monkey Trial.

In 1928, after Dalhart made a personnel change without consulting Robison, their relationship ended. Although the breakup did not prove lucrative for either artist, Robison continued to record for decades to come. From 1928 to 1931 he teamed with Frank Luther, recording songs for various labels and appearing on WOR radio in New York City. In 1932, he started his own band, Carl Robison's Pioneers (later renamed The Buckaroos), and continued touring and recording through the 1930s and 1940s. It was during this period that Robison made some of the earliest tours of a country musician in the British Isles, appearing there in 1932, 1936, and 1938. According to Billboard, his 1942 recording of the standard "Turkey in the Straw" was that year's top selling country recording. In the late 1940s and early 1950s he appeared on the Grand Ole Opry. His most famous recording was 1948's "Life Gets Tee-Jus Don't It", a worldwide hit for MGM Records. Although he played country music for most of his career, he is also remembered for writing the lyrics for "Barnacle Bill The Sailor" with music composed by Frank Luther. Also, in 1956, he recorded the novelty rock and roll song "Rockin' And Rollin' With Grandmaw''. Robison died in 1957 in Poughkeepsie in New York.

28 - Little Green Valley (1) (1:53) 1974
29 - Little Green Valley (2) (1:54) 1983
30 - Little Green Valley (3) (1:55) 2015 Sun Unissued
31 - Little Green Valley (4) (2:11) 2015 Sun Unissued
32 - Little Green Valley (5) (2:06) 1989
33 - Little Green Valley (6) (2:03) 2015 Sun Unissued
34 - Little Green Valley (7) (2:02) 2015 Sun Unissued
35 - Little Green Valley (8) (1:58) 2015 Sun Unissued
36 - Little Green Valley (9) (1:59) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Carson Jay Robison) (Copyright Control)

"Tomorrow Night" is a 1939 song written by Sam Coslow and Will Grosz. The same year Horace Heidt peaked at number sixteen with his version of the song. In 1948, Lonnie Johnson had a crossover hit on King Records (Johnson had also previously recorded the song for Paradise records in 1947) with the song, which had Johnson on guitar and Simeon Hatch on piano. Lonnie Johnson's version hit number one on the rhythm and blues charts for seven non consecutive weeks and peaked at number nineteen on the pop chart.

Lonnie Johnson's version of "Tomorrow Night" would become his theme song and transformed the song into a blues standard. Lavern Baker had another hit on it in 1956. The song was recorded by Elvis Presley during his tenure at Sun records. Jerry Lee Lewis also recorded the song here during his time at Sun Records. Bob Dylan recorded the song on his 1992 album ''Good As I Been To You''.

37 - Tomorrow Night (2:57) 1974
(Sam Coslow-Will Grosz) (Bourne Music)

At around this time. Jerry Lee performed another 1930s pop song, ''Love Letters In The Sand'', with gently insouciance, probably just as he was loosening up in the studio with a more serious agenda to follow. Pat Boone's version of this topped the United States national charts for five weeks in June and July 1957, a factor that may offer some clues to the time-line of the recording events although it's feasible that Jerry Lee ran through the song while Boone recording was still climbing the Billboard Hot 100, ever ready to adsorb and interpret whatever he was hearing on the radio. Of course it can't be ruled out that he'd known the song long before Pat Boone ever thought to record it. ''Love Letters In The Sand" is a popular song first published in 1931. The music was written by J. Fred Coots and the lyrics by Nick Kenny and Charles Kenny. The song was "inspired" by an 1881 composition, "The Spanish Cavalier" by William D. Hendrickson. Ted Black's orchestra had the first major hit.

38 - Love Letters In The Sand (2:03) 1983
(Nick Kenny-Charles Kenny-J. Fred Coots) (Francis Day & Hunter Music)

27-38 Recorded Probably May 30, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Russell Smith (drums), Jay W. Brown (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 3 Contains 1957

"Hand Me Down My Walking Cane" was recorded by Jerry Lee Lewis in his usual upbeat fashion, but when it was written there was no such thing as pumping piano, and the concept of "rocking shoes", which the listener is also asked to hand down, would have left most audiences perplexed.

"Hand Me Down My Walking Cane" is regarded as a traditional song, but its authorship is often attributed to James Bland, spiritual heir of Stephen Foster, the finest minstrel composer of the late 19th Century, and the author of "Carry Me Back To Old Virginny". Bland is credited with writing some seven hundred songs, but copyrighted only about twenty percent of them, an unforgivable sin for the son of a patent lawyer!

Although there appears to be no direct evidence that he wrote the song, his entry in the African American National Biography (by reference librarian William Lichtenwanger), leads to some interesting speculation. Bland crossed the Atlantic with a minstrel troupe, and became a big hit in the British music halls, staying on when the others departed. As well as developing a taste for fine living he mixed with royalty, and is said to have been presented with a gold-headed ebony cane by the Prince of Wales (Edward VII). Could this be the cane alluded to in the song?

The story in the song is not an entirely happy one; although there is no mention either of a white sports coat as in the Jerry Lee Lewis version, the singer asks to be handed down "my bottle o' corn". And unsurprisingly ends up in jail drunk.

Bland suffered a worse fate than jail; although at one point he was said to be earning upwards of ten thousand dollars a year, a staggering sum then even for a college educated black man, he appears to have frittered away his money, and when minstrelsy was eclipsed by Vaudeville he found his talents were no longer in demand. He returned home after the turn of the Century, moving eventually to Philadelphia and died from tuberculosis in both poverty and obscurity on May 6, 1911.

In The Tin Pan Alley Song Encyclopedia, author Thomas Hischak dates "Hand Me Down My Walking Cane" to circa 1865 and refers to it as "a traditional American spiritual that compares dying and going to heaven to grabbing a cane and catching the midnight train now that 'all my sins are taken away'". If this is indeed, the case, it rules out James Bland as the author, as he was not born until 1854. Thanks, Alexander Baron, London, England, for all above.

1 - Hand Me Down My Walking Cane (2:19) 1970
(James A. Bland-Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Robbins Music-Francis Day & Hunter)

Another song from this session worth noting the development of is ''You Win Again'', ultimately chosen for release as one side of the next single. Jerry Lee Lewis' earliest portrayals here utilise the ''pumping piano'' in full measure, firmly distancing these from the plaintive heartbreak ballad as written which, until Lewis eventually made a hit out of it, had been one of the lesser lights in Hank Williams' oeuvre. In these early takes, rather than lamenting the loss of affection, it's almost as if Jerry Lee is saying, ''who cares, anyway''? There was clearly no serious intent to make a record in this style for commercial release; the likelihood is that the song was being used as a warming up exercise. There's not a great deal to serve to distinguish between the three ''fast'' takes of ''You Win Again''. In the first, Jerry Lee starts his vocal at the end of the second bar of the intro as opposed to doing so in the third bar of the remaining two, while take two incorporate a gratuitous ''here'' after the word ''out'' in the second line. As usual, each piano solo proceeds along its own spontaneous course.

Jerry actually recorded ''You Win Again'' at two 1957 Sun sessions; initially he taped three inappropriate fast takes, and then a few weeks later cut the more well-known slower version. The fast takes stayed in the can for over a quarter of a century, with the first of these being issued on ''The Sun Years'' box-set in 1983, while the slower cut (with a tasteful male vocal group overdub) was issued as the B-side to ''Great Balls Of Fire'' (in the United Kingdom it was even issued as an A-side in it’s own right but sadly sold poorly). The 1963 recut reinstates the final verse that Jerry didn’t sing on the Sun single, and the fuller backing (including girly singers and strings) perfectly suits the material.

2 - You Win Again (1.1) (2:05) 1992
3 - You Win Again (1.2) (2:07) 1983
4 - You Win Again (1.3) (False Start & Take) (2:08) 1986
(Hank Williams) (Acuff-Rose Music Publishing-Hiriam Music)

1-4 Recorded Probably May 30, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Russell Smith (drums), Jay W. Brown (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

Back in the mid-1930s, while Gene Autry was appearing on "The Old Barn Dance" radio show, he began receiving love letters from a woman in Iowa. After several months the woman's doctor wrote to Autry and told him she was mentally disturbed. The physician requested that Autry write to her and tell her that he was not at all interested in her romantic overtures. In the last letter Autry received from the woman, she described being alone. After hearing Autry on the radio she walked outside and stared at the night sky. She wrote: "I looked at the stars in the heavens. I saw millions of them, but you're the only star in my blue heaven". That line inspired Autry to write the song "You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven)". His recording (conqueror 9098) was released in December 1935. Roy Acuff had a popular 1936 recording of the song (ARC-7-04-51). Autry sang the song in his movie "The Old Barn Dance" (1938). Here an highlight from Jerry in 3 excellent takes behind his pumping piano.

In a further three readings of Gene Audry's ''You're The Only Star In My Blue Heaven'' there are plenty of clues to help separate them, leaving aside the question of the tempo employed on each take. Observe how in two of the three, the solos are preceded by the phrase ''...I'm waiting just for you'' while at this juncture in the third Jerry Lee sings ''… and you're shining just for me''. Use of the same personal pronouns is then maintained through to the conclusion of the song on each run through. In one of the two which share the corresponding lyric, the instrumental passage is announced with the interjection ''one time'' while in the each of the solos one can discern variations in the use of glissandi.

5 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (2.1) (Chord & Take) (2:50) 1992
6 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (2.2) (2:30) 1989
7 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (2.3) (2:23) 1970
(Gene Autry) (Shapiro Bernstein & Corporation)

Jerry Lee Lewis also turned his hand during his first summer at Sun to The Dominoes' 1951 hit ''Sixty Minute Man'', leaving three recordings of this risqué number with no prospect of the song being released. While all three takes are performed in essentially the same way, there are several reference points to tell them apart. The repeated opening chord of the first is hammered in a lower register than as heard in the other two. Of the latter, one features the wording ''lord, I rock and roll them'' in the first verse; the other ''I rock and I roll them''. Any doubters can always relish the spontaneity shown in the piano solos from one take to the next.

Although considered far too risqué to be released at the time, ''Sixty Minute Man'' is a tremendous recording with a very inspired and flamboyant vocal and superb piano playing (not forgetting the contributions from guitarist Roland Janes and drummer James Van Eaton, two very important elements of most of his 1950s recordings). Even Sun International during their prolific 1969-1971 releases somehow overlooked this track, and instead it had to wait until the 1974 United Kingdom ''Rockin’ And Free'' collection. The 1973 cut isn’t bad, but lacks the energy of the earlier version, and at over 3 and half minutes (almost exactly twice the length of the 1957 cut) it’s a little over-long.

Written by group member Billy Ward and his collaborator and business partner Rose Marks, this is an early doo-wop classic that held up to many rock and roll records that emerged later in the 1950s. The song is rooted in blues music, and follows the frequent blues theme of the singer bragging about his sexual prowess. This song had more of an rhythm and blues sound and was an early influence on rock music. With lead vocals by Billy Ward, this was one of the first double-entendre hits, one of the first rhythm and blues hits to cross over to the pop charts, and one of the seminal songs that helped shape the newly emerging rock and roll.

Billy Ward and His Dominoes were a big deal in the 1950s, being one of the best-selling acts of that decade and having three Billboard Top 40 hits by the end of the decade. It was an integrated group, named for the black and white on dominoes. Billy Ward, who played piano for the group, lived to the ripe old age of 80.

"Sixty Minute Man" was used in the soundtrack to the 1988 film Bull Durham. It was also performed as a kind of promotional joke by Ed Bradley, reporter for the TV news magazine, what else?, 60 Minutes.

8 - Sixty Minute Man (1) (1:51) 1987
9 - Sixty Minute Man (2) 1:49) 1983
10 - Sixty Minute Man (3) (1:50) 1974
(William ''Billy'' Ward-Rose Marks) (Windswept Music)

11 - I'll Keep On Loving You (1:50) 1970
(Floyd Tillman) (Copyright Control)

"Lewis Boogie" (Sun 301) is written by Jerry Lee Lewis in 1956 and released as a single in June 1958 on Sun Records and backed with "The Return of Jerry Lee". The recording was reissued in 1979 as a 7" 45 single as Sun 29 as part of the Sun Golden Treasure Series. The song was also released in the United Kingdom and Canada as a single. The first edition of the single listed "The Return of Jerry Lee" on both sides and was credited to "Louis" rather than "Lewis". The editing and recording of "The Return of Jerry Lee" was done by Jack Clement and George Klein on May 30, 1958. The single of "Lewis Boogie" was also released in the United Kingdom as a 45 single in 1964 on London Records as London HLS 9867 backed with "Bonnie B". The song was also released in Canada in 1958 as a 45 single on Quality Records. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a live version of the song with the British band The Nashville Teens on the landmark 1964 live album ''Live At the Star Club, Hamburg'', regarded critically as one of the greatest live albums in rock and roll history.

The track appeared on the 1984 Rhino Records collection 18 Original Sun Greatest Hits which featured the most successful recordings by Jerry Lee Lewis on the Sun label. The song appeared in a new recording by Jerry Lee Lewis in the 1989 Orion Pictures biopic ''Great Balls of Fire''! during the closing credits. "Lewis Boogie" is featured in the 2005 Johnny Cash biopic ''Walk The Line''. It was performed by Waylon Payne in the film and its soundtrack. In 2007, the song was featured on the live album ''Last Man Standing Live'', recorded in 2006 in collaboration with other musicians.

Robert Palmer writes that the song "was a mixture of local black influences, the hillbilly boogie and rhythm and blues that were so popular on Southern jukeboxes when he was growing up, and - the most crucial ingredient - the Killer's individual musical genius''. Charlie Gillett writes that at "his best-as in..."Lewis Boogie (1958)" -Lewis epitomized the careless confidence that some people liked rock and roll for''.

12 - Lewis Boogie (1) (2:00) 1983
13 - Lewis Boogie (2) (Master Sun 301) (2:01) 1958
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

5-13 Recorded Probably June 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

But first let's look at the development of the song ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'' it self. Clement obviously had high hopes for his composition, later to be realised when Ricky Nelson covered it on his second album, released in July 1958. Ricky's version is probably representative of what Jack Clement had in mind when he wrote the song and it shares the same modest gait we hear on Jerry Lee Lewis' first attempt. But when Jack presented ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'' to Lewis, most likely early in July 1957, they tried it at various speeds; initially, a slow ballad, as originally conceived; next, up-tempo; then at a medium pace, as heard in the complete take presented here, and finally demonstrating the increased momentum of the issued master. It's noticeable that on each successive take, the drumming becomes bolder and incrementally more improvised.

This stellar alternate version of ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'', together with the second version that follows, lay in a tape box assigned to Billy Riley for almost thirty years. For some reason, Jerry has chosen to deliver his vocal in a strangulated near-falsetto. The backing track is a little ragged in places but, once again, Jerry Lee and Jimmy van Eaton constitute a working definition of 'empathy'. This was an interesting approach to the song but understandably soon abandoned.

The standout feature of this version is Jerry's phrasing. He is taking amazing liberties, and pulling it off. The tempo is borderline frantic but no-one losses it. Roland Janes turns in a lovely little solo with some help from his tremolo bar and, as always, Jimmy Van Eaton is outstanding. Once again, it sounds as though this was an experiment that someone (probably Jack Clement) decided had little commercial merit.

14 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (1.1) (3:08) 1986
15 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (1.2) (2:24) 1986
16 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (1.3) (Fragment) (1:27) 2015
17 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (1.4) (Master EPA-107) (2:40) 1957
(Jack Clement) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

When Sam Phillips mixed ''Honky Tonk Babe, Gal'' for release, he told Carl Perkins that he wanted a good country ballad to go on the flip side of ''Movie Magg''. The result was ''Turn Around''. Sam gave it that title; Carl had been calling it ''I'll Be Following You''. Sam brought in Quentin Claunch (guitar), Bill Cantrell (fiddle) and Stan Kesler (steel) to join the Perkins band on the session. He wanted a real country record.

The song is absolutely gorgeous - simple, heartfelt, and honest with a sing-along melody. Jerry Lee Lewis noticed that and included the song on his 1957 Sun EPA 107. If it had been a bigger hit, it would have been a natural for Ray Charles to resurrect in the early 1960s when he was recording country songs like ''I Can't Stop Loving You'' with a full orchestra and chorus. And Carl wrote it because Sam asked for a good country ballad. Sam should have sent in a request every week.

On the one complete outtake, Carl's vocal is every bit as pure and earnest as it is on the released version. The instruments - mainly the fiddle - are not all tuned up together, providing some truly uncomfortable moments which we guess were recognizable only when the tape was played back. This one belonged in the outtake box. There is also a few fragments and some studio chatter among musicians. At one point in the chatter there's a discussion of Elvis and someone, probably Cantrell, says he doesn't like that sort of music. The old guard passeth.

The coupling of "Turn Around" with "Movie Magg" was issued in February 1955 on Phillips new Flip subsidiary. The sincerity that Sam Phillips responded to was plainly on view in "Turn Around". It owed a measure of debt to Hank Williams in terms of both composition and execution but Phillips' hopes for Carl Perkins in the country market were not without foundation. "Turn Around", is a solid country outing that Jerry Lee Lewis recorded four years later here, and Carl himself continues to feature on his personal appearances some forty years later.

18 - Turn Around (Master EPA-107) (2:48) 1957
(Carl Perkins) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

14-18 Recorded Probably Early July 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Billy Riley (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

Let's now turn to the next major landmark, ''Great Galls Of Fire''. The related development work has been one of the more sensitive subjects to deal with, not least because it involves disputing a series of dates that have hitherto been regarded by many as reputable entries in the often far from dependable recording diary. It seems, however, that this is a case where Sam Phillips did deliberately draw a veil over proceedings when he reported studio activity to the musicians' union, while others involved in the recording of Jerry Lee's second million-seller have contributed to the confusion by claiming that the finished product was arrived at in a single take. This fancy was perpetuated by Jerry Lee's bass player, cousin and sometime father-in-law Jay W. Brown as recently as in 2010, but it's a weak proposition in the face of so many indications to the contrary. One might speculate that such a declaration was originally part and parcel of Sam's efforts to outwit the union; looked at in that light, abiding loyalty to such a deception would be laudable!

However, it's clear that such stories about only ''one take'' being required to arrive at an impeccable cut, be it of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' itself or others of Jerry Lee's hits, haven't always been inspired by any intention to mislead. Rather, they may be down to a basic misunderstanding between the musicians involved and some of those who have delved into these events in much later years. It's only fair to say that the likes of Jay W. Brown, Jimmy M. Van Eaton and Jerry Lee himself wouldn't necessarily have regarded as ''takes'' any performances which were, in effect, only ''rehearsals'', while their own perceptions of the process may have failed to acknowledge the fact that quite so many run-throughs were being captured on tape, far less being kept for posterity. How valid this argument is in respect of the work undertaken on ''Great Balls Of Fire'' remains open to question, though it's easier to sustain in respect of ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On''; as we have seen, the master of the latter was, as both Jerry Lee Lewis and Jack Clement were always keen to emphasise, nailed in ''one take''. What is undeniable is that those who contributed to the making of this history would never have imagined that their work in the Sun studio, however formal or otherwise, would decades later be the subject of such intense interest and analysis.

Leaving the ''single-take'' fable aside, the accepted wisdom is that each and every cut of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' dated from a three day span, Sunday 6 to Tuesday 8, October 1957. There is, however, no firm testimony in support of this suggestion, which was published in the 1983 LP set and has been repeated unchallenged in most subsequent accounts. And while the discography in the 1989 bear Family set ''Classic'' did at least cast doubt on the belief that all fifteen takes originated in October, and pointed to a less intensive schedule, it fell short of providing any detail.

The premise that everything was recorded over the course of three days in October fails to pay regard to Sam Phillips' own declaration in later years that, having been pressed by Warner Brothers to supply a tape of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' for use in the film ''Jamboree'', he had submitted to the producers the best of what he already had to hand, while remaining determined to achieve still better results for the eventually single release. The idea that Sam would have sent to Warner Brothers an inferior cut for want of a day or two in early October doesn't stand up to close scrutiny. And the fact that the film was premiered on November 12, while not making an October date for the recording of the audio of Jerry Lee Lewis' contribution impossible, adds weight to the argument against the traditional explanation.

Contemporaneous published accounts also discredit the notion of an all-embracing October session and signify a different chain of events; these sources indicate that the recording of the so-called ''movie cut'' and its numerous sound-alike takes predated that of the finished master, as heard on Sun 281, not by just one or two days but quite possibly by an interval of at least two months. In all likelihood, the version heard on the soundtrack was actually taped before Jerry Lee's first live television appearance on ''The Steve Allen Show'', broadcast from New York City on Sunday July 28, 1957. This deduction is supported by a report in Billboard magazine of August 5, 1957 signposting that the lip-synched contribution to ''Jamboree'' was filmed during the same excursion to the north-east, which in turn points to the ''movie-take'' having been recorded before Jerry Lee Lewis left Memphis on July 25, 1957.

What seems most likely is that Jud Phillips, Sam's brother, having been made responsible for promoting Jerry Lee nationally and securing the TV dates, made his way to the New York office of music publishers Hill & Range well in advance of the July 28, commitment. Jud's assertion that he introduced the staff writers to ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'' and invited them to devise a potential follow up is entirely persuasive. In response, a demo and/or the score for ''Great Balls Of Fire'' would have been dispatched to Memphis in time to allow tentative recordings to be made in advance of Jerry Lee's visit to New York both for the TV debut at the end of the month and, during the same venture, to film the movie cameo.

Let's also consider the aural evidence. The fifteen takes of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' readily fall into one or other of two detached groups; those which exhibit a relatively laboured guitar and bass rhythm, as heard in the frenetic ''movie'' take, and those that evince a more accomplished pattern, revealing enhanced tape echo, with the piano and the drums supposedly combining to form a wall of sound in the absence, according to some, of other instrumentation. Might this sea-change have been accomplished overnight? While it can't be ruled out absolutely, it is considered highly implausible; as a result, these recordings have now been split into the two groups and placed apart. The first session, at which the musicians were required to learn the song from scratch, culminated in the taping of the movie version. It's remembered by Jimmy Van Eaton as a chaotic exercise with a studio full of people, though clearly not everyone was impressed when it came to the dominant characters exchanging views on the subject of divine retribution.

On the second date, Jerry Lee Lewis is in an entirely secular frame of mind; exegesis has given way to excess. But, in his singing and playing, we can witness the steady progression from a relatively carefree, illdisciplined couple of run-throughs to the climactic ''master''; the sublime single release. At each stage a refinement of one sort or another is embodied, whether a change in emphasis or tone in part of the lyric, the stretching of a particular word or the intro-mission of an uncommon exclamation, or a new twist to the piano solo. Close analysis of this group also indicates that a bass guitarist is present throughout the session, up to and including the final take. This becomes readily identifiable during the second phase of the instrumental break, in which Jerry Lee's left hand drives the rhythm at eight to the bar and in so doing diverges from the walking bass line.

And there is even more substance to the issued master itself than has been generally acknowledge in the past. In combinning this song and Jerry Lee's talent, Sam Phillips knew that he was dealing with something extraordinary and he was painstaking in his search for the perfect rendition of ''Great Balls Of Fire''. This was to be Sun Records' magnum opus, its greatest hit to-date; the sound had to be both innovative and flawless. Jerry Lee had already had upwards of a dozen cracks at it but still something was missing, an extra component to complete the masterwork. Here's what appears to have happened next, based on the composition of separate tapes found in outtake boxes.

Having secured the sixth take at this second session, yet still unsatisfied, Sam decided to experiment and asked a percussionist to add a metronomic ''rim-shot'', hitting the edge of the snare drum, to accentuate the beat. Listen to the most conspicuous discrepancy between the master and all the preceding takes from this session; on the master alone one can hear a sharp, consistent strike on the edge of the drum. It might, of course, be thought that this was accomplished in real time, but a recent discovery in the Sun archives renders this proposition highly questionable; the reality seems to be that it wasn't recorded concurrently.
What we can now listen to, on a previously unreleased tape here presented on BCD 17254-18-1, is the cut that forms the basis of the ''master'' take lacking this ''rim-shot'' sound. This tape does, however, also feature an enhanced drum pattern compared to earlier takes, involving a supplementary layer of conventional ''skin shots'' on the snare drum. But the pronounced metronomic beat that helps define ''Great Balls Of Fire'', as known to the world, is absent. The distinction may appear subtle, but it is contended that this amounts to proof that the recording originally issued in November 1957 embodies an overdub of the defining ''rim-shot'' sound.

There is little reason to doubt that these less emphatic ''skin shots'' heard on this alternate are dubbed, rather then being representative of what was taped live and subsequently masked, either by the ''rim shot'' and/or other mastering techniques applied when the engineer prepared the track for release in 1957. Hence it is believed that what we have are two different overdubs adding extra percussion to the real time performance, one of which, featuring the ''rim shot'', was selected for release as Sun 281. It can be argued that the alternate presented on BCD 17254-18-1 sustains a closer relationship with the other recordings of the song, whereas the more obviously augmented ''rim shot'' version stands apart. Moreover, given the order in which the tapes were found in the outtake boxes, the balance of probability is weighted in favour of the rejected ''skin shot'' experiment being the first of two distinct overdubs, both having been made the fulfill Sam's ambition of lending additional muscle to the record. But being unable to present an underlying, undubbed, tape we have opted to include the master originally released on Sun 281 as part of the main sequence, rather than consign it to the collection of overdubs on BCD 17254-18-1.

Debates about the origin and the precise composition of this recording may well persist for as long as people continue to listen to popular music. One conclusion is undeniable. Promethean it assuredly is, yet evidently there were several pairs of hands at work in the genesis of the master take of ''Great Balls Of Fire'', the supposition that it represents nothing more than the inspired efforts of Jerry Lee Lewis and a drummer, supplemented by ''slapback echo'', is the myth.

by Andrew McRae, October 2015

19 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.1) (1:56) 1992
20 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.2) (1:51) 1992
21 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.3) (1:52) 1987
22 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.4) (1:53) 1992
23 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.5) (1:51) 1983
24 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.6) (1:52) 2015
25 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.7) (3 False Starts) (0:24) 1983
26 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.8) (1:52) 2015
27 - Religious Discussion (4:01) 1974 Bopcat BR 100
28 - Great Balls Of Fire (1.9) )Movie Version) (1:50) 1957
(Jack Hammer-Otis Blackwell) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

19-28 Recorded 2nd Half July 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Possibly Al Stranger (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

29 - You Win Again (2) (Chatter & Undubbed Master) (2:57) 1983
(Hank Williams) (Acuff-Rose Music Publishing-Hiriam Music)

On what was probably the same date Jerry Lee revisited ''It All Depends (Who Will Buy The Wine)'', a more commanding example which was already ''in the can'' pending its overdubbing with a vocal chorus and unveiling on his first LP. This rather inconsistent recording, unreleased until now, suffers from some of the failings that are manifest on the several takes of ''I Forgot To Remember To Forget''; it appears as though those involved couldn't quite get to grips with either song on this occasion.

30 - It All Depends (2) (3:05) 2015
(Billy Mize) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Several takes of ''I Forgot To Remember To Forget'' were attempted during this August 1957 session, though none of them are totally successful, with Jerry and he band attempting to find the right key, rhythm and tempo. All takes remained unissued until at least the 1980s. Far superior is the February 1961 version, recorded in Nashville at the same session that produced the hit versions of ''What’d I Say'' and ''Cold Cold Heart''. Surprisingly this wasn’t released until 1974, via Charly's ''Rare Jerry Lee Lewis Volume 2'' compilation. Incidentally, this has never been issued in true stereo on CD, though it was available on the Sun International ''Roots'' LP in 1981, but not the CD reissue!

''I Forgot To Remember To Forget" is a country song written by Stan Kesler and Charlie Feathers. It was recorded at Sun Studio on July 11, 1955, by Elvis Presley, Scotty Moore, Bill Black, and Johnny Bernero on drums, and released on August 20, 1955, along with "Mystery Train" (Sun 223). It was rereleased by RCA Victor (47-6357) in December 1955. Moore's guitar had a Nashville steel guitar sound, and Black played a clip-clop rhythm. Elvis sang a brooding vocal. This is the closest the trio came to a traditional country song while at Sun.

The song reached the Billboard national country music chart number 1 position on February 25, 1956 on the Billboard Country &Western Best Sellers in Stores chart, and remained there at number 1 for 2 weeks, and spent 5 weeks at number 1 on the Billboard Country &Western Most Played in Juke Boxes chart. The record reached number 4 on the Billboard Most Played by Jockeys chart. It was the first recording to make Elvis Presley a national known country music star. The song remained on the country charts for 39 weeks. The flip side of this release, "Mystery Train", peaked at the number 11 position on the national Billboard Country Chart.

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded the song on August 21, 1957 and on February 9, 1961. Composer Charlie Feathers has also recorded it. The Beatles covered this song once for the BBC radio show, ''From Us To You'', on 1 May 1964, which was included on the Live at the BBC compilation in 1994. Johnny Cash covered and released this song in 1959 on the Sun LP ''Greatest!'' and on the album The Survivors Live in 1981. Chuck Jackson, Ral Donner, Robert Gordon, Johnny Hallyday, The Deighton Family, Hicksville Bombers, and Wanda Jackson recorded this song as well. Chris Isaak also covered this song on his 2011 album, Beyond the Sun.

The song is referenced in the Modest Mouse song "A Different City", on their 2000 album The Moon & Antarctica. The name of this song also appears as a quest in the video game Fallout: New Vegas where the Courier and Boone defend a small settlement from a full-scale attack while dealing with Boone's regret over a massacre that took place at that same settlement.

31 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.1) (4 False Starts) (2:20) 1983
32 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.2) (Chatter & Take) (2:36) 1983
33 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.3) (False Start & Take) (2:38) 1992
34 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.4) (2:27) 1987
35 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.5) (False Start) (0:36) 2015
36 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (1.6) (2:35) 1992
(Charlie Feathers-Stanley Kesler) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

29-36 Recorded Probably August 21, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal), Roland Janes (guitar), Otis Jett (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

THE ''GREAT BALLS OF FIRE'' THEORY - Let's now turn to the next major landmark, ''Great Galls Of Fire''. The related development work has been one of the more sensitive subjects to deal with, not least because it involves disputing a series of dates that have hitherto been regarded by many as reputable entries in the often far from dependable recording diary. It seems, however, that this is a case where Sam Phillips did deliberately draw a veil over proceedings when he reported studio activity to the musicians' union, while others involved in the recording of Jerry Lee's second million-seller have contributed to the confusion by claiming that the finished product was arrived at in a single take. This fancy was perpetuated by Jerry Lee's bass player, cousin and sometime father-in-law Jay W. Brown as recently as in 2010, but it's a weak proposition in the face of so many indications to the contrary. One might speculate that such a declaration was originally part and parcel of Sam's efforts to outwit the union; looked at in that light, abiding loyalty to such a deception would be laudable!

However, it's clear that such stories about only ''one take'' being required to arrive at an impeccable cut, be it of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' itself or others of Jerry Lee's hits, haven't always been inspired by any intention to mislead. Rather, they may be down to a basic misunderstanding between the musicians involved and some of those who have delved into these events in much later years. It's only fair to say that the likes of Jay W. Brown, Jimmy M. Van Eaton and Jerry Lee himself wouldn't necessarily have regarded as ''takes'' any performances which were, in effect, only ''rehearsals'', while their own perceptions of the process may have failed to acknowledge the fact that quite so many run-throughs were being captured on tape, far less being kept for posterity. How valid this argument is in respect of the work undertaken on ''Great Balls Of Fire'' remains open to question, though it's easier to sustain in respect of ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On''; as we have seen, the master of the latter was, as both Jerry Lee Lewis and Jack Clement were always keen to emphasise, nailed in ''one take''. What is undeniable is that those who contributed to the making of this history would never have imagined that their work in the Sun studio, however formal or otherwise, would decades later be the subject of such intense interest and analysis.

Leaving the ''single-take'' fable aside, the accepted wisdom is that each and every cut of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' dated from a three day span, Sunday 6 to Tuesday 8, October 1957. There is, however, no firm testimony in support of this suggestion, which was published in the 1983 LP set and has been repeated unchallenged in most subsequent accounts. And while the discography in the 1989 bear Family set ''Classic'' did at least cast doubt on the belief that all fifteen takes originated in October, and pointed to a less intensive schedule, it fell short of providing any detail.

The premise that everything was recorded over the course of three days in October fails to pay regard to Sam Phillips' own declaration in later years that, having been pressed by Warner Brothers to supply a tape of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' for use in the film ''Jamboree'', he had submitted to the producers the best of what he already had to hand, while remaining determined to achieve still better results for the eventually single release. The idea that Sam would have sent to Warner Brothers an inferior cut for want of a day or two in early October doesn't stand up to close scrutiny. And the fact that the film was premiered on November 12, while not making an October date for the recording of the audio of Jerry Lee Lewis' contribution impossible, adds weight to the argument against the traditional explanation.

Contemporaneous published accounts also discredit the notion of an all-embracing October session and signify a different chain of events; these sources indicate that the recording of the so-called ''movie cut'' and its numerous sound-alike takes predated that of the finished master, as heard on Sun 281, not by just one or two days but quite possibly by an interval of at least two months. In all likelihood, the version heard on the soundtrack was actually taped before Jerry Lee's first live television appearance on ''The Steve Allen Show'', broadcast from New York City on Sunday July 28, 1957. This deduction is supported by a report in Billboard magazine of August 5, 1957 signposting that the lip-synched contribution to ''Jamboree'' was filmed during the same excursion to the north-east, which in turn points to the ''movie-take'' having been recorded before Jerry Lee Lewis left Memphis on July 25, 1957.

What seems most likely is that Jud Phillips, Sam's brother, having been made responsible for promoting Jerry Lee nationally and securing the TV dates, made his way to the New York office of music publishers Hill & Range well in advance of the July 28, commitment. Jud's assertion that he introduced the staff writers to ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'' and invited them to devise a potential follow up is entirely persuasive. In response, a demo and/or the score for ''Great Balls Of Fire'' would have been dispatched to Memphis in time to allow tentative recordings to be made in advance of Jerry Lee's visit to New York both for the TV debut at the end of the month and, during the same venture, to film the movie cameo.

Let's also consider the aural evidence. The fifteen takes of ''Great Balls Of Fire'' readily fall into one or other of two detached groups; those which exhibit a relatively laboured guitar and bass rhythm, as heard in the frenetic ''movie'' take, and those that evince a more accomplished pattern, revealing enhanced tape echo, with the piano and the drums supposedly combining to form a wall of sound in the absence, according to some, of other instrumentation. Might this sea-change have been accomplished overnight? While it can't be ruled out absolutely, it is considered highly implausible; as a result, these recordings have now been split into the two groups and placed apart. The first session, at which the musicians were required to learn the song from scratch, culminated in the taping of the movie version. It's remembered by Jimmy Van Eaton as a chaotic exercise with a studio full of people, though clearly not everyone was impressed when it came to the dominant characters exchanging views on the subject of divine retribution.

On the second date, Jerry Lee Lewis is in an entirely secular frame of mind; exegesis has given way to excess. But, in his singing and playing, we can witness the steady progression from a relatively carefree, illdisciplined couple of run-throughs to the climactic ''master''; the sublime single release. At each stage a refinement of one sort or another is embodied, whether a change in emphasis or tone in part of the lyric, the stretching of a particular word or the intro-mission of an uncommon exclamation, or a new twist to the piano solo. Close analysis of this group also indicates that a bass guitarist is present throughout the session, up to and including the final take. This becomes readily identifiable during the second phase of the instrumental break, in which Jerry Lee's left hand drives the rhythm at eight to the bar and in so doing diverges from the walking bass line.

And there is even more substance to the issued master itself than has been generally acknowledge in the past. In combinning this song and Jerry Lee's talent, Sam Phillips knew that he was dealing with something extraordinary and he was painstaking in his search for the perfect rendition of ''Great Balls Of Fire''. This was to be Sun Records' magnum opus, its greatest hit to-date; the sound had to be both innovative and flawless. Jerry Lee had already had upwards of a dozen cracks at it but still something was missing, an extra component to complete the masterwork. Here's what appears to have happened next, based on the composition of separate tapes found in outtake boxes.

Having secured the sixth take at this second session, yet still unsatisfied, Sam decided to experiment and asked a percussionist to add a metronomic ''rim-shot'', hitting the edge of the snare drum, to accentuate the beat. Listen to the most conspicuous discrepancy between the master and all the preceding takes from this session; on the master alone one can hear a sharp, consistent strike on the edge of the drum. It might, of course, be thought that this was accomplished in real time, but a recent discovery in the Sun archives renders this proposition highly questionable; the reality seems to be that it wasn't recorded concurrently.

What we can now listen to, on a previously unreleased tape here presented on BCD 17254-18-1, is the cut that forms the basis of the ''master'' take lacking this ''rim-shot'' sound. This tape does, however, also feature an enhanced drum pattern compared to earlier takes, involving a supplementary layer of conventional ''skin shots'' on the snare drum. But the pronounced metronomic beat that helps define ''Great Balls Of Fire'', as known to the world, is absent. The distinction may appear subtle, but it is contended that this amounts to proof that the recording originally issued in November 1957 embodies an overdub of the defining ''rim-shot'' sound.

There is little reason to doubt that these less emphatic ''skin shots'' heard on this alternate are dubbed, rather then being representative of what was taped live and subsequently masked, either by the ''rim shot'' and/or other mastering techniques applied when the engineer prepared the track for release in 1957. Hence it is believed that what we have are two different overdubs adding extra percussion to the real time performance, one of which, featuring the ''rim shot'', was selected for release as Sun 281. It can be argued that the alternate presented on BCD 17254-18-1 sustains a closer relationship with the other recordings of the song, whereas the more obviously augmented ''rim shot'' version stands apart. Moreover, given the order in which the tapes were found in the outtake boxes, the balance of probability is weighted in favour of the rejected ''skin shot'' experiment being the first of two distinct overdubs, both having been made the fulfill Sam's ambition of lending additional muscle to the record. But being unable to present an underlying, undubbed, tape we have opted to include the master originally released on Sun 281 as part of the main sequence, rather than consign it to the collection of overdubs on BCD 17254-18-1.

Debates about the origin and the precise composition of this recording may well persist for as long as people continue to listen to popular music. One conclusion is undeniable. Promethean it assuredly is, yet evidently there were several pairs of hands at work in the genesis of the master take of ''Great Balls Of Fire'', the supposition that it represents nothing more than the inspired efforts of Jerry Lee Lewis and a drummer, supplemented by ''slapback echo'', is the myth.

by Andrew McRae, October 2015

CD 4 Contains 1957-1958

In February 1955, Wade Moore and Dick Penner composed "Ooby Dooby", in fifteen minutes on the roof of the frat house, but nothing happened even when Roy Orbison recorded the song. That demo was sent to Don Law, a Columbia Records representative, in vain with "Hey, Miss Fanny" as B-side. However, Roy Orbison and The Teens Kings keep faith on the song and they will often perform it on stage. Soon Weldon Rodgers, himself a great singer, wanted to set a up session in Norman Petty's studio in December 1955. "Ooby Dooby" b/w "Tryin' to Get to You" was issued on JE-WEL 101.

That label was named from the first letters Jean Olivier (daughter of Weldon's label associate) and Weldon. The record was manufactured in Phoenix, Arizona and, in spite of good sales, Roy Orbison was still lookin' around for fame and fortune on a major label.

At last, Roy's demo record came between the hands of Sid King and The Five Strings who recorded the song for Columbia, on 5th March 1956. The session in Dallas and worked fine. One month earlier, as the same band had covered Carl Perkins "Blue Suede Shoes". Sam Phillips should have watching for them next record. In spite of the JE-WEL contract, Sam Phillips took on Roy and his band. A battle followed in court and the JE-WEL contract was cancelled as not signed by Roy's folks because he was still underage. The JE-WEL records had to be released from the records shops too. That's now a real rare record often gets bootlegged. So be aware if you are looking for one vintage copy.

On March 27, 1956, a Roy Orbison's session was at 706 Union Avenue. Sam Phillips was disappointed by the result and gave a phone call to Weldon Rogers in order to buy the JEWEL master. Weldon asked for a so high price than Sam Phillips issued what he got on the Sun 242. In June 1956, "Ooby Dooby" climbed to number 59 in Billboard's Hot 100 and quickly sold over 500.000 copies. Some covers followed, the better being recorded by rockabilly Queen Janis Martin for RCA records. The "Ooby Dooby" success led Sam Phillips to sign Dick Penner and Wade Moore on his label.

Around this time Jerry Lee Lewis twice romped through Ray Orbison's ''Ooby Dooby'', on the first run suggesting, some half-a-minute in, that you might ''wiggle all night'' while in the second the warning was ''you'll be jumping all night''; the reference to shaking like a rattlesnake, immediately following the solo in the first cut, didn't make it into the successor.

1 - Ooby Dooby (1) (1:59) 1983
2 - Ooby Dooby (2) (1:59) 1974
(Wade Moore-Dick R. Penner) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

1-2 Recorded Probably August 21, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal), Roland Janes (guitar), Otis Jett (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

''Why Should I Cry Over You'' recorded here by Jerry Lee Lewis was written by Zeke Clement and was an American country musician and songwriter often dressed in a Western outfit. He was known as "The Dixie Yodeler."

Clements was born on September 6, 1911 near Empire, Alabama. In 1928, his career began when he joined Otto Gray and his Oklahoma Cowboys touring show and was signed to the National Barn Dance at WLS in Chicago. In 1930, he performed on WSM Grand Ole Opry for the first time. In 1933, he became a member of the Bronco Busters, led by Texas Ruby. Zeke Clements and The Bronco Busters became members of the Opry in the 1930s. In the 1930 and 1940s, Clements appeared as a singing cowboy in several of Charles Starrett's B-Westerns. During this time, he also provided the voice of Bashful, the yodeling dwarf, in Walt Disney's ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'', 1937 film.

Clements formed the Western Swing Gang and returned to the Opry in 1939. His first songwriting success was with the World War II saber-rattling "Smoke On The Water" in 1944. The song was recorded by Red Foley in 1944 and became the number 1 country recording of 1945. Clements also wrote the big Eddy Arnold hits "Why Should I Cry'', "Just a Little Lovin' (Will Go a Long, Long Way)" and "Somebody's Been Beatin' My Time''. Also in 1945, he started Liberty Records in Southern California. It was later renamed Blazon Records. After a short stint on the Louisiana Hayride in the later 1940s, he appeared on several radio stations in the South. In the 1960s, he moved to Florida and joined a Dixieland band as banjo player. Zeke Clements died in Nashville, Tennessee in on June 4, 1994.

3 - Why Should I Cry Over You (2:35) 1983
(Zeke Clements) (Hill and Range Songs Incorporated)

Despite having already recorded what proved to be the master, there may well have been a determination that a better version of the song might be secured using the ''clavi-chord'' sound set up, for inclusion alongside ''Mean Woman Blues'' on the planned EP (''The Great Ball Of Fire'', Sun EP 107). No fewer than ten further stabs at ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'' ensued but, at the last, Sam seems to have decided that the best of the earlier takes had the most worth after all. The results of the ''clavichord'' session reflect an understanding of the song that isn't so apparent in the first installment. Jerry Lee Lewis exhibits many frills in his playing, with more variety in the instrumental breaks and slight changes to the vocal which suggest that he's keen to find some way of distinguishing one take from the next; hesitating here, stretching a vowel there. The solos become steadily more assertive as the session progress. And yet the drumming reflects no great enthusiasm; whoever has the sticks, and it's not thought to be Jimmy Van Eaton, sleepwalks through their work here when compared to the effort made on the earlier recordings of the song. Jerry Lee himself also seems to be frustrated by tunning issues with the piano and eventually his pounding of the keys sounds almost aggressive. Despite there being no discernible use of the guitar on these ''clavichord'' takes of ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'', there is an understanding that Roland Janes was in the studio at the time. This is supported by the fact that the instrument is to be heard on the less than impressive run-through of ''Why Should I Cry Over You'', the only other title that flaunts the ''clavichord'' effect and which, it is reasonable to assume, dates from the same session.

4 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.1) (2:38) 1992
5 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.2) (Chatter & Take) (2:37) 1987
6 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.3) (2:35) 2015 Sun Unissued
7 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.4) (Chatter & Take) (2:37) 1983
8 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.5) (2:36) 1992
9 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.6) (Distorted) (2:33) 2015 Sun Unissued
10 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.7) (Distorted) (2:33) 2015 Sun Unissued
11 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.8) (2:34) 2015 Sun Unissued
12 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.9) (2:30) 2015 Sun Unissued
13 - I'm Feelin' Sorry (2.10) (2:30) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Jack Clement) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

3-13 Recorded Probably September 5, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal), Unknown (guitar), Otis Jett (drums), Sidney Manker (bass)
Producer Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

The next track "Mean Woman Blues" is a 12-bar blues song written by Claude DeMetrius. It was first recorded by Elvis Presley as part of the soundtrack for his 1957 motion picture, Loving You. Presley also released the song on Side 2 of a four-song EP record. The Elvis Presley version of "Mean Woman Blues" went to number 11 on the rhythm and blues charts.

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a version of the song on Sun Records which was released on September 1957 as part of an EP, ''The Great Ball Of Fire'' (Sun EPA 107). Lewis also recorded his version of the song on the 1964 live album ''Live At The Star Club, Hamburg'' with The Nashville Teens. The song was also featured as the B-side to the UK release of his hit "Great Balls of Fire" (London 8529). Jerry Lee Lewis' version differed significantly lyrically from the Claude DeMetrius version as recorded by Elvis Presley. Roy Orbison's 1963 recording used the lyrics from the 1957 Jerry Lee Lewis version.

In 1959, Cliff Richard and The Shadows recorded a studio version on their Cliff Sings album. 1950s rockabilly artist Glen Glen from Los Angeles recorded a version of this song for England's Ace label which was released on the album "Everybody's Movin' Again" (Ace CDCH 403) using the same musicians from his 1950s Era records. In 1963, the song was recorded with "Blue Bayou" as a 45rpm single by Roy Orbison that went to number 5 on the Billboard Hot 100 music charts. The Roy Orbison version was based on the 1957 Jerry Lee Lewis recording. The song was recorded by The Spencer Davis Group on their album ''Autumn '66'' with Stevie Winwood on lead vocals. Jay and the Americans released a cover version of the song on their 1969 album, ''Sands of Time''. Although the song was written in the mid-1950s, many similarly titled though different songs with the same theme had emerged decades previously. These include "Jimmie's Mean Mama Blues," a Jimmie Rodgers composition covered also by Bob Wills, Moon Mullican's "Mean Mama Blues," and Ernest Tubb's "Mean Mama Blues''.

''Mean Woman Blues'' stands apart as a consummate performance, there being no outtakes or enduring evidence of any rehearsals. The other ''thumb tack'' recordings, of ''Why Should I Cry Over You'' and ''I'm Feelin' Sorry'', are looser, and far from perfect; the regrettable lack of any ''tasters'' of Lewis's definitive interpretation of ''Mean Woman Blues'' may well signify that it was recorded on a separate occasion, a few days later, with evidence of any run-throughs perhaps having been dispensed with once the surviving tape had been mastered and copies despatched to the pressing plants. Or maybe Jerry Lee simply cut it in one unsurpassable take.

14 - Mean Woman Blues (Master EPA-107) (2:25) 1957
(Claude DeMetruis) (Gladys Music Incorporated)

14 Recorded Probably September 10, 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (guitar), Otis Jett (drums), Sidney Manker (bass)
Producer Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

''Great Balls Of Fire'' (1957 version, 1963 version, 1975 version, 1988 version, Jerry’s biggest and most famous hit. It’s incredible to believe that there are only two instruments on the Sun single cut; just piano and drums (no bass or guitar), unlike the 1963 ''Golden Hits'' re-cut which features at least 3 times as many people, and is probably the weakest of all the re-cuts on this album. The 1975 version is very different, being given a sort of “ragtime” treatment! This (probably wisely) wasn’t deemed releasable at the time and wasn’t issued until the late 1980s. Lastly but by no means least is the “movie” version, for the 1989 ''Great Balls Of Fire''! movie and soundtrack album. This is nearly twice as long as the original, and features much inspired piano playing, as well as a guitar solo.

New York publisher, Paul Case, gave Jack Hammer's irresistible title to Otis Blackwell, who came up with an entirely new discourse. After agreeing to cut the song, Jerry Lee initially wrestled with his conscience over the tone of the lyrics. The deliberation was worth it because many highlights resulted, particularly his demarcating piano solo that shamelessly hocks the bass riff from Little Richard's "Lucille".

"Great Balls Of Fire" was no song Jerry had plucked from his reliquary, though; nor was it dashed off in one or two takes. It was a conscious attempt to produce a hit record for the lucrative teen market, which Jerry Lee had just shown he was capable of penetrating.

The song had been pitched first to Carl Perkins then Lewis as part of a deal in which they would appear in the movie "Jamboree". Then, in a move wholly untypical of Sam Phillips, he decided to fore go the publishing on the flip side as well.

15 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.1) (2 False Starts & Take) (2:12) 2015 Sun Unissued
16 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.2) (1:55) 1992
17 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.3) (False Start & Take) (2:01) 1985 JLL EP 002
18 - Studio Chatter (0:52) 1983
19 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.4) (1:53) 1983
20 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.5) (Chatter & Take) (2:10) 1992
21 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.6) (Master Sun 281) (1:52) 1958
(Jack Hammer-Otis Blackwell) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

15-21 Recorded October (8), 1957 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (drums, bass)
Producer Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

This 1958 version of ''I Love You Because'' is performed at a very slow and plodding tempo, though it's not without its charm and features some nice piano. This remained unissued until the 1983 ''The Sun Years'' boxset. Far better is the faster 1961 version (though the backing singers are a bit annoying), first released on ''Original Golden Hits Volume Three'' in 1971. Lastly is the beautiful 1969 version, released on ''Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Volume 1''.

"I Love You Because" is a 1949 song written and originally recorded by Leon Payne. The single went to number four on the Billboard Country & Western Best Seller lists and spent two weeks at number one on the Country & Western Disk Jockey List, spending a total of thirty-two weeks on the chart. "I Love You Because" was Payne's only song to make the country charts. "I Love You Because" has been covered by several artists throughout the years like Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Hank Locklin and many more.

In 1950, Ernest Tubb a number 2 and Clyde Moody each recorded their own version both making the Top 10 on the Country & Western charts. In 1963, Al Martino recorded the most successful version of the song peaking at number three on the Hot 100 and number one on the Middle-Road (or Easy Listening) chart for two weeks in May that year.

In 1964, Jim Reeves took the song to number five in the United Kingdom. In 1976, the song was the title track of a posthumous Jim Reeves album, which peaked at number 24 on the Billboard Country chart. The single version reached to number 54 in the United States that year. In 1983, Roger Whittaker got the song "into the lower reaches of the country chart''.

The 1956/1957 version of ''I Love You Because'' is performed at a very slow and plodding tempo, though it’s not without its charm and features some nice piano. This remained unissued until the 1983 ''The Sun Years'' box-set. Far better is this faster June 1961 version (though the backing singers are a bit annoying), first released on ''Original Golden Hits Volume Three'' in 1971. Lastly is the beautiful 1969 version, released on ''Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Vollume 1''.

22 - I Love You Because (1) (3:03) 1983
(Leon Payne) (Bourne Music-Acuff Rose Music Publishing)

"I Love You So Much It Hurts" is a song written and recorded by Floyd Tillman in 1948. His version reached number 6 on the Folk Best Seller charts and spent a total of nineteen weeks on the chart. In 1948, Jimmy Wakely had his second number one on the Folk Best Seller chart with his version of the song. Wakely's version spent a total of twenty-eight weeks on the chart and four non-consecutive weeks at the top. In 1949, the Mills Brothers recorded a version of the song which reached number eight on the Race Records chart and number eight on the pop chart.

Other significant recordings included, Charlie Gracie in 1957; Jerry Lee Lewis on the album ''A Taste Of Country (Sun International LP 114) released on April 1970; Patsy Ann Noble in 1960; Bob Luman in 1960, on the album ''Let's Think About Livin'''; Tennessee Ernie Ford in 1961, on the album ''Tennessee Ernie Ford Looks At Love''; Patsy Cline in 1961, on the album ''Patsy Cline Showcase''.; Ray Charles in 1962, on the album ''Modern Sounds In Country And Western Music''; George Morgan with Marion Worth in 1964, on the album ''Slippin' Around''; Don Gibson in 1968; Andy Williams in 1974 on his album, ''You Lay So Easy On My Mind; and John Prine in 1995, on the album ''Lost Dogs And Mixed Blessings'' respectively.

23 - I Love You So Much It Hurts (2:20) 1970
(Floyd Tilman) (Lane Publications)

This recording by Jerry Lee Lewis was for the first time recorded by Carl Perkins for Sun on March 1956 that featured material admittedly composed by somebody else. The song had been written by Wanda Bellman, an aspiring, singer/songwriter from Jonesboro, Arkansas. She submitted the song via demo to Sam and went from being an unknown to a professional almost overnight when her copyright appeared on one side of a Carl Perkins record (Sun 249) and released on August 3, 1956. Pretty impressive stuff. We do know that Wanda engaged in an extended correspondence with Sam Phillips throughout this period. He stoked Wanda's fires even higher when he had her come to Memphis in 1957 and record five sides. None were released at the time although they continue to be resurrected on Sun reissues internationally. It is possible that Sam, being Sam, made the most of Wanda Ballman's enthusiasm when he acted as her a new found benefactor and champion. In later years, Wanda persevered and had her material recorded by main stream artists like Loretta Lynn and Charley Pride.

24 - I'm Sorry I'm Not Sorry (2:37) 1983
(Wanda Ballman) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Although Jerry attempted the song at two different sessions during this 1958 session, he never actually sung “Sexy Ways”, during his first attempt in January he changed the lyrics to “Cool Cool Ways”, and then in April this became “Carrying On”. Both are impressive, but none of them were released until a couple of compilations in 1974. By 1965 the world had changed a little and he finally felt brave enough to record the proper lyrics: with a superb drums and cymbals intro (probably by Buddy Harmon) this inspired performance was one of the many highlights of ''The Return Of Rock'' later that year.

25 - Sexy Ways (1.1) (False Start) (0:31) 1983
26 - Sexy Ways (Cool Cool Ways) (1.2) (2:33) 1974
(Hank Ballard) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

More serious rockabilly fans were instantly enamored with "Down The Line", of course a reworking of Roy Orbison's timeless "Go Go Go", which had adorned the flipside of Orbison's 1956 hit "Ooby Dooby". True to his edict, Sam Phillips selected this take that was long on feeling, if a bit short on technical perfection. From the first eight bars, you know this is a good one. Jerry's tight little combo cooks beautifully with the bass and guitar complementing his piano boogie. But then the seams start to show. Jerry Lee demonstrates his well known flair for blowing lyrics and ends up mumbling his way through the chorus. Worse yet, by the fourth bar of the solo, it has become painfully obvious that the guitarist has gone rather woefully out of tune. If you don't look too closely, this record is very exciting, especially if you don't mind your excitement tinged with sloppiness.

''Down The Line'' although only released as a B-side (of ‘Breathless’), the song gained legendary status amongst fans during the early 1960s due to the fact that Jerry more often than not opened his shows with the song (I’ve only listed the studio versions here but for the ultimate rock and roll experience check out the 1964 ‘Live At The Star Club, Hamburg’ version (actually not included on the original album though it’s on the Bear Family CD re-issue). The 1963 ''Golden Hits'' re-cut has a very different arrangement from the mid-tempo Sun cut, performed at a much faster tempo that’s closer to the Roy Orbison original. The 1973 version from ''The Session'' would be a strong contender for the ultimate studio cut if it wasn’t for the way Jerry’s voice “goes” at one point.

On Jerry Lee Lewis' return to the Sun studio in mid-January 1958, Sam Phillips also persuaded Jerry Lee to redefine Roy Orbison's ''Go, Go, Go'' as the moody rocker ''Down The Line'' for the flip of the planned release, Sun 288, to ensure that fifty percent of the publishing credits from the new 45 would accrue to Sun itself, whatever was on the A-side. Whereas ''Breathless'' won the day for Blackwell and proved to be Lewis's third gold disc, Hammer's ''Milkshake Mademoiselle'' was destined to remain unheard for some fifteen years, although neither song was to be blessed with an easy gestation in the studio.

In spite of that, all concerned arrived at a suitable arrangement for ''Down The Line'' without any obvious angst, with Jerry Lee once again employing the by now familiar riff to open proceedings. The impression is gained that during the course of taping the first four takes something of a party atmosphere prevailed, but a change in attitude is discernible in the fifth take, maybe a day or two later, where the pace is stepped up a couple of gears and everyone appears to be much more focussed on the job in hand. Jerry Lee experiments a little more with the lyrics on the first couple of attempts, losing concentration during the solos, and at this stage no-one seems certain as to how to wrap things up with conviction. By take 7, however, that problem has been ironed out and they're ready to move on and what proves to be the master.

27 - Down The Line (1) (2:20) 2015Sun Unissued
28 - Down The Line (2) (2 False Starts) (2:18) 1983
29 - Down The Line (3) (Chatter, Take, Chatter) (2:18) 1983
30 - Down The Line (4) (2:12) 1984 JLL EP 001
31 - Down The Line (5) (2:19) 1992
32 - Down The Line (6) (2:09) 1983
33 - Down The Line (7) (2:02) 1989
34 - Down The Line (8) (2:05) 1992
35 - Down The Line (9) (Master Sun 288) (2:13) 1958
(Roy Orbison) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

22-35 Recorded January 16-18, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Jay W. Brown (bass)
Producer Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 5 Contains 1958

''Jambalaya'' was recorded with guitarist Roland Janes, electric bass player Jay W. Brown and drummer Jimmy M. Van Eaton. Everyone in the room knew immediately they had something special on their hands. The track was slotted onto Jerry's forthcoming LP and over the years has been acknowledged as one of the album's standout tracks. The thing to remember when listening to music like this more than 60 years later is that it was created spontaneously. There were no ''charts'' to follow. The musicians couldn't even fall back on familiarity; they were not performing this song night after night. Indeed, this may have been the first time they ever played ''Jambalaya'' together.

The one advantage they had (other than familiarity with the song itself), was musical rapport with each other. Jerry Lee and J.M. had demonstrated that rapport from the first time they met in the studio barely over a year ago. Fifteen months later that musical communication was almost telepathic. Jimmy M. Van Eaton shuttles from playing backbeat, to accenting every beat (essentially soloing during Jerry's vocal) to providing counter rhythms on the crash cymbal as Jerry resumes singing following the guitar solo.

The recorded version here by Jerry Lee Lewis' "Jambalaya (On the Bayou)" is a song written and first recorded by American country music singer Hank Williams that was released in July 1952. Named for a Creole and Cajun dish, jambalaya, it spawned numerous cover versions and has since achieved popularity in several different music genres.

With a melody based on the Cajun song "Grand Texas", some sources, including Allmusic, claim that the song was co-written by Hank Williams and Moon Mullican, with Williams credited as sole author and Mullican receiving ongoing royalties. Williams' biographer Colin Escott speculates that it is likely Mullican wrote at least some of the song and Hank's music publisher Fred Rose paid him surreptitiously so that he wouldn't have to split the publishing with Moon's label King Records. Williams' song resembles "Grand Texas" in melody only.

"Grand Texas" is a song about a lost love, a woman who left the singer to go with another man to "Big Texas"; "Jambalaya", while maintaining a Cajun theme, is about life, parties and stereotypical food of Cajun cuisine. The narrator leaves to pole a pirogue down the shallow water of the bayou, to attend a party with his girlfriend Yvonne and her family. At the feast they have Cajun cuisine, notably Jambalaya, crawfish pie and filé gumbo, and drink liquor from fruit jars. The second line in the verse has had various interpretations. Yvonne is his "ma chaz ami-o", which is Cajun French for "my good girlfriend" (ma chère amie). Williams uses "ma chaz ami" as one word, thus the "my" in front of it. The "o" at the end of "ami" is a poetic/lyrical device making the line match the phrasing of the previous line and rhyme with it. If you listen closely, Hank Williams is singing "I'm gonna see mamma chers amio." referring to seeing the mother he loves and the first line refers to the home cooked food he is used to. This avoids the awkward "my" with "ma cher", which doesn't make sense to someone who is bi-lingual. Mamma in this context can mean either his real mother or can be an affectionate term for his wife/girlfriend.

Williams recorded the song on June 13, 1952, his first recording session in six months, at Castle Studio in Nashville with backing provided by Jerry Rivers (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Chet Atkins (lead guitar), Chuck Wright (bass) and probably Ernie Newton (bass). Interestingly, the recording Williams made differs significantly from Mullican's. Since the original melody of the song was from "Grand Texas", the song is a staple of Cajun culture. However, although Williams kept a Louisiana theme, the song is not a true cajun song, and it is precisely because of this that song gained such widespread popularity: "Ethnic music is usually unpalatable for a mass market unless it is diluted in some way (Harry Belafonte's calypsos, Paul Simon's Graceland...the list is endless). The broader audience related to 'Jambalaya' in a way that it could never relate to a true cajun two-step led by an asthmatic accordion and sung in patois''.

The song, it reached number one on the United States country charts for fourteen non-consecutive weeks. After Williams released his version, Cajuns recorded the song again using Cajun instruments. However, they used Williams' lyrics translated into the Cajun French language. "Jambalaya" remains one of Hank Williams' most popular songs today. International, translated or derived versions do exist at least in Chinese, Dutch, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish German, Spanish and Estonian.

A demo version of Williams singing "Jambalaya (On the Bayou)" with just his guitar, likely recorded in 1951, is also available. Williams composed a sequel to the song from the female perspective, "I'm Yvonne (Of the Bayou)", with Jimmy Rule, recorded by Goldie Hill. It was not as popular. As with "Jambalaya" there is speculation that Williams may have purchased this song from Mullican. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded the song for his EP ''Jerry Lee Lewis'' (Sun EPA 109) at Sun Records on January 16, 18, 1958, and again released for the 1969 album ''Sings The Country Music Hall of Fame Hits, Volume 1''.

1 - Jambalaya (Master LP-1230) (2:00) 1958
(Hank Williams-Moon Mullican) (Acuff-Rose Music Publishing)

The first recordings of ''Milkshake Mademoiselle'' carries a strong residual imprint of ''Down The Line'' and it almost comes as a surprise, once past the intro, to hear Jerry Lee sing the words ''down to the drugstore'' instead of ''you can't be my loving baby''. The rather curt opening of the ensuing readings, devoid of an intro worthy of the name, is a little too brusque for comfort. In contrast, by the time of the third complete take, Jerry Lee's more animated intro enlightens the song but it's clear that he's having trouble performing it to his own high standards. The similarities between the two complete takes in this phase of the song's development end with the onset of each piano solo; in the first, Lewis's right hand runs up and down the keyboard whereas in the next it stays in the same octave throughout.

In the final take, which may well be from a later date, given that a second guitarist features prominently, Jerry Lee initiates proceedings by mimicking the role of a telegraph operator, deliberately or otherwise. It's doubtless too fanciful to imply that he was using Morse code to spell out ''wow, o, wow'' with the opening twenty-one strikes of a single note, but who knows; pop music has always been full of hidden messages. In ant event, this was the recording of the song officially released in 1973, becoming the first new Lewis track to be unearthed from the vaults by Martin Hawkins and Colin Escott, to add to those which had been included on Sun International LPs at the whim of Shelby Singleton. Its release aroused huge interest amongst European fans, and it proved to be the taster for many of the delights which followed over the ensuing decade.

Earl Solomon Burroughs, born on September 16, 1925, in Fulton County, Georgia, is a songwriter, singer, dancer, and Master of ceremonies. Better known as Jack Hammer is probably best known as the co-writer of one of the immortal classics of rock and roll, "Great Balls Of Fire", a Jerry Lee Lewis' number 2 hit from 1957. Born in New Orleans, he moved to California as a youngster and then, probably in the mid-1950s, to New York City, where he became the M.C. at the Baby Grand Theatre.

Earl Solomon Burroughs, (his real name) started writing songs in the 1950s. One of his earliest compositions, credited to Earl Burrows, was the spectacular "Fujiyama Mama". It was recorded by Annisteen Allen in late 1954, covered by Eileen Barton soon afterward and is probably best known in the version of Wanda Jackson from 1957, though none of these versions charted. Probably in 1955 he changed his name from Earl Burroughs to Jack Hammer, as "Rock 'N' Roll Call" by the Treniers (recorded on December 15, 1955) shows the writers as Jack Hammer and Rudolph Toombs. This song was also recorded by Louis Jordan in 1956. In April of that year, Hammer's composition "Knock Kneed Nellie From Knoxville" was recorded by the Jumping Jaguars (Decca 29938), a side-project of Franny Beecher of Bill Haley's Comets. It is possible that Hammer was a member of this group. "Football Rock"/ "So What" (Decca 30109, released October 1956) was the first release under his own name. His next appearance on record was "Girl, Girl, Girl" (Roulette 4046, 1958), a good rocker, followed by two singles on Kapp in 1959.

Hammer is probably more important as a songwriter than as a singer. The story behind "Great Balls Of Fire" (as revealed by Stuart Colman) is as follows. Hammer wrote a song of that name and submitted it to New York songwriter Paul Case, who at that time also happened to be musical consultant for the forthcoming movie "Jamboree". Case was unimpressed with the contents but loved the title. He subsequently called Otis Blackwell, who had never met Jack, and commissioned him to write a new song around the title, to be used in "Jamboree". Hammer was in full agreement to this arrangement as the deal was to be split right down the middle. In 1958, Jerry Lee Lewis recorded "Milkshake Mademoiselle" (unreleased at the time), Big Danny Oliver cut the exuberant rocker "Sapphire" and the Cadillacs scored a number 28 hit with "Peek-A-Boo", all penned by Hammer. "Croc-O-Doll" was written for the Impacts (RCA 7583), in 1959. In that year, a record was released "Black Widow Spider Woman"/"Doggone That Moon", credited to Jack Hammer and the Pacers on the Milestone label, but this was in fact a pseudonym for rockabilly/country singer Werly Fairburn. In 1960, Hammer recorded a strange LP for the Warwick label, "Rebellion - Jack Hammer Sings and Reads Songs and Poems of the Beat Generation".

The next year Hammer moved to Europe. First to Paris where he appeared in cabaret doing Sammy Davis and Chuck Berry impersonations. But he stayed much longer in Belgium, where he was discovered by Albert Van Hoogten, who had founded the Ronnex label in 1951. Jack recorded a whole bunch of twist ditties for Ronnex, which were also released in other European countries on a variety of labels (Oriole in the UK). The most successful of these was "Kissin' Twist", which sold especially well in Belgium (number 3), Germany, France and Sweden. Jack was an excellent dancer and in Belgium he became known as "The Twistin' King", which was also the title of an LP (the only LP that Ronnex ever released). The album had a different title in every country where it came out; in the UK it was called "Hammer, Beat And Twist" (Oriole PS 40020, 1963). Some of the more successful twist recordings were also recorded in German and/or Spanish for the local markets. By 1971 he was living in Wiesbaden, Germany, where he played the U.S. military bases. Apart from "Swim"/"Color Combination", there were no new releases in the 1970s. Hammer moved back to New York in order to play the part of Jimi Hendrix in a proposed film, but the plans for this movie foundered in the early to mid-1980s. At present (2010) he is living in Hollywood. A BMI search tells us that he has written 144 songs registered with BMI, including those credited to Earl Burroughs and Earl Burrows.

2 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (1) (2:20) 1983
3 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (2) (2 False Starts) (0:35) 2015 1st False Start Sun Unissued
4 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (3) (2:03) 1983
5 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (4) (Chatter & Take) (2:14) 1989
6 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (5) (4 False Starts) (3:34) 1983
7 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (6) (Fragment) (1:19) 2015 Sun Unissued
8 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (7) (2:07) 1983
9 - Milkshake Mademoiselle (8) (2:13) 1973
(Jack Hammer) (Northern Song)

Here five unreleased takes of ''Breathless'' but the original classic 4th single, this was Jerry’s 3rd biggest U.S. hit, and in the U.K. it tied with ''Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On'' as his 2nd biggest hit (the biggest being ''Great Balls Of Fire'' of course). Despite, this he’s rarely performed the song ‘live’ even during the 1960s (he’s said on more than one occasion that he hates the song). The 1963 re-cut (for ‘Golden Hits’) has far more drive & enthusiasm, and is superior despite having too many musicians and backing singers behind him. He re-recorded several of his early hits again in late 1988 for the ‘Great Balls Of Fire!’ movie & soundtrack album the following year, & did a surprisingly good job on most songs including this.

10 - Breathless (1) (2:39) 1989
11 - Breathless (2) (2:36) 1992
12 - Breathless (3) (2:36) 1983
13 - Breathless (4) (2:39) 1992
14 - Breathless (5) (2:39) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Otis Blackwell) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

1-14 Recorded January 16-18, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Jay W. Brown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

When you're hot, you're hot. Jerry Lee managed to follow his mega-hit "Great Balls Of Fire" with yet another blockbuster from the pen of Otis Blackwell. "Breathless" is another wild performance, complete with a heavy breathing hook that grabbed more than its share of disposablee teenage income. The song's structure is less than typical, and far from the blues and country music on which Jerry Lee cut his teeth. Although Jerry's piano plays a less central role here than ever before, the artist still manages to make this performance his own. Jerry's Louisiana pronunciation of "You know I 'doin' like a wood in flame" is a delight.

''Breathless'' provides an example, to be observed on at least two further occasions when hit-making was the order of the day, of Lewis persisting with an opening arrangement that doesn't produce the desired outcome, before simply giving up and trying something else which almost immediately proves beneficial. The first five takes (session January 16-18, 1958) repeat an opening cascade that one feels ought to serve as a leitmotif throughout the song, but which subsequently fails to reoccur. Yet each attempt leaves something to be desired.

Conversely, when Jerry Lee simplifies matters with the relatively unsophisticated hammering of a single chord, things begin to sound more organised. Despite that, it remains something of an ordeal for all involved in coming to terms with the broken-beat shuffle rhythm of the song, while at times Jerry Lee has difficulty in stretching elements of the lyric to complement the music adequately. The most consistently uncomfortable passage occurs in each take around the 1.15 mark, immediately following the gloomy weather forecast of ''wind, rain, sleet or snow''. Lewis repeatedly struggles with the declaration ''I will be wherever you go'', variously trying, without success, to make two syllables out of either or both of the words ''I-will-be'' with deliberation but a lack of conviction. Eventually, in take 8, (session January 21, 1958) he achieves the right balance by effectively adding the words ''am'' and ''to'', delivering the line as ''I'm gonna be wherever you go'' and the die is cast. One more take and it all falls into place.

This song was a calculated shot at the pubescent market, with Jerry's breathy delivery of the title as its hook. "Breathless" moved up the charts with the help of a ploy devised by Jud Phillips and Dick Clark. Beechnut chewing gum had sponsored the networking of Dick Clark's "Bandstand" show, but initial response was unfavorable until Jud and Dick Clark figured out how to kill two birds with one stone with a cross-promotion deal. Jerry Lee Lewis sang "Breathless" on "The Dick Clark Show''.

''Breathless'' spent 15 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at number 7 in April 1958. The song also reached number 4 on the country chart, number 3 on the Rhythm And Blues chart, and number 8 in the UK. The B-side, "Down the Line", also charted in 1958, reaching number 51 on the Billboard pop singles chart.

The song was re-released in 1979 as part of the Sun Records Golden Treasure Series as Sun 25 and on the Quality label in Canada in 1958. The song was also featured in the 1983 film Breathless starring Richard Gere and Valerie Kaprisky as well as the Jerry Lee Lewis song "High School Confidential". The song has been covered several times, including versions by Tom Jones, Mickey Gilley, Wanda Jackson, X, Cliff Richard, Albert Lee, Mike Berry, Hal Munro, The Paramounts, Chas and Dave, and Otis Blackwell.

15 - Breathless (6) (2:36) 1984 JLL EP 001
16 - Breathless (7) (2:49) 1992
17 - Breathless (8) (2:46) 1992
18 - Breathless (9) (Master Sun 288) (2:43) 1958
(Otis Blackwell) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

"Cold Cold Heart" recorded here by Jerry Lee Lewis' on this session, is a country song, written by Hank Williams. This blues ballad is both a classic of honky-tonk and an entry in the Great American Songbook.

Williams adapted the melody for the song from T. Texas Tyler's 1945 recording of "You'll Still Be In My Heart," written by Ted West in 1943. The song achingly and artfully describes frustration that the singer's love and trust is unreciprocated due to a prior bad experience in the other's past. Stories of the song's origins vary. In the Williams episode of American Masters, country music historian Colin Escott states that Williams was moved to write the song after visiting his wife Audrey in the hospital, who was suffering from an infection brought on by an abortion she had carried out at their home unbeknownst to Hank. Escott also speculates that Audrey, who carried on extramarital affairs as Hank did on the road, may have suspected the baby was not her husband's. Florida bandleader Pappy Neil McCormick claims to have witnessed the encounter: "According to McCormick, Hank went to the hospital and bent down to kiss Audrey, but she wouldn't let him. 'You sorry son of a bitch,' she is supposed to have said, 'it was you that caused me to suffer like this'. Hank went home and told the children's governess, Miss Ragland, that Audrey had a 'cold, cold heart,' and then, as so often in the past, realized the bitterness in his heart held commercial promise''.

The first draft of the song is dated November 23, 1950 and was recorded with an unknown band on May 5, 1951. Like his earlier masterpiece "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry'', it was released as the B-side (MGM10904B) to "Dear John" (MGM-10904A), since it was an unwritten rule in the country music industry that the faster numbers sold best. "Dear John" peaked at number 8 after only a brief four-week run on Billboard magazine's country music charts, but "Cold Cold Heart" proved to be a favorite of disc jockeys and jukebox listeners, whose enthusiasm for the song catapulted it to number 1 on the country music charts. Williams featured the song on his Mother's Best radio shows at the time of its release and performed the song on the Kate Smith Evening Hour on April 23, 1952, which ran from September 1951 to June 1952; the appearance remains one of the few existing film clips of the singer performing live. He is introduced by his idol Roy Acuff. Although a notorious binge drinker, Williams appears remarkably at ease on front of the cameras, with one critic noting, "He stared at the camera during his performance of ''Cold Cold Heart'' with a cockiness and self-confidence that bordered on arrogance''.

The song would become a pop hit for Tony Bennett, paving the way for country songs to make inroads into the lucrative pop market. In the liner notes to the 1990 Polygram compilation Hank Williams: The Original Single Collection, Fred Rose's son Wesley states, "Hank earned two major distinctions as a songwriter: he was the first writer on a regular basis to make country music national music; and he was the first country songwriter accepted by pop artists, and pop A&R men''.

That same year, it was recorded in a pop version by Tony Bennett with a light orchestral arrangement from Percy Faith. This recording was released by Columbia Records as catalog number 39449. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on July 20, 1951 and lasted 27 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 1. The popularity of Bennett's version has been credited with helping to expose both Williams and country music to a wider national audience. Allmusic writer Bill Janovitz discusses this unlikely combination: "That a young Italian singing waiter from Queens could find common ground with a country singer from Alabama's backwoods is testament both to Williams' skills as a writer and to Bennett's imagination and artist's ear''.

Williams subsequently telephoned Bennett to say, "Tony, why did you ruin my song''? But that was a prank, in fact, Williams liked Bennett's version and played it on jukeboxes whenever he could. In his autobiography ''The Good Life'', Bennett described playing "Cold Cold Heart" at the Grand Ole Opry later in the 1950s. He had brought his usual arrangement charts to give to the house musicians who would be backing him, but their instrumentation was different and they declined the charts. "You sing and we'll follow you'', they said, and Bennett says they did so beautifully, once again recreating an unlikely artistic merger.

The story of the Williams-Bennett telephone conversation is often related with mirth by Bennett in interviews and on stage; he still performs the song in concert. In 1997, the first installment of A&E's Live By Request featuring Bennett (who was also the show's creator), special guest Clint Black performed the song, after which Bennett recounted it. A Google Doodle featured Bennett's recording of the song on its Valentine's Day doodle in February 2012.

Other significant recordings there are including Louis Armstrong recorded "Cold Cold Heart" on September 17, 1951, and released it on Decca Records; Donald Peers recorded it on October 5, 1951, released EMI via His Master's Voice label as catalog number B 10158; Dinah Washington recorded it in 1951; Petula Clark and Gene Autry sang the song in the 1952 movie Apache Country; Jerry Lee Lewis released the song as a single on Sun Records in 1961 and included another version on the 1969 LP ''Sings the Country Music Hall of Fame Hits, Volume 2''; Jazz singer Norah Jones included a sultry swing version on her 2002 album ''Come Away With Me'', which was seen as "reintroducing" modern audiences to the song.

19 - Cold Cold Heart (1) (3:07) 1983
(Hank Williams) (Hiriam Music)

15-19 Recorded January 21, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Jay W. Brown (bass)

"Someday (You'll Want Me to Want You)" is a popular song written by Jimmie Hodges and was published in 1944. The song has become a standard, recorded by many pop and country music singers included by Elton Britt's 1946 version peaked at number 2 on the country charts.

The recording by Vaughn Monroe was released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-3510 (78rpm) and 47-2986. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on July 29, 1949 and lasted eighteen weeks on the chart, spending two weeks at number 1. The recording by The Mills Brothers was released by Decca Records as catalog number 24694. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on August 12, 1949 and lasted 15 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 8. A version by Jodie Sands barely made the Top 100 chart in 1958, reaching number 95, but did better in the United Kingdom, where it spent 10 weeks on the charts, peaking at number 14. Singer Della Reese released a rendition of the song in 1960, and it peaked at number number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and number 31 on Cash Box's best-selling chart. American country artist Patsy Cline posthumously released a single version of the song, which reached at number 23 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 chart in 1964. The recorded version by Jerry Lee Lewis, recorded on February 14, 1958, released on November 1974 for his Charly LP compilation ''Jerry Lee Lewis And His Pumping Piano'' (CR 300002).

20 - Someday (2:44) 1974
(Jimmy Hodges) (Duchess Music)

"Don't Be Cruel" is a song recorded by Elvis Presley and written by Otis Blackwell in 1956. It was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002. In 2004, it was listed number 197 in Rolling Stone's list of 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song is currently ranked as the 173th greatest song of all time, as well as the sixth best song of 1956, by Acclaimed Music.

"Don't Be Cruel was the first song that Presley's song publishers, Hill and Range, brought to him to record. Blackwell was more than happy to give up 50% of the royalties and a co-writing credit to Presley to ensure that the "hottest new singer around covered it".

Freddy Bienstock, Elvis' Music Publisher, gave the following explanation for why Elvis received co-writing credit for songs like Don't Be Cruel. "In the early days Elvis would show dissatisfaction with some lines and he would make alterations, so it wasn't just what is known as a ''cut-in''. His name did not appear after the first year. But if Elvis liked the song, the writers would be offered a guarantee of a million records and they would surrender a third of their royalties to Elvis'''.

Elvis Presley recorded the song on July 2, 1956 during an exhaustive recording session at RCA studios in New York City. During this session he also recorded "Hound Dog", and "Any Way You Want Me". The song featured Presley's regular band of Scotty Moore on lead guitar (with Presley usually providing rhythm guitar), Bill Black on bass, D.J. Fontana on drums, and backing vocals from the Jordanaires. The producing credit was given to RCA's Steve Sholes, although the studio recordings reveal that Presley produced the songs in this session by selecting the song, reworking the arrangement on piano, and insisting on 28 takes before he was satisfied with it. He also ran through 31 takes of "Hound Dog. All studio tapes lost.

The single was released on July 13, 1956 backed with "Hound Dog". Within a few weeks "Hound Dog" had risen to number 2 on the Pop charts with sales of over one million. Soon after it was overtaken by "Don't Be Cruel" which took number 1 on all three main charts; Pop, Country, and Rhythm And Blues. Between them, both songs remained at number 1 on the Pop chart for a run of 11 weeks tying it with the 1950 Anton Karas hit "The Third Man Theme" and the 1951/1952 Johnnie Ray hit "Cry" for the longest stay at number one by a single record from late 1950 onward until 1992's smash "End Of The Road" by Boyz II Men. By the end of 1956 it had sold in excess of four million copies. Billboard ranked it as the number 2 song for 1956. Presley performed "Don't Be Cruel" during all three of his appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show in September 1956 and January 1957.

"Don't Be Cruel" went on to become Presley's biggest selling single recorded in 1956, with sales over six million by 1961. It became a regular feature of his live sets until his death in 1977, and was often coupled with "Jailhouse Rock" or "Teddy Bear" during performances from 1969.

According to author Mark Lewisohn in "The Complete Beatles Chronicles" (p. 362) The Beatles performed it live from at least 1959 till 1961 if not later. They finally recorded a laid-back version during the massive Get Back (1969) sessions which has never been released. However ex-Beatles John Lennon, Ringo Starr, Pete Best, and Lennon's former bandmembers The Quarrymen as well as Tony Sheridan (who was asked to join The Beatles) all recorded versions of it.

Many other artists including Connie Francis (1959, Rock 'N' Roll Million Sellers), Annette Peacock, Barbara Lynn (1963, Jamie 1244 45rpm, number 93 on the Hot 100), Bill Black's Combo, Billy Swan, Devo, Cheap Trick, Daffy Duck, Merle Haggard, Jerry Lee Lewis at Sun with a very good version of the song (EPA 108) in 1958, Neil Diamond, and Jackie Wilson have recorded the song. Presley was said to be so impressed with Wilson's version that he would later incorporate many of Wilson's mannerisms into future performances. Debbie Harry recorded the song for the Otis Blackwell tribute album Brace Yourself! A Tribute to Otis Blackwell. A cover by American country music duo The Judds peaked at number 10 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart in 1987. Cheap Trick's version of this song reached number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1988. Jonathan Rhys Meyers lip-synched the original version of the song in a scene from Elvis, where it shows him performing at the Jacksonville Theater. Suzi Quatro was inspired by Presley singing "Don't Be Cruel". She is the first female bass player to become a major rock star. This broke a barrier to women's participation in rock music. Quatro had her "Elvis moment" on January 6, 1957, when she was six years old. With her older sister Arlene, she was watching

Elvis on The Ed Sullivan Show. Arlene was screaming as Elvis sang "Don't Be Cruel". When he sang "Mmmmmm", Quatro had her first sexual thrill (but did not know what it was). Then their father (Art) entered the room, said "That's disgusting", and switched off the television. At this point Quatro decided that she wanted to be Elvis. (Art later brought home a copy of Elvis singing "Love Me Tender" and conceded "OK, dammit - so the kid can sing!").

21 - Don't Be Cruel (Master LP-1230) (2:00) 1958
(Otis Blackwell-Elvis Presley) (Elvis Presley Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee Lewis' rendition here, although it is tempting to categorize ''Pink Pedal Pushers'' with ''Blue Suede Shoes'' and ''Put Your Cat Clothes On'' as Carl Perkins' apparel-oriented songs, we think it doesn't along with those other two. ''Blue Suede Shoes'' is abut someone's devotion to his own shoes and ''Cat Clothes'' consists of Carl's getting his woman dressed up fancy 'causes they;re going out dancing. ''Pink Pedal Pushers'', on the other hand, is actually about fashion. In the right clothes, it says, you'll be good-looking, desirable, and popular. Mark Twain said, ''clothes make the man''. We can safely extend that to women and high school is where that becomes about as important an idea as it's ever likely to. So this song belongs with Joe Bennett & the Sparkletones' ''Black Slacks'' (BCD 15972) a top 20 hit in 1957 and the following year's ''Short Shorts'' by the Royal Teens (which reached number 3) and ''Tight Capris'' by Jody Reynolds (flip side of the big hit, ''Endless Sleep''. Pedal pushers and capris, by tie way, were much alike - tight calf- length pants that were popular with the younger set

Maybe the most obvious lyrical connection to ''Pink Pedal Pushers'' occurs in Gene Vinent's classic track ''Be Bop A Lula''. Admiring Ms. Lula's clothing, Vincent sings ''She's the girl in the red blue jeans/ She's the queen of all the teens''. In Perkins' case, he too is ready to extend the crown to his well-dressed girl. ''Her pink pedal pushers made her the queen of them all'' Royalty was quite easy to come by in Teen Land in the 1950s.

This next attempt 1958 and the later recorded 1962 version at the Roy Brown (via Elvis Presley) classic were recorded for Sun, and both were deemed not worthy of release at the time. The 1958 cut here is the wildest, and even features a snatch of ''Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On'', but wasn’t issued until 1983 on ''The Sun Years'' box-set. The 1962 cut is much slower and more laid-back, but features a tremendous vocal performance from Jerry (one of his best). This first saw the light of day via the 1969 ''Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues'' LP.

22 - Pink Pedal Pushers (2:08) 1971
(Carl Perkins) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

"Good Rocking Tonight" was originally a jump blues song released in 1947 by its writer, Roy Brown and was covered by many other recording artists. The song includes the memorable refrain, "Well I heard the news, there's good rocking tonight!".

Brown had first offered his song to Wynonie Harris, who turned it down. Only after the Brown's record gained traction in New Orleans did Harris decide to cover it. Harris's version was even more energetic than Brown's original version, featuring black gospel style handclapping. This may have contributed to the composition's greater success on the national rhythm and blues chart. Brown's original recording hit number 13 of the Billboard Rhythm & Blues chart, but Harris' record became a number one rhythm and blues hit and remained on the chart for half a year. Brown's single would re-enter the chart in 1949, peaking at number 11. Harris had a reputation for carousing, and sometimes forgot lyrics. His "Good Rockin'" recording session largely followed Brown's original lyrics, but by the end, he replaced the last section with a series of raucous "hoy hoy hoy!" interjections, a commonly used expression in jump blues tunes of the time, going back to 1945's "The Honeydripper" by Joe Liggins.

The song is a primer of sorts on the popular black music of the era, making lyrical reference to Sweet Lorraine, Sioux City Sue, Sweet Georgia Brown, Caldonia, Elder Brown, and Deacon Jones. All of these characters had figured prominently in previous hit songs. While Brown missed out on the biggest hit version of his song, its success kicked off his own career, which included two number 1 rhythm and blues hits. In 1949, he released "Rockin' at Midnight", a sequel to "Good Rockin' Tonight", which might be thought of as "Good Rockin' Tonight Part II" because it included updates on the same characters as the original. It reached number 2 on the Rhythm & Blues chart, where it remained for a month.

In 1954, "Good Rockin' Tonight" was the second Sun Records release by Elvis Presley, along with "I Don't Care If The Sun Don't Shine" on the flip side. Elvis Presley and his bandmates hewed closer to the original Roy Brown version, but omitted the lyrics' by-then-dated roster of names in favor of a simpler, more energetic "We're gonna rock, rock, rock!" Described as "a flat-out rocker" country radio programmers blanched, and older audiences were somewhat mystifie

A live show broadcast from Houston disc jockey Bill Collie's club documented that the crowd "barely responded" to the song. "Blue Moon Of Kentucky", the uptempo version of the Bill Monroe classic, has "the fans go stark raving nuts with joy". Both sides of this second record featuring "Elvis Presley, Scotty and Bill" "stiffed".

The song was used for the Elvis Presley biopic Elvis which starred Jonathan Rhys-Meyers as Presley; it was used for a scene where he is performing at the Louisiana Hayride in 1956. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded an unreleased version the song for Sun Records. Ronnie Montrose recorded a hard rock cover of the song on his band's debut album with Sammy Hagar on vocals. The Honeydrippers with Robert Plant & Jeff Beck, recorded the song under the name "Rockin at Midnight". Paul McCartney recorded the song for the Unplugged (The Official Bootleg) album.

Bruce Springsteen performed the song during his 1978 Darkness Tour, usually as the opening number. He also occasionally performed the song on The River Tour in 1980-81. Springsteen performed the song for the first time in 27 years in 2008 on the Magic Tour. A Gene Summers cover version of "Good Rocking Tonight" was included on a French compilation album The Big Beat Show issued by Big Beat Records (BBR1000) in 1981. Contraband, an all-star hard rock group recorded their version of the song for their debut self-titled album in 1991. Ricky Nelson recorded the song for his 1958 album Ricky Nelson. Lonnie Lee recorded the song for his 1993 album Don't Look Back; his version is a more guitar-based rock 'n' roll version.

Other cover versions of the song include the Treniers', Pat Boone's, James Brown's, Dread Zeppelin's (on their Hot & Spicy Beanburger album), Montrose's (whose version was covered by NWOBHM band Diamond Head), Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen and Kevin DuBrow's. Robert Plant and the Honeydrippers had a successful cover of "Rockin' at Midnight". Early 60s Mexican band Los Teen Tops recorded a Spanish and successful version: "Buen rock esta noche". Wes Paul Gerrard features this song heavily in his live performances, often opening up with it in his second set. He will record the song in his new Manchester to Memphis album which he is recording at Sun Studio, Memphis, Tennessee in May 2010.

23 - Good Rockin' Tonight (1) (2:43) 1983
(Roy James Brown) (Blue Ridge)

Jerry recorded ''Hound Dog'' this Leiber and Stoller composition twice for Sun, both of which remained in the can for many years (like far too many other Sun recordings). This session of mostly Elvis covers, though this one doesn’t work quite as well as ''Don’t Be Cruel'' or ''Jailhouse Rock''. It was first issued on ''Rockin’ And Free'' in 1974. The 1960 cut is far more bluesy, and owes as much to Big Mama Thornton’s original as it does to Elvis Presley’s more famous cover. Despite it’s quality, this had to wait until the ''Don’t Drop It'' album in 1988 for a release (the song is also on both of Jerry’s 1964 ‘live’ albums).

"Hound Dog" is a twelve-bar blues song by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. It was recorded by Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton on August 13, 1952 in Los Angeles and released by Peacock Records in March 1953. "Hound Dog" was Thornton's only hit record, spending 14 weeks in the Rhythm and Blues charts, including seven weeks at number 1. Thornton's recording of "Hound Dog" is listed as one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll", and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in February 2013.

"Hound Dog" has been recorded more than 250 times. The best-known version of "Hound Dog" is the July 2, 1956 recording by Elvis Presley, which is ranked number 19 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the ''500 Greatest Songs of All Time''; it is also one of the best-selling singles of all time. Presley's version, which sold about more than 10 million copies globally, was his best-selling song and "an emblem of the rock and roll revolution. It was simultaneously number 1 on the United States pop, country, and Rhythm and Blues charts in 1956, and it topped the pop chart for 11 weeks - a record that stood for 36 years. Presley's 1956 (RCA 20/47-6604) recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1988.

"Hound Dog" has been at the center of many lawsuits, including disputes over authorship, royalties, and copyright infringement by the many answer songs released by such artists as Rufus Thomas and Roy Brown. From the 1970s onward, the song has been featured in numerous films, in ''Grease'', ''Forrest Gump'', ''Lilo and Stitch'', ''A Few Good Men'', ''Hounddog'', ''Indiana Jones'', ''The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'', and ''Nowhere Boy''.

On August 12, 1952, rhythm and blues bandleader Johnny Otis asked 19-year-old songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller to his home to meet blues singer Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton. Thornton had been signed by Don Robey's Houston-based Peacock Records the year before, and after two failed singles, Robey had enlisted Otis to reverse her fortunes. After hearing Thornton rehearse several songs, Leiber and Stoller "forged a tune to suit her personality, brusque and bad ass". In an interview in Rolling Stone in April 1990, Stoller said: "She was a wonderful blues singer, with a great moaning style. But it was as much her appearance as her blues style that influenced the writing of ''Hound Dog'' and the idea that we wanted her to growl it''. Leiber recalled: "We saw Big Mama and she knocked me cold. She looked like the biggest, baddest, saltiest chick you would ever see. And she was mean, a ''lady bear'', as they used to call 'em. She must have been 350 pounds, and she had all these scars all over her face" conveying words which could not be sung. "But how to do it without actually saying it? And how to do it telling a story? I couldn't just have a song full of expletives''. In 1999, Leiber said, "I was trying to get something like the Furry Lewis phrase 'Dirty Mother Furya'. I was looking for something closer to that but I couldn't find it, because everything I went for was too coarse and would not have been playable on the air''. Using a "black slang expression referring to a man who sought a woman to take care of him", the song's opening line, "You ain't nothin' but a hound dog", was a euphemism, said Leiber. The song, a Southern blues lament, is "the tale of a woman throwing a gigolo out of her house and her life".

The song was written for a woman to sing in which she berates "her selfish, exploitative man", and in it she "expresses a woman's rejection of a man, the metaphorical dog in the title". According to Iain Thomas, "'Hound Dog' embodies the Thornton persona she had crafted as a comedienne prior to entering the music business" by parading "the classic puns, extended metaphors, and sexual double entendres so popular with the bawdy genre''. Rhythm and blues expert George A. Moonoogian concurs, calling it "a biting and scathing satire in the double-entendre genre" of 1950s rhythm and blues.

Leiber and Stoller wrote the song "Hound Dog" in 12 to 15 minutes, with Leiber scribbling the lyrics in pencil on ordinary paper and without musical notation in the car on the way to Stoller's apartment. Said Leiber, "Hound Dog'' took like twelve minutes. That's not a complicated piece of work. But the rhyme scheme was difficult. Also the metric structure of the music was not easy''. According to Leiber, as soon as they reached the parking lot and Stoller's 1937 Plymouth, "I was beating out a rhythm we called the 'buck dance' on the roof of the car. We got to Johnny Otis's house and Mike went right to the piano…didn't even bother to sit down. He had a cigarette in his mouth that was burning his left eye, and he started to play the song''.

Elvis Presley's 1956 version Larry Birnbaum described "Hound Dog" as "an emblem of the rock 'n' roll revolution". George Plasketes argues that Elvis Presley's version of "Hound Dog" should not be considered a cover "since, most listeners, were innocent of Willie Mae Thornton's original 1953 release". Michael Coyle asserts that "Hound Dog", like almost all of Presley's "covers were all of material whose brief moment in the limelight was over, without the songs having become standards''. While, because of its popularity, Presley's recording "arguably usurped the original", Plasketes concludes: "anyone who's ever heard the Big Mama Thornton original would probably argue otherwise''.

Presley was aware of and appreciated Big Mama Thornton's original recording of "Hound Dog". Ron Smith, a schoolfriend of Presley's, says he remembers Elvis singing along to a version by Tommy Duncan (lead singer for the classic lineup of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys). According to another schoolmate, Elvis' favorite rhythm and blues song was "Bear Cat (the Answer to Hound Dog)" by Rufus Thomas, a hero of Presley's. Nevertheless, it was Freddie Bell and the Bellboys' performance of the song, with Bell's amended lyrics, that influenced Presley's decision to perform, and later record and release, his own version: "Elvis's version of ''Hound Dog'' (1956) came about, not as an attempt to cover Thornton's record, but as an imitation of a parody of her record performed by Freddie Bell and the Bellboys. ..The words, the tempo, and the arrangement of Elvis' ''Hound Dog'' come not from Thornton's version of the song, but from the Bellboys'''.

According to Rick Coleman, the Bellboys' version "featured Dave Bartholomew's three-beat Latin riff, which had been heard in Bill Haley's ''Shake, Rattle and Roll'''. Just as Haley had borrowed the riff from Bartholomew, Presley borrowed it from Bell and the Bellboys. The Latin riff form that was used in Presley's "Hound Dog" was known as "Habanera rhythm'', which is a Spanish and African-American musical beat form. After the release of "Hound Dog" by Elvis Presley, the Habanera rhythm gained much popularity in American popular music.

Presley's first appearance in Las Vegas, as an "extra added attraction", was in the Venus Room of the New Frontier Hotel and Casino from April 23 through May 6, 1956, but was reduced to one week "because of audience dissatisfaction, low attendance, and unsavory behavior by underage fans''. At that time, Freddie Bell and the Bellboys, who had been performing as a resident act in the Silver Queen Bar and Cocktail Lounge in the Sands Casino since 1952, were one of the hottest acts in town. Presley and his band decided to take in their show, and not only enjoyed the show, but also loved their reworking of "Hound Dog", which was a comedy-burlesque with show-stopping va-va-voom choreography. According to Paul W. Papa: "From the first time Elvis heard this song he was hooked. He went back over and over again until he learned the chords and lyrics''. Presley's guitarist Scotty Moore recalled: "When we heard them perform that night, we thought the song would be a good one for us to do as comic relief when we were on stage. We loved the way they did it''. When asked about "Hound Dog", Presley's drummer D. J. Fontana admitted: "We took that from a band we saw in Vegas, Freddie Bell and the Bellboys. They were doing the song kinda like that. We went out there every night to watch them. He'd say: 'Let's go watch that band. It's a good band!' That's where he heard 'Hound Dog,' and shortly thereafter he said: 'Let's try that song'''.

When asked if Bell had any objections to Presley recording his own version, Bell gave Colonel Tom Parker, Presley's manager, a copy of his 1955 Teen Records' recording, hoping that if Presley recorded it, "he might reap some benefit when his own version was released on an album''. According to Bell, "Parker promised me that if I gave him the song, the next time Elvis went on tour, I would be the opening act for him - which never happened''. In May 1956, two months before Presley's release, Bell re-recorded the song in a more frantic version for the Mercury label, however it was not released as a single until 1957. It was later included on Bell's 1957 album, ''Rock & Roll…All Flavors'' (Mercury Records MG 20289). By summer 1956, after Presley's recording of the song was a million-seller, Bell told an interviewer: "I didn't feel bad about that at all. In fact, I encouraged him to record it''. After the success of Presley's recording, "Bell sued to get some of the composer royalties because he had changed the words and indeed the song, and he would have made millions as the songwriter of Elvis’s version: but he lost because he did not ask Leiber and Stoller for permission to make the changes and thereby add his name as songwriter''.

Soon after, Elvis Presley added "Hound Dog" to his live performances, performing it as comic relief. "Hound Dog" became Elvis and Scotty and Bill's closing number for the first time on May 15, 1956 at Ellis Auditorium in Memphis, during the Memphis Cotton Festival before an audience of 7,000. Presley's performance, including the lyrics (which he sometimes changed) and "gyrations", were influenced by what he had seen at the sands. As the song always got a big reaction, it became the standard closer until the late 1960s.

By 1964, Elvis Presley's version of "Hound Dog" had been covered over 26 times, and by 1984, there were at least 85 different cover versions of the song, making it "the best-known and most often recorded rock and roll song". In July 2013 the official Leiber and Stoller website listed 266 different versions of "Hound Dog", but acknowledged that its list is incomplete. Among the notable artists who have covered Presley's version of "Hound Dog" are: Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps; Jerry Lee Lewis in July 1974 for his Sun International LP ''Rockin' And Free'' and in November 1988 for the Zu-Zazz LP ''Jerry Lee Lewis - Dony Drop It''; Chubby Checker; Pat Boone; Sammy Davis, Jr.; Betty Everett; Little Richard; The Surfaris; The Everly Brothers; Junior Wells; The Mothers of Invention; Jimi Hendrix; Vanilla Fudge; Van Morrison; Conway Twitty; Jimi Hendrix and Little Richard; John Lennon and the Plastic Ono Elephant's Memory Band; John Entwistle; Carl Perkins; Eric Clapton; James Taylor; and (in 1993) Tiny Tim (in his full baritone voice). In 1999 David Grisman, John Hartford, and Mike Seeger included "Hound Dawg" on their 1999 album Retrograss, which was nominated for a Grammy in the Traditional Folk Album category in 2000.

24 - Hound Dog (1) (1:26) 1974
(Jerry Leiber-Mike Stoller) (Jerry Leiber Music-Mike Stoller Music)

''Jailhouse Rock'' recorded with several other Presley titles, this would’ve made an ideal track for Jerry’s first album but had to wait until the 1971 Sun International ''Monsters'' album for release instead. The 1986 re-cut (released on ''Rocket'' 2 years later) isn’t bad, but The Jordanaires water things down considerable (even Elvis had the sense not to use them on this song!).

"Jailhouse Rock" is a song written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller that first became a hit for Elvis Presley. The song was released as a 45rpm single on September 24, 1957, to coincide with the release of Presley's motion picture, ''Jailhouse Rock''.

The song as recorded by Presley is number number 67 on Rolling Stone's list of ''The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time'' and was named one of ''The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll''. In 2004, it finished at number 21 on AFI's ''100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema''. Presley's performance of the song in the film, choreographed as a dance routine involving himself and a large group of male prisoners, was featured among other classic MGM musical numbers in the 1994 documentary ''That's Entertainment! III''. The film version differs from the single version of the song, featuring backing instrumentation and vocals not heard on the record.

Some of the characters named in the song are real people. Shifty Henry was a well-known LA musician, not a criminal. The Purple Gang was a real mob. "Sad Sack" was a U.S. Army nickname in World War II for a loser, which also became the name of a popular comic strip and comic book character. According to Rolling Stone, Leiber and Stoller's "theme song for Presley's third movie was decidedly silly, the kind of tongue-incheek goof they had come up with for The Coasters. The King, however, sang it as straight rock and roll, overlooking the jokes in the lyrics (like the suggestion of gay romance when inmate number 47 tells Number 3, 'You're the cutest jailbird I ever did see') and then introducing Scotty Moore's guitar solo with a cry so intense that the take almost collapses''. Gender studies scholars cite the song for "its famous reference to homo-erotics behind bars'', while music critic Garry Mulholland writes, "'Jailhouse Rock'' was always a queer lyric, in both senses''. Douglas Brode writes of the filmed production number that it's "amazing that the sequence passed by the censors".

The single, with its B-side "Treat Me Nice" (another song from the film's soundtrack) was a US number 1 hit for seven weeks in the fall of 1957, and a UK number 1 hit for three weeks early in 1958. It was the first record to enter the UK charts at number 1. In addition, "Jailhouse Rock" spent one week at the top of the US country charts, and reached the number 2 position on the Rhythm and Blues chart. Also in 1957, "Jailhouse Rock" was the lead song in an EP (extended play), together with other songs from the film, namely "Young and Beautiful'', "I Want To Be Free'', "Don't Leave Me Now'' and "(You're So Square) Baby I Don't Care" (but with "Treat Me Nice" omitted). It topped the Billboard EP charts, eventually selling two million copies and earning a double-platinum RIAA certification. In 2005, the song was re-released in the UK and reached number 1 for a single week, when it became the lowest-selling number 1 in United Kingdom history, and the first to enter at number 1 twice.

Other significant recordings by Jerry Lee Lewis for Sun Records, recorded February 14, 1958 for the Sun International LP release ''Monsters'' (LP 124 April 1971); The Beatles regularly performed "Jailhouse Rock" starting in 1958 (as The Quarrymen) and continuing all the way through 1960. "Jailhouse Rock" was performed regularly in a medley along with many old rock and roll hits by Queen as early as 1970 and was the opening song on Queen's 1979 Crazy Tour and the 1980 North American tour for The Game. It is the last song in the motion picture The Blues Brothers. The song is featured in the 1995 film ''Casper'' and the 2006 direct-to-video animated film ''Leroy and Stitch''. American Idol Season 5 contestant Taylor Hicks performed it on May 9, 2006, and Season 7 contestant Danny Noriega performed it on February 20, 2008. In an episode of Full House, Jesse and Becky sing this song at their wedding reception. The song was used on Dancing with the Stars for four different jives by Lisa Rinna, Lil' Kim, Tommy Chong and Alek Skarlatos. The song is included in the musical revue Smokey Joe's Cafe. Scenes from the music video of the One Direction single "Kiss You" are based on the "Jailhouse Rock" production number from the Elvis film.

25 - Jailhouse Rock (1:57) 1971
(Jerry Leiber-Mike Stoller) (Jerry Leiber Music-Mike Stoller Music)

20-25 Recorded February 14, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (drums, bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

As now revealed for the first time, the earliest takes of ''High School Confidential'' were based on an arrangement that is in stark contrast to the one with which we are familiar courtesy of Lewis's fourth million selling disc. In the first three takes the band is set on replicating the broken-beat rhythm of ''Breathless'', while Roland Janes' guitar solo centres on a completely different hook. In some respects it's almost as though we have a new tune to savour. Having said that, these early takes at times sound a mite ragged and they lack some of the barnstorming energy of the issued master and the associated takes. Initially, there's not too much evidence of the extensive ad-libbing in the lyric that characterised later takes; the first three are all in broad conformity but they do feature the memorable couplet, sadly abandoned by the time we get to the master take, ''we're gonna burn off our shoes; we've got a lotta leather to lose''. In take 4, things begin to sound more recognisable; the drummer sticks to a steady beat and Roland Janes likewise changes gear. Having taken his eye off the lead sheet, Jerry Lee switches the ''lotta leather'' and ''burn off our shoes'' lines around. In take 5, these lines are again delivered to order while, ahead of his second solo, at 1 minute 57 seconds, Jerry Lee tells us ''everybody's doing something at the high school hop''. The terms loosely indicative of dancing, be they ''shakin', rockin', boppin' or hoppin''', become increasingly random. The opening verse of take 11 (CD 6), in an unparalleled departure from the norm, promotes the claim that everybody is ''boppin' to'', as opposed to ''boppin' at'', the high school hop.

26 - High School Confidential (1.1) (2:22) 2015 Sun Unissued
27 - High School Confidential (1.2) (2:22) 2015 Sun Unissued
28 - High School Confidential (1.3) (2:22) 2015 Sun Unissued
29 - High School Confidential (1.4) (False Start & Take) (2:44) 2015 Sun Unissued
30 - High School Confidential (1.5) (2:35) 1989
31 - High School Confidential (1.6) (2:45) 2015 Sun Unissued
32 - High School Confidential (1.7) (2:32) 1983
33 - High School Confidential (1.8) (False Start & Take) (2:48) 1986
34 - High School Confidential (1.9) (2:45) 1983
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Ron Hargrave) (Hill and Range Music Incorporated)

26-34 Recorded February 14, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Unknown (drums, bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 6 Contains 1958

In the next phase of the next song's development we're treated to several other ''lost lines'' that had been discarded or forgotten by the time the master was cut. For example, at 0:58 in take 6 we're informed that ''everything is shocking''; the same take draws to a close with a unique couplet ''all the kids are jumpin'', they really think it's something''; in take 10 there's both ''a little jukin''' and some ''movin' and groovin'''. Ad-libbing is by now the order of the day although it's not without a cost, as confusion abounds on occasions; note in take 9 how Jerry Lee sings across the guitar solo.

The final few seconds of each take often reveal some useful clues to help distinguish one from another. Notice how in take 4 Jerry Lee wraps up his vocal with an aggressive flourish; at the close of take 8 there's a groan of frustration at what seems to be regarded as a below par finish; towards the end of take 10, one of the comparatively less frenzied run-throughs, in which they're ''gonna blow away all these blues'', he appears to be a little distracted. Not so in the much more energetic take 11, which harks back to ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'' with the respite of ab ''easy now'' section and a ''don't stop me now'' plea, foreshadowing a storming finish.

Note: Track 7, without guitar, and the next movie track, may have been recorded during either of the two series of recordings identified with the February 14 session. The original tape of the movie version has not been found, but a copy has been reconstructed from different elements of the film soundtrack.

1 - High School Confidential (1.10) (False Start & Take) (3:08) 1986
2 - High School Confidential (1.11) (2:02) 2015 Sun Unissued
3 - High School Confidential (1.12) (2:03) 2015 Sun Unissued
4 - High School Confidential (1.13) (2:00) 1992
5 - High School Confidential (1.14) (2 False Starts) (0:45) 1983
6 - High School Confidential (1.15) (2:01) 1983
7 - High School Confidential (2.1) (2:15) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Ron Hargrave) (Hill and Range Music Incorporated)

1-7 Recorded February 14, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Unknown (drums, bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

''Keep Your Hands Off It'' was originally written as "Hands Off'', later known as "Keeps Your Hands Off Her", is a 1955 song written and recorded by Jay McShann. The single, on the Vee-Jay label, was the most successful Jay McShann release on the Billboard rhythm and blues chart. "Hands Off", with vocals performed by Priscilla Bowman, was number one on the rhythm and blues best seller chart for three weeks. The single is notable because this was the last single to hit number one on the rhythm and blues chart without making the Billboard Hot 100 until 1976: For the next twenty-one years, all singles which made the top spot on the Billboard rhythm and blues chart would make the Hot 100.

In 1961, Damita Jo DeBlance recorded her version of "Keeps Your Hands Off Her" for Mercury Records (Mercury 71760). Elvis Presley recorded and worked in a jam with "Got My Mojo Working", but not before Elvis interpolated "Keep Your Hands Off Her" during his sessions in June 1970 at RCA Studio B. in Nashville, Tennessee. ''We grew up on this mediocre shit man'', Elvis declared enthusiastically. ''It's the type of material that's not good or bad, it's just mediocre shit, you know''. But it was ''mediocre shit'' with which he was totally comfortable, for which he had great respect, and that he would always love.

8 - Keep Your Hands Off Of It (1) (False Start) (0:14) 1983
(Jay McShann) (Conrad Music)

William "Willie" Lee Perryman, usually known professionally as Piano Red and later in life as Dr. Feelgood, was an American blues musician, the first to hit the pop music charts. He was a self-taught pianist who played in the barrelhouse blues style (a loud percussive type of blues piano suitable for noisy bars or taverns). His performing and recording careers emerged during the period of transition from completely segregated "race music", to "rhythm and blues", which was marketed to white audiences. Some music historians credit Perryman's 1950 recording "Rockin' With Red" for the popularization of the term rock and roll in Atlanta. His simple, hard-pounding left hand and his percussive right hand, coupled with his cheerful shout, brought him considerable success over three decades like Jerry Lee Lewis pumping piano style.

Perryman was born October 19, 1911 on a farm near Hampton, Georgia, where his parents Ada and Henry Perryman sharecropped. He was part of a large family, though sources differ on exactly how many brothers and sisters he had. Perryman was an albino African American, as was his older brother Rufus, who also had a blues piano career as "Speckled Red".

When Perryman was six years old, his father gave up farming and moved the family to Atlanta to work in a factory. Not much is known about Perryman's education or early life, but he recalled that his mother bought a piano for her two albino sons. Both brothers had very poor vision, an effect of their albinism, so neither took formal music lessons, but they developed their barrelhouse style through playing by ear. Perryman sometimes recalled imitating Rufus's style after watching him play, but it is doubtful that his brother was a major influence. Rufus, nineteen years older than Perryman, left Georgia in 1925 and did not return until a 1960 visit. Another influence that Perryman cited in interviews was Fats Waller, whose records his mother brought home. Other influences were likely the local blues pianists playing at "house" or "rent" parties, which were common community fund-raisers of that era.

By the early 1930s, Perryman was playing at house parties, juke joints, and barrelhouses in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. He developed his percussive playing style and harsh singing style to compensate for the lack of sound systems and to overcome the noise of people talking in venues. He worked these circuits with other Georgia bluesmen, including Barbecue Bob, Charlie Hicks, Curley Weaver, and "Blind Willie" McTell.

Perryman married in the early 1930s, and he and his wife Flora had two daughters. He obtained seasonal employment performing in Brevard, North Carolina, a mountain resort town, and commuted back and forth between there and Atlanta. The Brevard job brought him before white audiences; by 1934 he had also begun to play at white clubs in Atlanta. In Atlanta he would play at a white club until midnight and then head over to an African American club, where he would play until 4 am. Perryman developed a repertoire of pop standards, which were more popular among the white audiences, while continuing his blues sets in the African American clubs.

Around 1936 he began to be billed as 'Piano Red', and made his first recordings with McTell in Augusta for Vocalion Records, although these were never released. He also began working as an upholsterer, a trade which he occasionally maintained through later years.

In 1950, after spending the previous 14 years upholstering and playing music on weekends, Perryman recorded "Rockin' With Red" and "Red's Boogie" at the WGST radio studios in Atlanta for RCA Victor. Both songs became national hits, reaching numbers five and three respectively on the Billboard Rhythm And Blues chart, and "Rockin' With Red" has since been covered many times under many titles. This success, along with further hits "The Wrong Yo Yo" (allegedly written by Speckled Red), "Laying The Boogie" and "Just Right Bounce", allowed him to resume an active performing schedule. He also recorded sessions in New York City and Nashville during the early 1950s.

Red played for white teenagers' high school parties in peoples homes in Atlanta. You would arrange for him to be picked up at his home and returned and providing a "bottle" of booze for him as well as a very nominal fee. During the mid-1950s Perryman also worked as a disc jockey on radio stations WGST and WAOK in Atlanta, broadcasting 'The Piano Red Show' (later 'The Dr. Feelgood Show') directly from a small shack in his back yard. A young James Brown made an appearance on his show in the late 1950s. Perryman's involvement had him appearing on a flatbed truck in many parades, which led to his song "Peachtree Parade".

From the mid-1950s until the late 1960s, he recorded for several record labels, including Columbia, for whom he made several records, Checker, for whom he recorded eight sides with Willie Dixon on bass, and Groove Records, a subsidiary of RCA Victor, producing the first hit for that label.

Signed to Okeh Records in 1961, Perryman began using the name Dr. Feelgood and the Interns, releasing several hits, including the much-covered "Doctor Feelgood". The persona was one he had initially adopted on his radio shows. The new career was short-lived, though, and Piano Red was never able to regain his former stature. In 1963, The Merseybeats recorded a cover of the b-side of "Doctor Feelgood'', titled "Mr. Moonlight" (written by Roy Lee Johnson) as the B-side of their United Kindom top 5 hit ''I Think of You''. It was also recorded by the Beatles and appeared on the album ''Beatles For Sale'' in the United Kingdom and on the ''Beatles '65'' album in the United States. In 1966, The Lovin' Spoonful recorded his song "Bald Headed Lena" on their second album, Daydream.

Perryman continued to be a popular performer in Underground Atlanta, and had several European tours late in his career, including appearances at the Montreux Jazz Festival, Berlin Jazz Festival, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's inauguration, and on BBC Radio. During this time, he was befriended by Bill Wyman, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger, Eric Clapton, and Paul McCartney, and Pete Ham of Badfinger wrote a song in his honor.

Muhlenbrink's Saloon closed in 1979 and Perryman found himself without a regular job. That lasted until 1981, when he was hired to perform five nights a week at The Excelsior Mill in Atlanta. In 1984, he asked co-owner Michael Reeves to arrange a live recording and Reeves arranged for a mobile recording in October of that year.

In 1985, Red charted the song "Yo Yo", a duet with Danny Shirley, who would later become lead singer of Confederate Railroad. Perryman was diagnosed with cancer that same year and died on July 25, 1985 at Dekalb General Hospital in Decatur, Georgia. Among those who attended his funeral were the Governor of Georgia and the Mayor of Atlanta. The tapes from the Excelsior Mill remained in Michael Reeves's possession for twenty-five years. In April 2010, he formed a partnership with author and producer David Fulmer to release a CD of the recording under the title The Lost Atlanta Tapes. The CD was released by Landslide Records on August 17, 2010.

9 - Rockin' With Red (2:01) 1983
(Willie Lee Perryman aka Piano Red) (Copyright Control)

"Matchbox" is a rockabilly song written and recorded by Carl Perkins in December 1956. It shares some lyrics with 1920s blues songs by Ma Rainey and Blind Lemon Jefferson. Sam Phillips and Sun Records released the song as the B-side to "Your True Love". Although only the A-side became a record chart hit in 1957, "Matchbox" is one of Perkins' best-known recordings. A variety of musicians have recorded the song, including the Beatles.

Ma Rainey recorded "Lost Wandering Blues" in Chicago in March 1924. Paramount Records issued it on the standard ten-inch 78rpm single (12098). Her lyrics include the matchbox as a suitcase reference. Subsequently, the song was recorded by several blues and country swing musicians, such as Leadbelly, Big Bill Broonzy, the Shelton Brothers, and Roy Newman and His Boys.

After recording "Your True Love" at Sun Records studio, Carl Perkins's father Buck suggested that he write a song based on snatches of lyrics that he remembered. Buck knew only a few lines from the song from the recordings by Blind Lemon Jefferson or the Shelton Brothers. As Perkins sang the few words his father had suggested, Jerry Lee Lewis, who was at that time the session piano player at Sun Studios, began a restrained boogie-woogie riff. Carl began picking out a melody on the guitar and improvised lyrics.

Perkins maintained that he had never heard Jefferson's song when he recorded "Matchbox". The songs are musically, thematically, and lyrically totally different. Jefferson's song is about a mean spirited woman; Perkins' is about a lovelorn "poor boy" with limited prospects. The "Matchbox" recording session is historically significant as a milestone in rock and roll history because later that day, Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, and Lewis were all in the Sun Studio with Sam Phillips with Carl Perkins and his band. The impromptu group formed at this jam session became known as the Million Dollar Quartet.

Carl Perkins performed the song on ABC-TV's Ozark Jubilee on February 2, 1957. Perkins and his band also performed the song on the syndicated TV show Ranch Party hosted by Tex Ritter in 1957. There was also a promo ad for the release of the Sun single in Billboard magazine.

"Matchbox" is covered by Robert Britton Lyons portraying Carl Perkins in the Broadway production Million Dollar Quartet and on the original Broadway cast recording. Lee Ferris also covers the song and portrays Carl Perkins in the First National Touring Production of Million Dollar Quartet. The song is also included in the Paul McCartney live album ''Tripping The Live Fantastic'' as a soundcheck tune between concert songs; it has been performed by McCartney in every tour as a soundcheck song. McCartney also released a live soundcheck recording of the song as a bonus Back in the U.S. DVD release in 2002.

In 1985 it was played at the ''Blue Suede Shoes: A Rockabilly Session'' made-for-TV concert in London, with Carl Perkins, Ringo Starr and Eric Clapton alternating the lead vocal. McCartney also performed the song during his ''Unplugged'' concert for MTV in 1991 (although the song does not appear on the album). Jerry Lee Lewis released his version of the song on his 1958 eponymous Sun LP, SLP 1230, and as a Sun EP, EPA-110. The recording also appears on the 1984 Rhino Records greatest hits compilation ''Jerry Lee Lewis: 18 Original Sun Greatest Hits''. Jerry Lee Lewis also recorded a live version in 1964 on the landmark ''Live At The Star Club, Hamburg'' album, regarded critically as one of the greatest live albums ever released.

Ronnie Hawkins recorded the song in 1970 with Duane Allman on slide guitar and released it as a 45 single, "Matchbox" backed with "Little Bird" on Hawk, IT 301, in Canada. The song was originally released on the eponymous 1970 Ronnie Hawkins LP, Cotillion SD 9019. Johnny Rivers recorded the song in 1998. Bob Dylan has recorded several versions of the song which have not been released officially and has performed the song live in concert. Derek and the Dominos featuring Eric Clapton performed and recorded the song with Carl Perkins and Johnny Cash on The Johnny Cash Show on ABC-TV on November 5, 1970. The performance by Derek and the Dominos, Carl Perkins, and Johnny Cash appears on the 40th anniversary edition of the Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs, which won the 2011 Grammy Award for Best Surround Sound. Carl Perkins performed the song live at the 1990 Farm Aid benefit concert. Ringo Starr performed the song on the 2014 CBS TV special ''The Night That Changed America: A Grammy Salute to The Beatles''. Paul McCartney's publishing company MPL Communications administers the rights to the song, which was originally published by Knox Music, Inc., BMI.

Note: vocal chorus overdubbed Master (Ed Bruce, Vernon Drane, Charlie Rich, Lee Holt, Bobby Thompson, Ben Strong and Alice Rumple) added at an overdub session on April 4 or 8, 1958.

10 - Matchbox (1) (Chatter & Undubbed Master) (1:51) 1983
11 - Matchbox (2) (1:51) 1983
(Carl Perkins) (Knox Music Incorporated)

At one of Jerry's many "you ain't hear nothin' yet" sessions, the pumpin' piano man rubbed maximum salt in the wound by reworking Warren Smith's two recognised calling cards, "Rock And Ruby" and "Ubangi Stomp". The "Stomp" title (which surfaced on both an extended player and as part of the Jerry Lee Lewis album) achieves supremacy thanks to the "engine-room drive" of the rhythm section, fortifying the artist in the manner to which he's accustomed.

"Ubangi Stomp" is an American rockabilly song written by Sun producer Charles Underwood and first recorded and released on record (Sun 250) by Warren Smith in September 1956, the song did not chart, but went on to become a rockabilly standard, covered by many artists. ''Ubangi Stomp'', usually Smith's recording, appears on many compilation albums, including ''The Sun Records Collection'' and ''The Best of Bob Dylan's Theme Time Radio Hour''.

''Ubangi Stomp'' is a straighforward uptempo rock and roll song; the lyrics, of no great literary depth "Ubangi stomp ubangi style / When the beat just drives a cool cat wild", tell in first person the story of a sailor who goes to Africa ("I rocked through Africa and... Seen them cats doin' the Ubangi stomp") and, enamored of the local music and dance, jumps ship to go native ("Then the captain said son, we gotta go / I said that's alright, you go right ahead / I'm gonna Ubangi-stomp 'till I roll over dead"). Some mixing of cultural stereotypes is seen when supposed Native American terms ("heap big", tom-tom) are mixed into the ostensibly African setting.

The Ubangi Stomp Festival, an annual international exposition of America roots and rockabilly music, takes its name from the song, as does the Ubangi Stomp Club, a Dublin organization that organizes and promotes roots concerts and gigs. Saxophonist Earl Bostic released an instrumental piece titled "Ubangi Stomp" in 1954, but this has no relation to Underwood's song beyond the title.

The song has been covered by many other artists, including the Juke Joints (on their album 20 years), the Top Cats, on their album ''Full Throttle Rockabilly''; The Slippers on their album ''Ubangi Stomp''; The Sundowners on the B-side of their 1959 single "Snake Eyed Woman"; The Velaires on the B-side of their 1961 single "It's Almost Tomorrow",; Bobby Taylor on the B-side of his 1962 single "Seven Steps To An Angel"; and many others. Rory Storm and the Hurricanes recorded the song at Abbey Road Studios in 1964, but this version was never released.

12 - Ubangi Stomp (Master LP-1230) (1:47) 1958
(Charles Underwood) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

The provenance of "Rock 'N' Roll Ruby" is in some doubt. It is credited to Johnny Cash but Warren Smith asserted that George Jones had written the song and sold it to Cash for $40.00. Johnny Cash cut a primitive demo in the breathless baritone he reserved for uptempo numbers at some point in late 1955 or early 1956. The acetate ended up in the hands of Clyde Leoppard, probably in order that he could rehearse the band. By the time Smith and the Snearly Ranch Boys (with Johnny Bernero replacing the barely proficient Leoppard on drums) wrapped up "Rock 'N' Roll Ruby", it was obvious that Sam Phillips had, as Billboard put it, "another contender in the Rock-a-Billy sweepstakes".

13 - Rock And Roll Ruby (1:58) 1974
(Johnny R. Cash) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

With the momentum of his career sagging a little, Warren Smith returned to Memphis early in 1956 to work on his third single. Roy Orbison pitched a song called "So Long I'm Gone" that - in Smith's hand - effortlessly crossed between country and pop. However, for many it was eclipsed by the 'B' side to end all 'B' sides, "Miss Froggie".

With its quasi-military marching band beat, takes a simple Roy Orbison composition to unexpected heights. "So Long I'm Gone" sat just behind "Gone" and "White Sport Coat" on the Memphis charts in June, and actually made it to the pop charts in that far off summer of 1957, thus giving Smith a passing taste of fame. Unfortunately for him, Sun's meager promotional efforts were redirected into the whirlwind success of "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On". In any case, the final sustained 1-7 chord of "So Long I'm Gone" is a stroke of understated brilliance and retains its power nearly four decades later.

"So Long I'm Gone" made a fleeting appearance in the Hot 100 but had the misfortune to start breaking at the same time as Jerry Lee Lewis' "Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On". Sam Phillips placed his eggs in one basket, much to Smith's disgust. There was now constant squabbling on the Stars Incorporated, tours about who should top of the bill. Jimmie Lott remembered: "Warren and Carl Perkins constantly fought Jerry Lee Lewis. They'd sit around in the dressing room before the show on steel chairs with a fifth of Old Crow. Jerry would say, 'I got a big record out now. I'm going on last'. Clayton Perkins would stick his jaw out and say, 'If you're going on last, we're gonna fights".

14 - So Long I'm Gone (Fragment & Take) (2:22) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Roy Orbison) (Knox Music Incorporated)

8-14 Recorded February/March 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (bass),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Jay W. Brown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

Although Jerry attempted ''Sexy Ways'' at two different sessions during this 1958 session, he never actually sung ''Sexy Ways'' during his first attempt in January he changed the lyrics to ''Cool Cool Ways'', and then on this session in on April this became “Carrying On”. Both are impressive, but none of them were released until a couple of compilations in 1974. By 1965 the world had changed a little and he finally felt brave enough to record the proper lyrics: with a superb drums and cymbals intro (probably by Buddy Harmon) this inspired performance was one of the many highlights of ''The Return Of Rock'' later that year.

15 - Sexy Ways (Carryin' On) (2.1) (2:01) 2015 Sun Unissued
16 - Sexy Ways (Carryin' On) (2.2) (1:59) 1992
(Hank Ballard) (Copyright Control)

''Fools Like Me'' recorded in March 1958 and released (with a male vocal group overdub) a few weeks later as the B-side to Jerry’s 5th Sun single ''High School Confidential'', this is one of his most memorable early ballads. The 1963 ''Golden Hits'' re-cut features a much fuller band complete with a string section, and this treatment suits the song perfectly, as do the girly backing singers.

This flipside of Sun 296, "Fools Like Me", it was the second time Jerry Lee Lewis had revealed his country leanings to the rockers who supported his hit records. His first country outing on Sun ("You Win Again" on the B-side of "Great Balls Of Fire") had shown his ability to interpret a classic Hank Williams tune. Here, the pianist offers a solid reading of a Pee Wee Maddux tune written especially for Jerry Lee Lewis, one on which Jack Clement had managed to cut himself in for half. This was hardly a throwaway outing. Considerable time went into the arrangement and recording. Even an unusually restrained chorus (consisting of Roy Orbison, Roland Janes and Jack Clement) was overdubbed for release. Billboard observed that Sun 296 was "strong stuff for all markets". In retrospect, it was the country flipside that did more to solidify Jerry Lee's career and point to the market that would extend him a lifetime welcome.

17 - Fools Like Me (1) (Fragment & 4 False Starts) (1:14) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Fools Like Me (2) (2:41) 1986
19 - Fools Like Me (3) (Undubbed Master) (2:52) 1983
(Jack Clement-Pee Wee Maddux) (Knox Music Incorporated)

''Put Me Down'', was initially the subject of a trio of relatively unappealing takes at a rather laboured rate of progress and then re-defined in three distinct guises before a recording deemed suitable for release was secured; what we hear are not so much alternate takes but instead radically different versions of the same song. And while many would reckon that the third of the four alternate arrangements produced commendable results, the two takes in this pattern were destined to remain unheard for a quarter of a century. It is, of course, reasonable both to assume that the four contrasting styles weren't all conceived on the same date and to acknowledge that all seven takes were almost certainly not taped consecutively; the likelihood is that progress towards the finished article would have been interspersed with the recording of other material. However, during this crowded period, i.e. the first half of 1958, one or two compromises have been made in the running order and it has been decided to present several songs en bloc to show their development, irrespective of the probable real time chronology, with ''Put Me Down'' being the most obvious example.

20 - Put Me Down (1) (2:25) 1992
21 - Put Me Down (2) (2:23) 1992
22 - Put Me Down (3) (2:22) 1983
23 - Put Me Down (4) (1:58) 1983
24 - Put Me Down (5) (Chatter & Take) (2:04) 1992
25 - Put Me Down (6) (2:10) 1985 JLL LP 002
26 - Put Me Down (7) (Master LP-1230) (2:09) 1958
(Roland Janes) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee Lewis' recording "I'm Throwing Rice (At The Girl That I Love)" is a 1949 hit written by Eddy Arnold, Steve Nelson and Ed Nelson, Jr. and first performed by Eddy Arnold. The Eddy Arnold version went to number one on the Country and Western Best Seller Lists for four weeks. Later in the year, Red Foley recorded his own version of the song which peaked at number eleven on the Country and Western Best Sellers charts.

27 - I'm Throwing Rice (2:15) 1970
(Eddy Arnold-Steve Nelson-Ed Nelson) (Warner Music)

''Your Cheatin' Heart, this Hank Williams country standard of course, though only 1 of the 4 recorded studio versions is actually performed country style. Both the Jerry Lee Sun versions are rocked up, with the later cut being the fastest yet most polished. This 1958 version was released on ''A Taste Of Country'' in 1970 and ‘Monsters’ in 1971, while the 1960 version had to wait until ''Keep Your Hands Off Of It!'' in 1970. The 1963 cut on the ''Golden Hits'' album is the most countrified version, albeit with backing that includes horns (thankfully not too high in the mix). Lastly is the unique 1975 version from ''Odd Man In'', with it’s ''Whole Lotta Shakin’'', styled intro, harmonica and croaky vocals. In 2006 Jerry taped an official DVD called ''Last Man Standing Live'' which included a duet with Norah Jones on this song (as well as ‘Crazy Arms’), something that would’ve fit perfectly into the current ''Mean Old Man'' album.

"Your Cheatin' Heart" is a song written and recorded by country music singer and songwriter Hank Williams in 1952, regarded as one of country's most important standards. Country music historian Colin Escott writes that "the song, for all intents and purposes, defines country music''. He was inspired to write the song while driving with his fianceé from Nashville, Tennessee to Shreveport, Louisiana. After describing his first wife Audrey Sheppard as a "Cheatin' Heart", he dictated in minutes the lyrics to Billie Jean Jones. Produced by Fred Rose, Williams recorded the song on his last session at Castle Records in Nashville, Tennessee, on September 23, 1952.

"Your Cheatin' Heart" was released in January 1953. Propelled by Williams' recent death during a trip to a New Year's concert in Canton, Ohio, the song became an instant success. It topped Billboard's Country and Western chart for six weeks, while over a million units were sold. The success of the song continued. Joni James' version reached number two on Billboard's Most Played in Jukeboxes the same year, while Ray Charles' 1962 version reached number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100 and 13 on the UK Singles Chart. The song ranked at 217 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, and was ranked number 5 on Country Music Television's 100 Greatest Songs in Country Music.

By 1952, Williams was enjoying a successful streak, releasing multiple hits, including "Honky Tonk Blues", "Half As Much", "Settin' The Woods On Fire", "Jambalaya (On the Bayou)" and "You Win Again". While his career was soaring, his marriage to Audrey Sheppard became turbulent. He developed serious problems with alcohol, morphine and painkillers prescribed to ease his severe back pain caused by spina bifida. The couple divorced on May 29, and Williams moved in with his mother. Soon after, Williams met Billie Jean Jones backstage at the Ryman Auditorium, a native of Shreveport, Louisiana, who was, at the time, dating Faron Young. Williams started dating Jones, upon the end of her relationship with Young and soon began to plan their marriage. While driving from Nashville, Tennessee to Shrevenport to announce the wedding to her parents, Williams talked to her about his previous marriage and described Audrey Sheppard as a "cheatin' heart", adding that one day she would "have to pay". Inspired by his line, he instructed Jones to take his notebook and write down the lyrics of the song that he quickly dictated to her. The finished composition included the line "You'll walk the floor, the way I do", which evoked Ernest Tubb's hit "Walking The Floor Over You".

Williams recorded the song on September 23 at the Castle Studios in Nashville. The session, which became Williams' last, also produced the A-side "Kaw-Liga", as well as the songs "I Could Never Be Ashamed of You" and "Take These Chains fRom My Heart". It was produced by Williams' publisher Fred Rose, who made minor arrangements of the lyrics of "Your Cheatin' Heart". Williams described the song to his friend, Brampton Schubert, as he was about to play it, as "the best heart song (he) ever wrote". Williams is backed on the session by Tommy Jackson (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Chet Atkins (lead guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), and Floyd "Lightning'" Chance (bass).

While traveling to a scheduled New Year's show in Canton, Ohio, the driver found Williams dead on the backseat of the car during a stop in Oak Hill, West Virginia. "Your Cheatin' Heart" was released at the end of January 1953. Propelled by Williams' death, the song and the A-side "Kaw-Liga" became a hit, selling over a million records. Billboard initially described the songs as "superlative tunes and performances", emphasizing the sales potential. Within a short time from its release, the song reached number one on Billboard's Top Country and Western Records, where it remained for six weeks. A demo version of Williams singing "Your Cheatin' Heart" with just his guitar, likely recorded in 1951, is also available.

Released in the wake of his passing, the song became synonymous with the myth of Hank Williams as a haunted, lonely figure who expressed pain with an authenticity that became the standard for country music. The name of the song was used as the title of Hank Williams' 1964 biopic. "Your Cheatin' Heart", as well as other songs by Williams were performed on the movie, with George Hamilton dubbing the soundtrack album recorded by Williams' son, Hank Williams, Jr. In the 2003 documentary series ''Lost Highway'', country music historian Ronnie Pugh comments, "It's Hank's anthem, it's his musical last will and testament. It's searing, it's powerful, it's gripping. If you want to say this is his last and best work, I wouldn't argue with that''. All Music described the track as the "signature song" of Hank Williams, and an "unofficial anthem" of country music. Rolling Stone magazine called it "one of the greatest country standards of all time", ranking it at number 217 on their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song ranked at number 5 in Country Music Television's 100 Greatest Songs in Country Music in 2003, Two Pepsi Super Bowl commercials featured the song, one aired during Super Bowl XXX, featured Williams' recording while a Coca-Cola deliveryman grabbed a Pepsi. The second one, aired during Super Bowl XLVI, featured the same situation, but with the song covered by Jennifer Nettles of Sugar land. The song forms the title of the 1990 TV drama 'Your Cheatin' Heart' by John Byrne.

Other significant recordings are, February, 1953 by Hank Williams (MGM 11416); February, 1953 by Joni James; September, 1958 by George Hamilton IV (ABC Paramount 9946); March, 1959 by Billy Vaughn, an instrumental (Dot 15936); November, 1962 by Ray Charles (ABC Paramount 10375); 1965 Elvis Presley for his LP ''Elvis For Everyone'' (RCA Victor LSP-3450).

28 - Your Cheatin' Heart (1) (2:12) 1970
(Hank Williams) (Cuff Rose Music Incorporated)

15-28 Recorded Mid-March 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (drums, bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

Jerry Lee Lewis' "Crazy Heart" is a song first recorded by Hank Williams. It was written by Fred Rose and Maurice Murray and hit number 4 for Williams in 1951. It was recorded at Castle Studio in Nashville on July 25, 1951 with Fred Rose producing and backing from Don Helms (steel guitar), Jerry Rivers (fiddle), Sammy Pruitt (lead guitar), Howard Watts (bass) and probably Jack Shook (rhythm guitar). It was one of Williams least commercially successful singles of the period, only spending two weeks on the chart, although Guy Lombardi dented the Top 20 with it, underscoring that the song was better suited to a palm court orchestra than Hank Williams. Other significant recordings are from Ernest Tabb released the song on Decca Records; Hank Williams, Jr. recorded this voice alongside Hank Sr's vocal on the song as an overdubbed duet in Nashville in the first session for the Grammy-nominated album ''Father and Son'' on MGM in 1965; Don Gibson covered the song in 1971 on Hickory Records, and Stonewall Jackson recorded the song in 1971.

A song upon which some time was spent but which didn't make it onto the album, Jerry Lee's first LP 1230, was a less well remembered Hank Williams number, ''Crazy Heart, which Jerry Lee executed six taking much the same course on each take. Whereas the unaccompanied version, which has been aligned with other so-called ''solo'' performances of various songs, needs no further word of explanation, the first two complete takes with the drummer and guitarist can most easily be split by reference to the piano breaks; in the second Jerry Lee displays a lighter touch and throws in an extra glissando. The higher register of the opening guitar figure of this pair distinguishes them from what went before while the first few notes that Jerry Lee Lewis strikes in each case help to differentiate the two; again, the solos can be relied upon for confirmation. Finally, a sixth, previously unreleased, take shows signs of a little more muscle with Jerry Lee's treatment of the ivories conveying a hint of intemperance; perhaps he was getting bored. (See also: before July 9, 1958 session).

29 - Crazy Heart (1.1) (False Start & Take) (3:08) 1983
30 - Crazy Heart (1.2) (2:47) 1986
31 - Crazy Heart (1.3) (2:54) 2015 Sun Unissued
32 - Crazy Heart (1.4) (2:36) 1974
33 - Crazy Heart (1.5) (2:42) 1974
(Fred Rose-Maurice Murray) (Fred Rose Music Incorporated)

34 - Hello Hello Baby (Master SLP-1265) (3:23) 1961
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee Lewis' recordings "Slippin' Around" is a song written and first recorded by Floyd Tillman in 1949. The most popular recording was a cover version by Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely which reached number one on the Retail Folk Country Best Sellers chart. It is a song about a person cheating on his and her spouse.

Tillman wrote a follow-up song, the same year, with essentially the same melody, called "I'll Never Slip Around Again" in which the cheater has married the one that he and she cheated with, and is in turn worried that he and she is being cheated on. Tillman, as well as Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely, recorded this song as well on July 20, 1949; and as did Doris Day.

Recorded at the same session that produced the single cut of ‘High School Confidential’, this 1958 version of ''Slippin' Around'' is performed as a blues song (despite it’s country origins). This first saw the light of day on the Dutch ''Collector’s Edition'' album in 1974 (many younger fans probably don’t appreciate how difficult it was to collect all of Jerry’s released Sun recordings prior to the 1980s box-sets!). While the 1968 version is far less adventurous musically, it’s a beautiful version. Initially released as the B-side to ''She Still Comes Around (To Love What’s Left Of Me)'' that year, it made it’s album debut 2 years later on ''The Best Of Jerry Lee Lewis''.

35 - Slippin' Around (1) (False Start) (0:31) 1983
36 - Slippin' Around (2) (Chatter & Take) (2:26) 1974
(Floyd Tillman) (Tillman Music)

29-36 Recorded Mid-March 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 7 Contains 1958

Jerry must’ve found this song ''Wild One'' while touring Australia at the beginning of 1958 (his first overseas tour), as it was originally recorded by Australian rocker Johnny O’Keefe and was a big hit in his homeland. Recorded here on March, this would’ve made a great A-side but instead remained unheard until the ''Rockin’ & Free'' collection in 1974 (with a slightly different alternate take appearing on ''Jerry Lee Lewis & His Pumpin’ Piano'' a few months later). The producers of the ''Great Balls Of Fire!’ movie (perhaps inspired by Iggy Pop’s 1986 hit record version) must’ve seen the potential of this too, as they persuaded Jerry to re-record the song for the soundtrack album, and excellent it is too.

In both takes of ''Wild One'' Jerry Lee sticks to much the same script; even the ad-lib ''whoops'' don't vary from piece to piece. Individually these tracks are tumultuous but there's nothing disorganised here, as the similarities across the respective pieces make clear; the fervency in unfeigned yet controlled. In ''Wild One'', a repeated two-way rake of the keyboard heard at the outset of the guitar break in the first of the pair is the most obvious defining property, while the two recordings of ''Carryin' On'' here coupled together, and both divergent from a patently different third reading, can be separated courtesy of Jerry Lee opening the first with the words ''I said'' whereas in the next we hear the exclamation ''well''. The first of the two also features ten rapid fire ''wiggles'' at the start of the second verse as opposed to only six in the counterpart of the next, while in the initial attempt Jerry Lee chatters away through much of the instrumental break.

''Wild One" or "Real Wild Child" is an Australian rock and roll song written by Johnny Greenan, Johnny O'Keefe, and Dave Owens. While most sources state that O'Keefe was directly involved in composing the song, this has been questioned by others. Sydney disc jockey Tony Withers was credited with helping to get radio airplay for the song but writer credits on subsequent versions often omit Withers, who later worked in the United Kingdom on pirate stations Radio Atlanta and, as Tony Windsor, on Radio London.

According to O'Keefe's guitarist, Lou Casch, the song was inspired by an incident at a gig in Newtown, Sydney, in about 1957. According to Casch, as O'Keefe and the Dee Jays played at an upstairs venue, an "Italian wedding" reception was taking place downstairs. Some of the dance patrons came to blows with wedding guests in the men's toilets, and within minutes the brawl had become a full-scale riot that spilled out into the street, with police eventually calling in the Navy Shore Patrol to help restore order. The release date of the single, 5 July 1958, is considered the birthday of Australian rock n' roll music.

O'Keefe was the first artist to record it, on his debut EP ''Shakin' At The Stadium'', released on the Festival label. This version, ostensibly recorded live at the Sydney Stadium, was in fact a studio recording, overdubbed with the sound of a real audience. The song was the first Australian rock recording to reach the national charts peaking at number 20. An alternate version was recorded and released outside Australia: in the USA (as "Real Wild Child") on Brunswick and in the United Kingdom on Coral Records.

In 1958 the song was released as a single by Jerry Ivan Allison, a member of The Crickets, using the name Ivan. Re-titled "Real Wild Child," the song became a moderate hit, peaking at number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Wild One" was also recorded by Jerry Lee Lewis in 1958 but was not released until 1974 on Jerry Lee's album, ''Rockin' And Free''. His version also appears in the 1989 motion picture and soundtrack album for ''Great Balls Of Fire'' and ''Nowhere Boy''. The song was covered by Buddy Holly and is available on a 3 disc Collector's Edition by Universal Music Enterprises. (2007 Universal Music Enterprises, 3 disc set, Buddy Holly Collector's Addition). It was recorded and released as "Real Wild Child" by Jet Harris, former bassist with The Shadows, in 1962 on Harris' self-titled EP. A further version, "Real Wild Child (Wild One)" was recorded by British guitarist, Albert Lee, on his 1982 self-titled album. The song was again covered in 1986 when Iggy Pop included a version on his album ''Blah-Blah-Blah''. Titled "Real Wild Child (Wild One)," this became a number 10 hit on the United Kingdom Singles Chart in January 1987. It also charted on Billboard's Album Rock Tracks chart, peaking at number 27. The Iggy Pop version was featured in the films ''Crocodile Dundee II'', ''Adventures In Babysitting'', ''Problem Child'' and its sequel ''Problem Child 2''.

Other artists to record this song include Status Quo, Everlife, Joan Jett and The Blackhearts, Glamour Camp, Marshall Crenshaw, Brian Setzer, Teenage Head, Albert Lee and Wakefield. A cover by Christopher Otcasek appeared on the soundtrack to the film Pretty Woman. The cover by Wakefield appeared in the movie Eurotrip and its soundtrack. An up-tempo rock version of the song (titled as ''Real Wild Child'') was covered by the fictional band Josie and the Pussycats (lead vocals provided by singer Kay Hanley) in the 2001 film of the same name.

The most recent cover of the song, with the title "Real Wild Child," was by Levi Kreis portraying Jerry Lee Lewis on the original Broadway cast recording of the Broadway musical ''Million Dollar Quartet''. Kreis won a 2010 Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical.

1 - Wild One (1) (1:55) 1974
2 - Wild One (2) (1:53) 1974
(Johnny O'Keefe-Johnny Greenan-Dave Owens) (Wren Music Corporation)

''Let The Good Times Roll" is a jump blues song recorded in 1946 by Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five. A mid-tempo twelve-bar blues, the song became a blues standard and one of Jordan's best-known songs. The song was written by Sam Theard, a New Orleans-born blues singer and songwriter, and was co-credited to Fleecie Moore, Jordan's wife, who never wrote a lyric in her life (however, her name was sometimes substituted for Jordan's to get around an inconvenient publishing contract; this strategy backfired when Louis and Fleecie divorced acrimoniously and she kept ownership of the songs he'd put her name on, thus denying him any income from them). Jordan and the Tympany Five performed the song in the 1947 film ''Reet, Petite, And Gone'', although the studio recording rather than a live performance is used in the soundtrack.

"Let The Good Times Roll" reached number two in the Billboard rhythm and blues chart in 1947. Its A-side, "Ain't Nobody Here But Us Chickens", was the top number one record of 1947, both songs spent nearly six months in the chart. In 2009, the song was acknowledged with a Grammy Hall of Fame Award and was inducted into the Blues Foundation Hall of Fame in 2013 in the "Classic of Blues Recording, Singles or Album Tracks" category.

Numerous artists have performed "Let The Good Times Roll" and many have recorded it, including: Ray Charles (1959, The Genius of Ray Charles), Sam Butera and the Silent Witnesses (from the 1960 album The Wildest Clan), Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames (1964 Rhythm and Blues at the Flamingo), Muddy Waters (1975, Muddy Waters Woodstock Album), Koko Taylor (1978, The Earthshaker), Clifton Chenier and His Red Hot Louisiana Band (1982, Live at the San Francisco Blues Festival), a great version of Jerry Lee Lewis (from the 1986 album ''The Wild One, Rockin' And A-Boppin' At The High School Hop! (Sun International LP 1044); Buckwheat Zydeco and Ils Sont Partis Band (1992, Let the Good Times Roll, released 2009), Quincy Jones (with Stevie Wonder, Bono, and Ray Charles, 1995, Q's Jook Joint), and Rick Derringer (1998, Blues Deluxe).

B.B. King has recorded several studio and live versions, including with Bobby Bland and Tony Bennett. It also appeared in Five Guys Named Moe, the 1992 musical review about Louis Jordan, and in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. Lynda Carter covered this song in her 2011 album ''Crazy Little Things''.

3 - Let the Good Times Roll (2:13) 1974
(Sam Theard-Fleecie Moore) (Hal Leonard Music)

4 - Sexy Ways (Carryin' On) (3) (2:00) 1974
(Hank Ballard) (Copyright Control)

Progress towards the end result can also be evaluated by reference to the structural properties of discrete batches of takes, looking at the order in which the elements are assembled. For example, whereas the very earliest takes feature a piano solo immediately followed by a guitar solo, the later recordings exhibit a revised pattern with the two instrumental passages divided by a further verse and refrain. The products of the final session are marked by the more emphatic presence of rhythm guitar and bass, creating a fuller sound and allowing Roland Janes to supply fills and his solo. Listen, for example, to the second instrumental break in the third complete take, which formed the basis of the master, from this later session; there's a lot going on here and Jerry Lee's piano is fighting for attention in the mix dominated by the two guitars.

''High School Confidential'' obviously proved to be a troublesome exercise in arriving at a marketable release; despite more than twenty strikes it still required a bit of ingenious editing on Sam's part to coin the master, when he snipped the tapes and substituted the last few seconds of one attempt (take (12(5) in preference to the quite different ending of the chosen recording (take (12(2).

It's a matter of some regret that the finished article, as released on Sun 296 and LP 1230, didn't extend any invitations to a ''pretty kitten'', or communicate that nimble couplet involving the burning of shoes and loss of leather heard in the film soundtrack version. Moreover, by the time of recording the master, the physical exercises had been confined to the comparatively innocuous ''hoppin''', ''boppin''' and ''rockin''', with none of the more challenging ''stompin''' and ''wigglin''' embarked upon during the earlier stages. The word ''wigglin''', of course, had a bit of history; it could be Jerry Lee had been asked to clean things up a bit, bearing in mind public concerns expressed over some of the phraseology employed in ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On''. Notwithstanding its status as the preamble to a drama which portrayed drug taking and other unsavoury antics, at least the lyrics of the issued cut of ''High School Confidential'' would be a tad more wholesome. Although all too soon, Jerry Lee would, of course, be in enough trouble anyway; a tour of the United Kingdom, destined to become one of the most notorious episodes in the history of rock and roll, with very little music even being played, lay ahead.

5 - High School Confidential (3.1) (False Start) (0:29) 1992
6 - High School Confidential (3.2) (2:44) 1992
7 - High School Confidential (3.3) (2 False Starts) (0:34) 1984
8 - High School Confidential (3.4) (Chatter & Take) (2:28) 1984 JLL LP 001
9 - High School Confidential (3.5) (2:30) 1983
10 - High School Confidential (3.6) (2:45) 2015 Sun Unissued
11 - High School Confidential (3.7) (2:31) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Ron Hargrave) (Penron Music)

This Jerry Lee Lewis' instrumental "I'll See You in My Dreams" is a popular song and written by Isham Jones, with lyrics by Gus Kahn, and was published in 1924. Originally recorded by Isham Jones and the Ray Miller Orchestra, it charted for 16 weeks during 1925, spending seven weeks at number 1.

The song was chosen as the title song of the 1951 film ''I'll See You in My Dreams'', a musical biography of Gus Kahn. Popular recordings of it were made by many leading artists including Marion Harris in 1924, Cliff Edwards, Louis Armstrong, Pat Boone, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, Mario Lanza, Tony Martin, Anita O'Day, The Platters, Ezio Pinza, Sue Raney, Jerry Lee Lewis (1958, instrumental) and Andy Williams. A "Texas Swing" version of the song was recorded by Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys. The song was also recorded by Django Reinhardt and the Quintet of the Hot Club of France, and inspired Merle Travis to record it as a guitar instrumental.

Many other guitarists including Chet Atkins and Thom Bresh followed in Merle's footsteps. Michel Lelong, a French guitarist, published the first tab of this Travis' arrangement for the American publisher/guitarist Stefan Grossman's Guitare Workshop during the 1980s, following by Thom Bresh (Merle Travis 's son) for Homespun Tapes, and Marcel Dadi for Stefan Grossman 's Guitar Workshop.

The song was on the soundtrack for the 1940 film ''Kitty Foyle'', which won Ginger Rogers her only Academy Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role. It was recorded by Mario Lanza on his Coca-Cola Show of 1951-2 and is available on a compilation album mastered from those same shows, and featuring the same title, ''I'll See You in My Dreams'', released by BMG in 1998. Instrumental versions of the song were featured prominently in the 1946 20th Century Fox motion picture ''The Razor's Edge'' arranged by Herbert Spencer; as well as in the opening of the 1946 Tom and Jerry cartoon episode, "The Milky Waif".

The Bachelors recorded their version of the song in 1963, which appeared on their first EP ''The Bachelors''. In 1976, Ron Goodwin and His Orchestra recorded the song on their album ''Rhythm And Romance''. In 1976, British female vocal duo the Pearls released a disco version of the song, which was pressed in the United States on a 10" promo disc as well as the regular 7" single. A 1953/54 version by Eddie Cochran was released in 1997 on the album ''Rockin' It Country Style''. In the late 1980s to the end of the 1990s, Mark Knopfler and Chet Atkins performed it live as a medley with John Lennon's "Imagine". In 1999, guitarist Alden Howard recorded an instrumental version of this song for the soundtrack of the movie ''Sweet And Lowdown''. The English singer Joe Brown performed a version of the song on the ukulele as the finale of the George Harrison tribute concert, ''Concert For George'', in 2002. In 2003, the Portuguese metal band Moonspell recorded a version that would serve as soundtrack for the short horror movie ''I'll See You in My Dreams'', of which was also recorded a music video. In 2005, American singer-songwriter Ingrid Michaelson recorded a cover of the song for her debut album ''Slow The Rain''. In 2010, Australian singer Melinda Schneider recorded the song for her Doris Day tribute album ''Melinda Does Doris'', and in 2013, The National frontman Matt Berninger recorded the song with Vince Giordano and the Nighthawks Orchestra for the third volume of the ''Boardwalk Empire'' soundtrack.

12 - I'll See You In My Dreams (False Start & Take) (2:54) 1983
(Isham Jones-Gus Kahn) (EMI Music Publishing)

1-12 Recorded Mid-March 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

If ''High School Confidential'' proved hard to pin down, the story behind two subsequent pitches at regaining a place in the pop charts, an ambition now seriously compromised by events in Lewis' private ''life'', is no less convoluted. The first of these, ''Break Up'', forged the first links between the performing talents of Lewis and the writing skills of Charlie Rich. The development of this song over several weeks again raises the question as to whether we are dealing with ''different takes'' or ''different versions'' of a denominated title. Certainly there are several distinctive approaches taken insofar as the opening bars of the song are concerned, including one in which Jerry Lee's intro is lifted cheekily from a contemporary instrumental hit, The Champs' ''Tequila''. Even within the recognisable ''sub-groups'' there is little consistency; Jerry Lee Lewis clearly had difficulty in coming to terms with how best to open proceedings.

The evolution of ''Break Up'' also invites a close examination and re-appraisal of the story of a so-called ''solo session'' in which Jerry Lee Lewis ostensibly performs with no accompaniment, previously identified as having taken place in May 1958, shortly before his departure for England. It is now being argued that several takes of ''Break Up'' had, in fact, already been taped before the song was performed four times during what has hitherto been defined as an isolated session involving Jerry Lee alone. This assertion does, of course, run contrary to the notion, put forward in earlier discographies, that the ''solo'' takes of ''Break Up'' predate all the other alternates of this song. The established chronology id, however, considered highly improbable, certainly if one accepts as valid the dates of July 16, 17, 1958 for the session at which the master of ''Break Up'' was produced, dates which for once were logged in Sun's accounts in accordance with union procedures and which tie-in with the mid-August release date of the record.

As the ensemble first tries to get to grips with ''Break Up'', Jerry Lee at times struggles with fitting the lyrics to the differing tempos applied to the song. However, by the time of the ''solo session'' Lewis is no stranger to ''Break Up''; at this stage in the proceedings he's well versed in the lyrics and he performs the song with great confidence, realising its potential as a medium to show off his pumping piano technique. Moreover, there's also some discussion about the style of the intro itself and apparent approval of a pattern which proves to be close to the arrangement heard on the finished article, as released on Sun 303. In light of this, it's hard to avoid the realisation that the ''solo session'', at least insofar as the recording of ''Break Up'' is concerned, did not take place in May, but was an interregnum during which Jerry Lee was let loose to innovate between sessions involving other musicians.

It's entirely possible that the solo recordings do not, in fact, represent the outcome of one session; much of the evidence points to them being the products of separate engagements when Lewis was alone or was simply rehearsing in advance of the other musicians assembling in the studio. Moreover, several of these tapes, conspicuously those of ''That Lucky Old Sun'', ''Crazy Arms'' and ''Live And Let Live'', testify to the presence of a drummer who is providing some metronomic brushwork to help keep time; they aren't, in the strictest sense, ''solo'' performances as usually credited anyway. The bona fide piano only works do, however, appear to include ''Come What May'' and ''Memory Of You'' and several run-throughs of ''Break Up'', albeit a drummer may still have been present and simply further ''off mike''.

Having questioned the previous assumptions about the unaccompanied work, let's look in detail at the story behind the development of ''Break Up'' itself. As noted above, a number of templates were tried out; first to be heard are successive takes featuring a simple five note cascade down the keyboard for the intro. The two complete takes are differentiated by the drummer switching from a steady beat in the first to a broken beat in the second. What may have been an earlier flirtation with the broken beat rhythm, represented here by a mere fifty seconds of tape, ends unsatisfactorily. Next comes a third complete take with an intro on the same theme but involving double strikes on each of the first four chords, the drummer staying for the time being with the broken beat.

The ensuing three attempts, embracing one extended false start, feature the ''Tequila'' intro. It's an imaginative experiment, but destined to fail; Jerry Lee's frustration with the arrangement is made all too obvious as he applies this atypical figure for a third and final time.

For take 8 we're back to the opening cascade but it is now in a higher key than before and the guitarist initially takes a different course. Following this take, we hear two brief vestiges which share some quirks with complete recordings on either side and which lead us back from the broken beat to the steady rhythm.

In takes 11 and 12 the opening motif is given another twist, ending on an ascent; it's then repeated in the same key while the snare drum intercedes and strikes eight beats betwixt the two. The template of the intro used in the master is beginning to emerge. These two rapid-fire takes can be separate not only by the divergent piano solos and the rather uncertain vocals to wards the end of take 12, but also by the fact that exceptionally, in the second verse of this same recording, Jerry Lee sings ''...hold you tight'' rather than the routine ''...squeeze you tight''.

It's hoped that the foregoing will help listeners at least to distinguish between groups, or pairs, of takes; the work of further subdividing the recordings shouldn't be too taxing given the various twists in phrasing, both vocally and on the piano, that Jerry Lee employs. It all else fails, simply fast forward to the solos in each performance, generally to be found at around the 1.20 mark.(*)

It is believed that this is the juncture at which we would review Lewis' unaccompanied studio work on ''Break Up''. In all four solo takes, Jerry Lee again starts by repeating the five chord cascade, falling at first then rising on the final two beats, followed by hammering eight beats on the same chord. This time, however, the second sequence of falling and rising chords is in a lower key. The idea seems to win approval.(*)

At this juncture we also encounter another change of some significance, which helps us understand the progress of these sessions. The starting point, in trying to determine the correct order of seventeen complete alternates, culminating in the master, is the opening line in the vocal. Listeners will be accustomed to the way in which, on the master itself, Jerry Lee starts proceedings with ''well, who's that guy''. While this phrase is a defining characteristic both of the 'solo session'' takes and the four takes that have been placed immediately ahead of the master, it is not heard in any of the recordings which anticipate the solo work. All these earlier takes start with ''(well), that little guy'', the form of words that Ray Smith used in his March 19, 1958 demo and which Charlie Rich himself sang when he recorded his own song. This factor alone sets apart the early takes from the ''solo session'' and the several takes recorded subsequently which came before the finished master.

13 - Break Up (1.1) (2:28) 1989
14 - Break Up (1.2) (Fragment) (0:55) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Break Up (1.3) (Chatter & Take) (2:55) 1992
16 - Break Up (1.4) (2:34) 2015 Sun Unissued
17 - Break Up (1.5) (Chatter & Take) (2:31) 1983
18 - Break Up (1.6) (False Start) (0:29) 2015 Sun Unissued
19 - Break Up (1.7) (2:27) 2015 Sun Unissued
20 - Break Up (1.8) (2:26) 2015 Sun Unissued
21 - Break Up (1.9) (Fragment) (0:52) 2015 Sun Unissued
22 - Break Up (1.10) (Fragment) (0:35) 2015Sun Unissued
23 - Break Up (1.11) (2:29) 2015 Sun Unissued
24 - Break Up (1.12) (2:24) 1992
(Charlie Rich) (Knox Music Incorporated)

13-24 Recorded Mid-July 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

25 - Memory Of You (2:09) 1983
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Copyright Control)

This song recorded here by Jerry Lee Lewis is certainly the most important "forgotten" songs. Written by Franklin Tableporter, the original was recorded by Clyde McPhatter (Atlantic 1185), who had scored a minor hit with it in 1958. McPhatter's recording reached number 43 on Billboard's Hot 100 chart and number 20 on the rhythm and blues chart. The full title of the song is "Come What May (You Are Mine)". Elvis Presley recorded ''Come What May'' on May 28, 1966 at the RCA Studio B. in Nashville, Tennessee, and was the B-side of "Love Letters". Elvis single release never made the charts, but it was listed as "Bubbling Under" at number 109. The song has not yet appeared on an RCA album during Elvis' lifetime. The original master tapes for Elvis' "Come What May" have been lost.

26 - Come What May (2:02) 1974
(Franklyn Tableporter) (Tiger Music)

''Johnny B. Goode'', Jerry here first recorded a brilliant version of this solo (without a band) on this July of 1958, though this probably was never intended for release (it wasn’t issued until Charly’s ''The Sun Years'' box-set 25 years later). He recorded the song again 2 months later with a band, and although this isn’t a bad version, it’s marred by some sloppy “stops and starts” and wasn’t made available until 1969’s excellent ‘Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues’ compilation. The 1963 cut is from the ‘Golden Hits’ sessions in September of that year, and was issued on ‘The Return Of Rock’ 2 years later. Again it isn’t bad, but it’s still probably the low-light of the album, lacking the fire of the other Chuck Berry revivals ‘Roll Over Beethoven’ and ‘Maybelline’. Lastly is the 1973 version from ‘The Session’, recorded in London with various United Kingdom “rock” luminaries. Mostly I’m not so keen on the re-cuts on this album as I find them a bit overblown and bombastic, but in this case the treatment worked perfectly, with The Killer sounding genuinely inspired.

Of Course, "Johnny B. Goode" is a 1958 rock and roll song written and originally first performed by Chuck Berry. The song was a major hit among both black and white audiences peaking at number 2 on Billboard magazine's Hot Rhythm And Blues chart and number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song is one of Berry's most famous recordings, has been covered by many artists, and has received several honors and accolades. It is also considered to be one of the most recognizable songs in music history. The song is ranked as number seven on Rolling Stone's list of "the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

Written by Berry in 1955, the song is about a poor country boy who plays a guitar "just like ringing a bell'', and who might one day have his "name in lights''. Berry has acknowledged that the song is partly autobiographical, and originally had "colored boy" in the lyrics, but he changed it to "country boy" to ensure radio play. As well as suggesting that the guitar player is good, the title hints at autobiographic elements because Berry was born at 2520 Goode Avenue in St. Louis. The song was initially inspired by Berry's piano player, Johnnie Johnson, though developed into a song mainly about Berry himself. Though Johnnie Johnson played on many other Chuck Berry songs, it was Lafayette Leake who played piano on this song. The opening guitar riff on "Johnny B. Goode" is essentially a note-for-note copy of the opening single-note solo on Louis Jordan's "Ain't That Just Like A Woman" (1946), played by guitarist Carl Hogan. Neither the guitar intro nor the solo are played at once. Chuck Berry played the introducing parts together with the rhythm guitar and overdubbed later the missing solo runs. Berry has written three more songs involving the character Johnny B. Goode, "Bye Bye Johnny", "Go Go Go", and "Johnny B. Blues"; and titled an album, and the nearly 19 min instrumental title track from it, as "Concerto In B. Goode".

Berry's recording of the song was included on the Voyager Golden Record, attached to the Voyager spacecraft as representing rock and roll, one of four American songs included among many cultural achievements of humanity. When Chuck Berry was inducted into the first Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on January 23, 1986, he performed "Johnny B. Goode" and "Rock And Roll Music", backed by Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band. The Hall of Fame included these songs and "Maybellene" in their list of the 500 songs that shaped Rock and Roll. It was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999, for its influence as a rock and roll single.

In the 1984 film ''Threads'', the song is heard three times. The first time is when core characters Ruth Beckett and Jimmy Kemp discuss the future of their relationship before the outbreak of nuclear war, in his car overlooking Sheffield. The second time is when Jimmy is at a pub, drinking with his mate. The last time is fourteen years after the nuclear holocaust, as Ruth and Jimmy's daughter Jane, heavily pregnant, struggles to find a hospital in which to give birth. The song seems to be emanating from a nightclub, pub or brothel within the devastated post-apocalyptic town.

In the 1985 film ''Back To The Future'', Marty McFly performs the song with the fictional band Marvin Berry and the Starlighters during the "Enchantment Under the Sea" high school dance, set in November 1955. Mark Campbell (of Jack Mack and the Heart Attack fame) sang the vocals and Tim May played the guitar, with Michael J. Fox shown miming to both. This scene was revisited in Back to the Future Part II (1989). During Marty's rendition of the song, Marvin telephones his cousin Chuck, to have him hear what might be the "new sound" Chuck is looking for. During his time in World Championship Wrestling, Marc Mero wrestled under the ring name Johnny B. Badd, an homage to the song. This song plays whenever Calgary Flames player Johnny Gaudreau scores, as well as Tampa Bay Lightning's Tyler Johnson.

Country musician Buck Owens' version of "Johnny B. Goode" topped Billboard magazine's Hot Country Sides chart in 1969. Jimi Hendrix had a posthumous hit with "Johnny B. Goode" peaking at number 35 on the United Kingdom Singles Chart in 1972 and number 13 on the New Zealand Top 50 in 1986. Peter Tosh's version of the song peaked at number 84 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 48 on the United Kingdom Singles Chart, number 10 in the Netherlands, and number 29 in New Zealand. Judas Priest's version reached number 64 on the UK Singles Chart in 1988.

27 - Johnny B Good (1) (1:55) 1983
(Chuck Berry) (Arc Music Incorporated)

''That Lucky Old Sun'' here Jerry alone at the piano. Not released at the time, the stunning 1958 cut was first issued on the Charly LP ''Rare Jerry Lee Lewis Volume 2'' in 1974. It's hard to imagine him topping this, but he did just that during the 1988 re-cut for the ''Great Balls Of Fire!'' movie soundtrack album, with his world-weary voice being far more suited to the song. Over 4 and a half minutes (compared to just 3 minutes in 1958) of pure heaven!

Jerry Lee Lewis' version of "That Lucky Old Sun" is a 1949 popular song with music by Beasley Smith and words by Haven Gillespie. Like "Ol' Man River", its lyrics contrast the toil and intense hardship of the singer's life with the obliviousness of the natural world.

The biggest hit version of the song was by Frankie Laine. This recording was released by Mercury Records as catalog number 5316. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on August 19, 1949 and lasted 22 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 1. The recording by Vaughn Monroe & His Orchestra was released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-3531 on 78 rpm and 47-3018 on 45 rpm in the USA and by EMI on the His Master's Voice label as catalog number B 9836. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on September 16, 1949 and lasted 14 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 9. The recording by Louis Armstrong was released by Decca Records as catalog number 24752. It first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart on October 14, 1949 and lasted 3 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 24. Frank Sinatra released his competing version of the song on the Columbia label catalog number 38608. It reached the best sellers chart on October 29, 1949 and peaked at number 16. Included on his ''The Best of The Columbia Years 1943-1952'' album.

Other significant recordings are; Pat Boone on the album ''Howdy''! In 1957; The Buffalo Bills, a barbershop quartet, recorded it as a solo for their tenor, Vern Reed; The rhythm and blues singer LaVern Baker released a version of the song in 1955 as the "A" side of a release on Atlantic Records; Jerry Lee Lewis recorded an unreleased solo version at Sun Studios in July 1959; A version by Sam Cooke appeared on his debut LP ''Sam Cooke'' in 1957; The Velvets released their doo wop version of the song on Monument records around 1960-1961; A version by Ray Charles appeared on his 1963 album ''Ingredients In A Recipe For Soul''. (This recording is also included as a bonus track on post-1988 CD reissues of Charles' landmark 1962 album ''Modern Sounds In Country and Western Music''; Aretha Franklin recorded the song for her album "The Electrifying Aretha Franklin" in 1962; George Benson recorded the song for his album ''Goodies'' in 1969; Paul Williams recorded a version of the song for his 1972 album ''Life Goes On''; Willie Nelson recorded a version on the 1976 album ''The Sound In Your Mind'' which was also released as an extra track on the reissued Stardust, ''30th Anniversary Legacy Edition'''; The Jerry Garcia Band performed a version on the ''Jerry Garcia Band'' live album in 1991; American rhythm and blues and boogie-woogie pianist and singer Little Willie Littlefield recorded a version for his 1994 album ''Yellow Boogie And Blues''; Johnny Cash covered it on the album ''American III: Solitary Man in 2000''; Brian Wilson premiered a song cycle inspired by the song entitled That Lucky Old Sun (A Narrative) at the Royal Festival Hall, London, England on September 10, 2007; A duet with Kenny Chesney and Willie Nelson is included on Chesney's 2008 album ''Lucky Old Sun''. This version reached number 56 on the Hot Country Songs chart, based on unsolicited airplay; Dick Haymes covered an version for his album ''Once In A Lifetime''; Chris Isaak recorded a cover version of the song for his 2011 album ''Beyond The Sun'', and Bob Dylan recorded a version for his 2015 Frank Sinatra covers album ''Shadows In The Night''.

28 - That Lucky Old Sun (3:09) 1975
(Beasly Smith-Haven Gillespie) (Robbins Music Corporation)

The A side of Jerry’s very first single and a minor regional United States hit, he also recorded a couple of playful “solo” (without a band) versions during the first couple of years at Sun. Here a re-cut released on Sun Box 102, and for ‘Golden Hits’ in 1963, and then again in 1965 (with an uptempo saxophone-led arrangement) for the ''Country Songs For City Folks'' LP. It was cut yet again in 1988 for the ''Great Balls Of Fire''! movie and soundtrack album: most issues featured an overdubbed duet vocal by Dennis Quaid, though some releases (both official and bootleg) include the undubbed version.

29 - Crazy Arms (2) (Chatter & Take) (2:44) 1983
(Charles Seals-Ralph Mooney) (Knox Music Incorporated)

30 - Live And Let Live (Chatter & Take) (0:40) 1983
(Wiley Walker-Gene Sullivan) (Copyright Control)

31 - Crazy Heart (2) (Chatter & Take) (3:27) 1983
(Maurice Murray-Fred Rose) (Universal Music Publishing)

Jerry's human jukebox talent was on full display. ''Setting The Woods On Fire'' was recorded during this sequence. Just imagine yourself sitting in Jerry Lee's parlor as he wanders over to the old upright piano with well-worn keys, and tears into this Hank Williams classic. It's a really magic moment, highlighted by Jerry's catching fire during his piano solo. Some additional instrumentation was later overdubbed on this recording on July 9, 1958 by Billy Riley on guitar, Stan Kesler on bass, and James M. Van Eaton on drums, for album release, but here the original undubbed version.

"Settin' The Woods On Fire" is the name of a single and the A-side song by Hank Williams released in 1952. Although it sounds remarkably like a Hank Williams composition, "Settin' the Woods on Fire" was written by Hank's song publisher and producer Fred Rose with an elderly New Yorker, Ed G. Nelson Sr. Williams recorded it with Rose producing at Castle Studio on June 13, 1952 in Nashville with Jerry Rivers (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), and Harold Bradley (rhythm guitar), while it is speculated that Chet Atkins played lead guitar and Ernie Newton played bass.

The song peaked at number 2 on United States Billboard Hot Country Singles chart, while the B-side, "You Win Again," climbed to number 10 on the chart. Author Colin Escott offers that the song "pointed unerringly toward rockabilly''.

Other significant recordings, Jerry Lee Lewis recorded an unissued version of the song for Sun Records in 1958; Johnny Burnette recorded and released a version in 1958; George Jones covered the song for his 1960 album ''George Jones Salutes Hank Williams''; Porter Wagoner recorded the song for his 1963 LP ''A Satisfied Mind''; and The Tractors recorded the song for their 1994 eponymous debut album.

32 - Settin' The Woods On Fire (2:26) 1989
(Fred Rose-Ed Nelson Sr.) (Acuff Rose Music Limited)

There are a couple more issues worthy of examination in the story of ''Break Up''. First, several tapes in the Sun vaults reveal an assortment of overdubs applied to one of the four solo renditions of the song. Additionally, take 8 was subjected to an experimental overdub, with a male chorus providing a ''shoo-shoowop-bop'' refrain, although the pre-penultimate attempt was embellished not only with a vocal chorus but, in a separate exercise, with supplementary drums, bass and guitar; the latter has found its way into the public domain courtesy of Rhino and Sun Entertainment on random compilations in recent years and is presented on BCD 17254-18-22-23-24. These overdubs may have been no more than trials to prove the integrity of the arrangement ultimately chosen for the production of the release master, before studio time was then booked with all in attendance to complete the recording. Consideration may even have been given to fabricating a master out of the ''solo session'' work by applying an overdub track before a last attempt was made to cut the definitive version in a conventional manner. Conceivably, the master itself may be an example of the overdubbing of bass and/or guitar, with the original tape having been discarded; while thought unlikely, the proposition can't be ruled out.

33 - Break Up (2.1) (False Start to ''Settin' The Woods On Fire'' & Take) (2:37) 1983
34 - Break Up (2.2) (2:23) 1986
35 - Break Up (2.3) (Chatter & Take) (2:28) 1983
36 - Break Up (2.4) (Fragment) (0:41) 2015 Sun Unissued
37 - Break Up (2.5) (2:20) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Charlie Rich) Knox Music Incorporated

25-37 Recorded Before July 9, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (percussion)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 8 Contains 1958

1 - I'll Make It All Up to You (1.1) (Fragment) (0:26) 1983
2 - I'll Make It All Up to You (1.2) (False Start & Take) (2:56) 1989
3 - I'll Make It All Up to You (1.3) (Chatter & Take) (2:50) 1983
4 - I'll Make It All Up to You (1.4) (Fragment of False Start) (0:28) 2015 Sun Unissued
5 - I'll Make It All Up to You (1.5) (2:46) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Charlie Rich) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

1-5 Recorded Before July 9, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (percussion)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

A concurrent task in hand during these sessions was the recording of the B-side for the release of ''Break Up'', a Charlie Rich ballad entitled ''I'll Make It All Up To You''. At this juncture, Jerry Lee Lewis has made the listener's task a little easier in the appreciation of differences, by starting just about every rehearsal take on which he is at the keyboard with a changed opening chord or flourish. If that alone isn't enough, one doesn't have to proceed too far into the song before coming across a twist in the phrasing, be it in Jerry Lee's vocal or his playing. Although things eventually settled down to the extent that the penultimate take is a reasonably close match to the master, Lewis still obliges with the insertion of a superfluous ''but'' ahead of ''someday'' in the fourth line of the opening verse. However, in the wake of a number of unfulfilling efforts, Charlie Rich has by this been installed on the piano bench, that is to say with effect from take 9, bringing greater consistency to the proceedings and allowing Jerry Lee to concentrate wholly on his vocal.

The order in which the first eight readings of ''I'll Make It All Up To You'' were recorded remains far from certain, the source tapes having been found scattered across a number of boxes. However, while the initial three takes are ''solo'' performances (before July 9, 1958 session), those identified here as take 4 of which, regrettably, a mere twenty-six seconds has endured, and the complete take 5 both feature a style of drumming that distinguishes them in turn from takes 6, 7 and 8 (probably July 9, 1958 session). The latter three all exhibit a level of polish and continuity which suggests they are the immediate predecessors to the final three cuts featuring Charlie Rich.

Although it's clear that an immense amount of painstaking work into the creation of ''Break Up'' and ''I'll Make It All Up To You'', these recording dates in mid-1958 were not without moments of relaxation along the way. Witness Jerry Lee's insouciant romp through ''Lovesick Blues'' , the ease with which he remodels Chuck Berry's guitar opus ''Johnny B. Goode'' for his own instrument; the irreverent explicitness of ''Big Legged Woman'' (all three early July 1958 session). With or without other musicians in attendance, Jerry Lee Lewis shows us, in these diversion, that he is the master of his art. The solo recordings offer us a precious glimpse of what family and friends would have enjoyed in private over the preceding decade or so, with Jerry Lee, freed of any restraints, putting his own stamp on a wide range of material. There's no drummer here potentially facing condemnation for ''dragging'', no bass to compete with the left hand, neither a guitar with the right; a full rhythm section is brought into being by Lewis's fingers.

''I'll Make It All Up To You'', a beautiful Charlie Rich ballad, this was recorded at Jerry’s first recording session following the big scandal over his marriage to Myra, and was released as the B-side to ‘Break Up’ (also a Charlie Rich song and also recorded at this session). Unusually the piano on this is played by the song’s composer instead of Jerry: long-term fans (such as Chas Hodges of ''Chas & Dave'' fame) always knew this due to the fact that the song is performed in ''Eb'', not a key he plays in. The 1963 recut is a little faster and a little higher (key of ''G''), and this time most definitely features The Killer himself on piano.

6 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.1) (3:00) 1989
7 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.2) (2:49) 2015 Sun Unissued
8 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.3) (False Start, Fragment & Take) (3:08) 2015 Sun Unissued
9 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.4) (Fragment) (2:03) 2015 Sun Unissued
10 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.5) (3:08) 2015 Sun Unissued
11 - I'll Make It All Up to You (2.6) (Undubbed Master) (3:06) 1992
(Charlie Rich) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Charlie Rich took over the helm on "Break Up" and "I'll Make It All Up To You", both sides of Jerry Lee's make-or-break single (Sun 303) which appeared in August, 1958. There is no self-conscious gimmickry here or leftover studio jam boogies. These are both solid outings geared for the marketplace Jerry had been establishing before personal disaster overtook his fortunes.

''I'll Make It All Up To You" worked the adult country and western style Jerry Lee Lewis was progressively carving as his niche. The ballad featured some unusual modulations that are now recognizable as the trademark composer style of Charlie Rich. The piano work here was provided by Charlie Rich himself, thus allowing Jerry Lee to concentrate on his impassioned ballad style.

Note: instrumental overdub (probably Roland Janes or Billy Riley, guitar; Jimmy van Eaton, drums; unknown bass) added at an overdub session in July 1958 and a unknown vocal chorus added at an overdub session also in July, 1958, probably July 21, also had a vocal chorus.

12 - Break Up (3.1) (Chatter & Take) (2:44) 1992
13 - Break Up (3.2) (Chatter & Take) (2:47) 1989
14 - Break Up (3.3) (Fragment) (0:21) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Break Up (3.4) (Fragment) (0:29) 2015 Sun Unissued
16 - Break Up (3.5) (2:37) 1984 JLL LP 001
17 - Break Up (3.6) (Fragment) (0:15) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Break Up (3.7) (2:37) 1989
(Charlie Rich) (Knox Music Incorporated)

6-19 Recorded July 9, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Charlie Rich (piano on 9, 19, 11), Otis Jett (drums)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

The effect of the scandal on Lewis' record sales was devastating. The virtual airplay back-out ensured that records already out in the marketplace would come back by the truckload, and that new ones would be hard to move. After "Break Up" fell stillborn from the presses, Jud Phillips tried to spark some action on the next single, a revival of Moon Mullican's "I'll Sail My Ship Alone", by offering the first 100,000 at the royalty free price of 16c, but there were few takers.

"Break Up" was a particularly potent item for the back-to-school crowd; without explicitly pandering to teenage problems, it managed to deal with the fate of many summer romances. Billboard of September 1, 1958 liked both sides "Break Up" and "I'll Make It All Up To You", calling "Break Up" "a rocker that Lewis sells with great drive and spirit". The ballad side was described as "a strong contender and a likely tri-market click". That either side of this disc might have nestled on the Rhythm and Blues charts tells us how far music culture has changed since the fall of 1958.

19 - Break Up (4) (Master Sun 303) (2:39) 1958
(Charlie Rich) (Knox Music Incorporated)

20 - Big Legged Woman (2:27) 1969
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Copyright Control)

''Johnny B. Goode'', Jerry first recorded a brilliant version of this solo (without a band) on the first July of 1958 session (see above), though this probably was never intended for release (it wasn’t issued until Charly’s ''The Sun Years'' box-set 25 years later). He recorded the song again 2 months later on July here with a band, and although this isn’t a bad version, it’s marred by some sloppy “stops and starts” and wasn’t made available until 1969’s excellent ‘Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues’ compilation. The 1963 cut is from the ‘Golden Hits’ sessions in September of that year, and was issued on ‘The Return Of Rock’ 2 years later. Again it isn’t bad, but it’s still probably the low-light of the album, lacking the fire of the other Chuck Berry revivals ‘Roll Over Beethoven’ and ‘Maybelline’. Lastly is the 1973 version from ‘The Session’, recorded in London with various United Kingdom “rock” luminaries. Mostly I’m not so keen on the re-cuts on this album as I find them a bit overblown and ombastic, but in this case the treatment worked perfectly, with The Killer sounding genuinely inspired.

21 - Johnny B Good (2) (2:42) 1969
(Chuck Berry) (Arc Music Incorporated)

Jerry cut several Hank Williams classics at Sun (and quite a few for other labels), including this ''I Can't Help It'' heartfelt performance from this July 1958 session. For several years only available on an 1970s bootleg, it was finally made available officially on Charly's 1977 ''Nuggets Volume Two'' compilation. At one of his final Sun Sun sessions at 639 Madison Avenue in January 1960 Jerry cut several speeded up takes, altering the lyrics ''I Can't Help It (If I'm Still In Love With You)'' to ''You Can't Help It (If You're Still In Love With Me)''! An interesting (and egotistical experiment, they didn't see the light of that until late 1980s.

"I Can't Help It (If I'm Still in Love with You)" is a song, of course, written and originally recorded by Hank Williams on MGM Records. It hit number two on the Billboard country singles chart in 1951. According to Colin Escott's 2004 book ''Hank Williams: The Biography'', fiddler Jerry Rivers always claimed that Hank wrote the song in the touring Sedan, and when he came up with the opening line, "Today I passed you on the street'', and then asked for suggestions, steel guitarist Don Helms replied, "And I smelled your rotten feet''. The song was recorded at Castle Studio in Nashville, Tennessee, on March 16, 1951, the same session that yielded "Hey Good Lookin'", "My Heart Would Know", and "Howlin' At The Moon". Williams was backed on the session by members of his Drifting Cowboys band, including Jerry Rivers, Don Helms, Sammy Pruett (electric guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), Ernie Newton or "Cedric Rainwater", aka Howard Watts (bass), and either Owen Bradley or producer Fred Rose on piano. It was released as the B-side of "Howlin' At The Moon" but on the strength of its simple language and passionate singing, soared to number two on the Billboard country singles chart. Hank Williams sang the song with Anita Carter on the Kate Smith Evening Hour on April 23, 1952. The rare television appearance is one of the few film clips of Williams in performance.

Other significant recordings are by Ray Price cut the song on Columbia in 1957; Ricky Nelson recorded a version for Imperial in 1958; Kitty Wells recorded it for Decca; Marty Robbins covered the song for Columbia in 1961; Tennessee Ernie Ford cut the song in 1961; George Jones included the song on his 1960 album ''George Jones Salutes Hank Williams''. In his autobiography, Jones printed the first six lines of the song and stated, "Its lyrics couldn't be more simple, or profound''; Sun Records released an recording version by Johnny Cash for his 1960 album ''Sings Hank Williams''; Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a version for Sun Records, with characteristic bravado, he changed it to "You Can't Help It (If You're Still In Love With Me)''; Patsy Cline cut the song for Decca; Burl Ives recorded the tune for Decca, and Ferlin Husky recorded it in 1961.

In 1962, Connie Stevens recorded ''I Can't Help It'' for the 1962 album ''The Hank Williams Songbook'', and the son of Williams Sr., Hank Williams Jr. recorded it for his 1963 album LP ''Sings The Songs Ff Hank Williams''; Charlie Rich covered the song in 1963; Dean Martin cut the song for Reprise; Eddy Arnold recorded the song in 1964; Marty Robbins included it on his 1968 LP ''I Walk Alone''; Ernest Tubb covered the song in 1968; Stonewall Jackson recorded the song for Columbia in 1969; ''I Can't Help It'' appears on Roy Orbison's 1970 LP ''Hank Williams The Roy Orbison Way''; Glen Campbell recorded it for his 1973 album ''I Remember Hank Williams''; Linda Ronstadt and Emmylou Harris covered the song in 1974, and the song is featured on the reissue of Willie Nelson's 1975 LP ''Red Headed Stranger'' album as a bonus track. Charlie McCoy recorded it as an instrumental in 1977; Charlie Pride recorded it on his 1980 tribute ''There's A Little Bit Of Hank In Me'' with Loretta in a duet. Conway Twitty recorded ''I Can't Help It'' and was released as flip-side of the 1993 single "Divine Hammer''.

22 - I Can't Help It (1) (2:53) 1983
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music)

''Lovesick Blues" recorded here by Jerry Lee is a show tune written by Cliff Friend and Irving Mills. The song first appeared in the 1922 musical Oh, Ernest. It was recorded by Emmett Miller in 1928 and later by country music singer Rex Griffin. The recordings by Griffin and Miller inspired Hank Williams to perform the song during his first appearances on the Louisiana Hayride in 1948. Receiving an enthusiastic reception from the audience, Williams decided to record his own version despite initial push back from his producer Fred Rose and his band.

MGM Records released "Lovesick Blues" in February 1949, and it became an overnight success, quickly reaching number one on Billboard's Top Country & Western singles and number 24 on the Most Played in Jukeboxes list. The publication named it the top country and western record of the year, while Cash Box named it "Best Hillbilly Record of the Year". Several cover versions of the song have been recorded. The most popular, Frank Ifield's 1962 version, topped the UK Singles Chart. In 2004, Hank Williams' version was added to the National Recording Registry.

"Lovesick Blues" was originally entitled "I've Got the Lovesick Blues" and published by Jack Mills, Inc. in 1922; Irving Mills authored the lyrics and Cliff Friend composed the music. It was first performed by Anna Chandler in the Tin Pan Alley musical Oh! Ernest and first recorded by Elsie Clark on March 21, 1922 with Okeh Records. Following the recording, Cliff and Friend copyrighted the song on April 3, 1922. It was featured in a show at the Boardwalk Club in New York City in June 1922 and also recorded by Jack Shea on Vocalion Records later that summer.

On September 1, 1925, OKeh Records sent scout Ralph Peer and a recording crew to Asheville, North Carolina. Among the aspiring artists recorded by Peer was Emmett Miller. Accompanied by Walter Rothrock on the piano, Miller cut four sides for the label, including "Lovesick Blues". The single was paired with "Big Bad Bill (is Sweet William Now)" and released in November 1925. On June 12, 1928 accompanied by the Georgia Crackers (Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Eddie Lang, and Leo McConville), Miller re-recorded the song, which was subsequently released to weak sales. Miller's version was covered by country music singer Rex Griffin in December 1939 on Decca Records. Griffin rearranged the song by using the original chorus - "I got a feeling called the blues", as a verse and turning the verse "I'm in love, I'm in love, with a beautiful gal" into the new chorus.

Hank Williams, who heard both the Miller and Griffin versions, started performing the song on the Louisiana Hayride shortly after joining in August 1948. Horace Logan, the show's producer and programming director for KWKH, reported that the audience "went crazy" the first time Williams performed the song on the show. In light of the live audience's strong positive reaction, Williams decided to record the song. His decision was questioned by his musicians and also his producer, Fred Rose, who felt that the song did not merit a recording. Williams, mindful of the reaction he received live, persisted, and the recording took place during the final half hour of a session recorded at Herzog Studio in Cincinnati, Ohio, on December 22, 1948. For this recording, Williams replaced the jazz musicians with a modern country music band, using a rhythm guitar, mandolin, string bass, drums and a steel guitar. Williams' session band was composed of Clyde Baum (mandolin), Zeke Turner (electric guitar), Jerry Byrd (steel guitar), Louis Innis (rhythm guitar), Tommy Jackson (fiddle) and Willie Thawl (bass). With little time left, Byrd and Turner replicated the musical arrangement they previously used on an Ernest Tubb session for a cover of Jimmie Rodgers' "Waiting For A Train". In the episode of American Masters about Williams, Drifting Cowboy Don Helms recalls, "When they recorded ''Lovesick Blues'', Fred told Hank, 'That song's out of meter! Got too many bars in it. And you hold that note too long'. And Hank said, 'Well, when I find a note I like, I wanna hold on to it as long as I can,' you know, just tryin' to be funny. And Fred said, 'Well, I'll tell you what I'm gonna do. That thing is so much out of meter, I'm gonna get me a cup of coffee and when I get back maybe ya'll have that thing cut.' And they did, but it was still out of meter. So Fred lived with that the rest of his life''. Williams combined Griffin's lyrical arrangement with a two-beat honky-tonk track, borrowing the yodeling and beat drops from Miller's recording. "Lovesick Blues" was recorded in two takes.

MGM released "Lovesick Blues" on February 11, 1949, coupling it with "Never Again (Will I Knock On Your Door)". The single sold 50,000 copies in the first two weeks. On its February 26, 1949 review, Billboard: "Hank's razz-mah-tazz approach and ear-catching yodeling should keep this side spinning". Based on votes sent to Billboard, the record was rated with 85 points by disc jockeys, 82 by record dealers and 85 by jukebox operators. Between the three, the track scored an overall of 84. In reference to its 100-point scale, Billboard regarded the record as "Excellent". It reached number one on Billboard's Top Country & Western singles, where it remained for sixteen weeks and reached number twenty-four on Most Played in Jukeboxes. The magazine listed it as the "number one country and western record of 1949" while Cash Box named it "Best Hillbilly record of the year". In March 1949, Wesley Rose requested Williams to send him the records by Griffin and Miller to prove that the song was in the public domain. Irving Mills, the original lyricist, sued Acuff-Rose. The suit was settled on November 1, 1949 and it was agreed that Mills and Acuff-Rose would share the publishing of Williams' recording. Mills retained the rest of rights to the song as he had also purchased Friend's rights during the Great Depression.

Following the success of the song, Williams was invited to appear as a guest on the Grand Ole Opry, on June 11, 1949. After the performance, Williams received a standing ovation. "Lovesick Blues" became his signature song, which he used to close his shows. It was also his first number one hit, and garnered Williams the stage nickname of "The Lovesick Blues Boy". In 1949, the singer received second billing behind Eddy Arnold on the list of the "Year's Top Selling Folk Artists". Williams' version of the song was featured in the films The Last Picture Show (1971), Forrest Gump (1994) and The Shawshank Redemption (1994). In 2004, "Lovesick Blues" was added to the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress.

23 - Lovesick Blues (2:10) 1970
(Irving Mills-Cliff Friend) (EMI Music Publishing)

19-23 Recorded July 9, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Brad Suggs or Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Unknown (bass)
Producer - Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

24 - Studio Chatter (0:35) 1992

During these sessions the time was found to recorded new versions of ''Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee'' and ''You're The Star In My Blue Heaven'', neither of which was at the time deemed worthy of release.

Granville ''Stick'' McGhee, in the military, Granville often played his guitar and one of the songs, that McGhee was best known for his co-written song "Drinkin' Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee". The original lyrics of the song were as follows: ''Drinkin’ that mess is our delight, and when we get drunk, start fightin’ all night. Knockin’ out windows and tearin’ down doors, drinkin’ half-gallons and callin’ for more. Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Drinkin’ wine motherfucker, drinkin’ wine! Goddam! Pass that bottle to me''! This song was one of the earliest prototypical rock and roll songs and was covered by Jerry Lee Lewis for his Sun International LP ''Monsters'' (Sun 124, April 1971) and Mike Bloomfield's Electric Flag (as "Wine"). The song lent its name to the alcoholic fruit drink, spodi.

In 1946, Granville and Brownie McGhee collaborated and modified the song into a clean cut version for Harlem Records. The song was released a year later in January 1947 at the price of 49 cents. The song did not get much airplay time until two years later, when Granville recreated the song for Atlantic Records. As a result, it rose to number 2 on the Billboard Rhythm And Blues chart, where it stayed for 4 weeks, spending almost half a year on the charts overall.

His songs attracted countless covers over the years. The first cover was by Lionel Hampton featuring Sonny Parker, then Wynonie Harris, and lastly, Loy Gordon and His Pleasant Valley Boys with their hillbilly-bop rendition. His song "Drinkin' Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee" maintained its popularity throughout the 1950s by various artists, including Malcolm Yelvington, recorded on October 10, 1954 for Sun Records (Sun 211), and Johnny Burnette (Coral 9-61869) in 1957.

25 - Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee (2.1) (2:37) 1992
26 - Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O+Dee (2.2) (2:42) 1983
(Stick McGhee) (Leeds Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee Lewis also sounded very much at ease in November 1958 when recording Moon Mullican's 1950 hit ''I'll Sail My Ship Alone'', a song which he is said to have determined to release as a single even though no-one else at Sun much faith in the idea. The first of the seven takes stands alone on the basis of relatively sparse instrumentation; the saxophone player wasn't involved at this early stage. On the next they're still experimenting with the arrangement; the last twenty seconds or so of this take has a definite ''swing'' feel. Each one of the succeeding five takes features an unplanned vocal nuance somewhere in the second half of the first verse which sets it apart from the others.

In take 3 it's a ''but'' at 0:25, allowing for the false start, ahead of ''I guess''; in take 4 the superfluous ''but'' precedes ''I have built'' at 0:26; in take 5 Jerry Lee puts the ''love we shared'' in the past tense with ''was'' in place of ''is''; in take 6, the recording selected for original release, there's an inadvertent stutter on the word ''guess'' at 0:25; in take 7, rather than having ''planned'' all his dreams, exceptionally he sings ''to plan'' at 0:28. It is to be hoped that the listener can be persuaded at an early stage that these are all distinct recordings and may then simply revel in what follows rather than having to count the glissandi, or note the lack of them, in the solos.

Originally recorded and written by Moon Mullican (an early Jerry Lee Lewis inspiration), the Sun cut (and several alternate takes) feature an unnecessary saxophone honking away but it is otherwise a very good mid-tempo country-rock performance. Jerry recorded the song again for his 1966 live album ''By Request (More Of The Greatest Live Show On Earth''), this time with his road band including some tremendous drumming from the legendary Morris ‘Tarp’ Tarrant (a drummer who taught not one but two Lewis family members how to play the drums!).

After "Break Up" fell stillborn from the presses, Jud Phillips tried to spark some action of the next single of Jerry Lee Lewis, a revival of Moon Mullican's "I'll Sail My Ship Alone", by offering the first 100,000 at the royalty-free price of 16c, but there were few takers. It was at Jerry Lee's insistence that this record (SUN 312) was cut and released on Sun. If nothing else, it should put to rest any doubts about the influence Moon Mullican had on the Killer's style. Resurrecting "I'll Sail My Ship Alone" may have been a fine tribute to Mullican, bit it did little to energize Jerry Lee's career. In truth, it is not a particularly good record. The appearance of Martin Willis' sax is a first for Jerry Lee, although it is hardly here are Jerry himself, and the guitar player, who sounds more like Billy Riley than Roland Janes. Jerry turns in one of the most distracted sounding vocals of his recorded career. The pitch wavers, the intonation is sloppy; in short, it sounds like Jerry was paying too much attention to his piano work and let the singing go to hell. Unfortunately, the guitar work is strident and unfocussed. During the instrumental break, it sounds as if the guitar player assumed the second eight bars were his, only to find Jerry Lee still ticklin' them ivories. From the brief taste we get of what that solo would have sounded like, its a mercy the guitar stays submerged.

27 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (1) (2:08) 1962
28 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (2) (False Start & Take) (2:16) 2015 Sun Unissued
29 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (3) (2:14) 1986
30 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (4) (Chatter & Take) (2:18) 1992
31 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (5) (Chatter & Take) (2:15) 1983
32 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (6) (Master Sun 312) (2:09) 1958
33 - I'll Sail My Ship Alone (7) (2:11) 1985 JLL LP 002
(Moon Mullican-Lois Mann-Henry Bernard-Henry Thurston) (Lois Music-Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

24-33 Recorded November 5, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton and Jeff Davis (drums), Cliff Acred (bass),
Martin Willis (saxophone on 27-33)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

> Page Up < 

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 9 Contains 1958-1959

''You're the Only Star in My Blue Heaven'' is a song written by Gene Autry and recorded in 1936 by The Delmore Brothers and by Roy Acuff and his Crazy Tennesseans. It was also recorded by Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis during the Million Dollar Quartet sessions at Sun Recording Studios on December 4, 1956. Amongst other recordings are those by Connee Boswell (1939), Dick Todd (1938) and by Gene Autry himself.

1 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (3.1) (3 False Starts) (1:00) 1983
2 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (3.2) (Chatter & Take) (2:06) 1983
3 - You're The Only Star (In My Blue Heaven) (3.3) (Chatter & Take) (1:57) 1989
(Gene Autry) (Shapiro Bernstein Music)

4 - Studio Chatter (1)(1:37) 1983

On this side, the label credited "Jerry Lee Lewis and his Pumping Piano". the label lied. The not-very pumping piano was played by Charlie Rich, who also co-composed this song with Bill Justis. The material is very heavy into self pity, and engages the more maudlin side of Jerry's vocal stylings. This would not be the last time Jerry Lee's flair for the melodramatic surfaced in his recorded work

''It Hurt Me So'' was recorded by Charlie Rich's as demo of the song that Jerry Lee Lewis recorded for his seventh Sun single. Actually Charlie contributed both the song and the piano work to Jerry Lee's release, leaving the Killer free to concentrate on his singing. Listening to their versions side by side is quite revealing. Without question, Charlie mines a stronger blues vein than here Jerry - which is doubly impressive considering that Charlie was not offering a finished performance for release, but merely a look at the song for another artist to evaluate and learn.

5 - It Hurt Me So (1) (2:36) 1983
6 - Studio Chatter (2) (1:35) 1983
7 - It Hurt Me So (2) (2:16) 1983
8 - It Hurt Me So (3) (2l42) 1992
9 - It Hurt Me So (4) (2:44) 1987
10 - It Hurt Me So (5) (2:45) 1992
11 - It Hurt Me So (6) (Undubbed Master) (2:42) 2015 Sun Unissued Undubbed
(Charlie Rich-Bill Justis) (Justis Music)

1-11 Recorded November 5, 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano except 5-11), Charlie Rich (piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Billy Riley (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton and Jeff Davis (drums), Cliff Acred (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

On this session, Jerry Lee Lewis turned his attention to ''Lovin' Up A Storm'' which, despite the continuing fulmination against his marital status, achieved a reasonable measure of eminence, briefly making the top ten in the UK. The hitherto unreleased first take of the song might just have served the purpose quite well had Jerry Lee not persisted in having another five attempts; everyone involved has got into a feisty groove for this classic rocker right from the off.

On "Lovin' Up A Storm", the writers have taken meteorological rock to its pinnacle and Jerry's vocal and piano are duly frenzied. The rhythmic hook gives the song some powerful appeal, but the result are a bit too studied to be among Jerry's best work. Even so, the record deserved more of a response than it got. The powerful stop-rhythm drum intro and those two-bar single-stroke rolls into the chorus mark this record as special.

12 - Lovin' Up A Storm (1) (Chatter & Take) (1:54) 1989
13 - Lovin' Up A Storm (2) (False Start & Take) (2:12) 2015 Sun Unissued
14 - Lovin' Up A Storm (3) (4 False Starts) (0:33) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Lovin' Up A Storm (4) (Fragment) (1:45) 2015 Sun Unissued
16 - Lovin' Up A Storm (5) (False Start & Take) (2:02) 1983
17 - Lovin' Up A Storm (6) (False Start & Take) (2:02) 1987
18 - Lovin' Up A Storm (7) (Master Sun 317) (1:52) 1958
(Allyson R. Khent-Luther Dixon) (Figure Music)

Although all versions of this song maintain a similar story line, it seems that each recording is noticably different in both lyrics and arrangement. Both the Johnny Sea and Johnny Cash releases were titled "Frankie's Man Johnny".

"Frankie and Johnny" (sometimes spelled "Frankie and Johnnie", also known as "Frankie and Albert" or just "Frankie") is a traditional American popular song. It tells the story of a woman, Frankie, who finds that her man Johnny was making love to another woman and shoots him dead. Frankie is then arrested; in some versions of the song she is also executed. The song was inspired by one or more actual murders. One of these took place in an apartment building located at 212 Targee Street in St. Louis, Missouri, at 2:00 on the morning of October 15, 1899. Frankie Baker (1876-1952), a 22-year-old woman, shot her 17-year-old lover Allen (also known as "Albert") Britt in the abdomen. Britt had just returned from a cakewalk at a local dance hall, where he and another woman, Nelly Bly (also known as "Alice Pryor" and no relation to the pioneering reporter who adopted the pseudonym Nellie Bly), had won a prize in a slow-dancing contest. Britt died of his wounds four days later at the City Hospital. On trial, Baker claimed that Britt had attacked her with a knife and that she acted in self defense; she was acquitted and died in a Portland, Oregon mental institution in 1952.

In 1899, popular St Louis balladeer Bill Dooley composed "Frankie Killed Allen" shortly after the Baker murder case. The first published version of the music to "Frankie and Johnny" appeared in 1904, credited to and copyrighted by Hughie Cannon, the composer of "Won't You Come Home Bill Bailey", the piece, a variant version of whose melody is sung today, was titled "He Done Me Wrong" and subtitled "Death of Bill Bailey''.

The song has also been linked to Frances "Frankie" Stewart Silver, convicted in 1832 of murdering her husband Charles Silver in Burke County, North Carolina. Unlike Frankie Baker, Silver was executed. Another variant of the melody, with words and music credited to Frank and Bert Leighton, appeared in 1908 under the title "Bill You Done Me Wrong;" this song was republished in 1912 as "Frankie and Johnny," this time with the words that appear in modern folk variations: ''Frankie and Johnny were sweethearts. They had a quarrel one day, Johnny he vowed that he would leave her. Said he was going away, He's never coming home'' also ''Frankie took aim with her forty-four, three times with a rooty-toot-toot''.

The 1912 "Frankie and Johnny" by the Leighton Brothers and Ren Shields also identifies "Nellie Bly" as the new girl to whom Johnny has given his heart. What has come to be the traditional version of the melody was also published in 1912, as the verse to the song "You're My Baby," with music is attributed to Nat. D. Ayer.

Several students of folk music have asserted that the song long predates the earliest published versions; according to Leonard Feather in his Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz it was sung at the Siege of Vicksburg (1863) during the American Civil War and Sandburg said it was widespread before 1888, while John Jacob Niles reported that it emerged before 1830. The fact, however, that the familiar version does not appear in print before 1925 is "strange indeed for such an allegedly old and well-known song," according to music historian James J. Fuld, who suggests that it "is not so ancient as some of the folk-song writers would have one believe''.

At least 256 different recordings of "Frankie and Johnny" have been made since the early 20th century, singers include Leadbelly, Mississippi John Hurt, Jimmie Rodgers, Les Paul and Mary Ford, Roscoe Holcomb, Big Bill Broonzy, Bob Dylan, Frank Crumit, Johnny Cash, Doc Watson, Pete Seeger, Mississippi Joe Callicott, Charlie Patton, Taj Mahal, Charlie Poole, Sam Cooke, Lena Horne, Lonnie Donegan, Jerry Lee Lewis, Gene Vincent, Fats Waller, Van Morrison, Michael Bloomfield, Brook Benton, Lindsay Lohan, Chris Smither, Jack Johnson, Burl Ives, Sammy Davis, Jr., Anika Noni Rose, and Stevie Wonder. A 1966 recording by Elvis Presley became a gold record as the title song of a Presley movie.

The earliest country recording of a Frankie song is Ernest Thompson's 1924 Columbia recording of "Frankie Baker", which is listed in Tony Russell's "Country Music Records A Discography, 1921-1942", Oxford University Press. 2004. Thompson was a blind street singer from Winston-Salem, North Carolina. As a jazz standard it has also been recorded by numerous bands and instrumentalists including Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Bunny Berigan, Dave Brubeck, Duke Ellington, and Benny Goodman. Champion Jack Dupree set his version in New Orleans, retitling it "Rampart and Dumaine''.

The story of Frankie and Johnny has been the inspiration for several films, including ''Her Man'' (1930, starring Helen Twelve trees), ''Frankie And Johnnie'' (1936, starring Helen Morgan), and ''Frankie And Johnny'' (1966, starring Elvis Presley). Terrence McNally's 1987 play, ''Frankie And Johnny'' in the Clair de Lune, was adapted for a 1991 film titled ''Frankie Ad Johnny'' starring Al Pacino and Michelle Pfeiffer. In 1930 director and actor John Huston wrote and produced a puppet play titled ''Frankie And Johnnie'' based on the Frankie Baker case. One of Huston's main sources was his interview with Baker and Britt’s neighbor Richard Clay.

Comedian Harry Langdon performed the song in his 1930 short "The Fighting Parson'', in a variant on his vaudeville routine originally performed in blackface. Mae West inserted her ballad in her successful Broadway play Diamond Lil. West sang the ballad again in her 1933 Paramount film ''She Done Him Wrong'', which takes its title from the refrain, substituting genders. She also sang it many years later (1978) on the CBS television special ''Back Lot U.S.A''. The song was used in the 1932 film ''Red-Headed Woman'', in a scene where actress Jean Harlow's character is drinking and lamenting having been jilted by her married lover. It is also sung by a river boat crew in ''Bed Of Roses'', a film released the following year. Yvonne De Carlo sings the song while masquerading as an opera singer in the 1949 film ''The Gal Who Took The West''.

Moira Kelly sings it in the 1996 film ''Entertaining Angels: The Dorothy Day Story''. A dazzling musical number from the 1956 MGM film ''Meet Me In Las Vegas'' featured Cyd Charisse and dancer John Brascia acting out the roles of Frankie and Johnny while Sammy Davis, Jr. sang the song. Mia Farrow, in the role of Jacqueline De Bellefort, sang/hummed a drunken rendition of the song in the 1978 version of ''Agatha Christie's Death On The Nile'', just before she attempts to shoot her former lover, Simon Doyle, played by Simon MacCorkindale. The climax of Robert Altman's 2006 film ''A Prairie Home Companion'' is Lindsay Lohan's rendition of the song with quasi-improvisatory lyrics by Garrison Keillor. The tune is often used for comic effect in animated cartoon shorts, such as the 1932 Disney cartoon ''The Klondike Kid'' (starring Mickey Mouse) and various ones produced by Warner Bros. or MGM in the 1940s and 1950s, as a theme or leitmotif for a meretricious woman. The song was the basis of a 1951 UPA cartoon ''Rooty Toot Toot'', directed by John Hubley. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Short Subject.

19 - Frankie and Johnny (LP Master SLP-1265) (2:33) 1961
(Traditional-Alex Gottlieb-Fred Karger-Ben Weisman) (Williamson Music)

"Big Blon' Baby" had been recorded previously by Ronnie Self, whose version stiffed as badly as Jerry Lee's. The exclamation "Jumpin' Jehosaphat, Big blon' baby!" was obviously intended to rekindle memories of "Goodness gracious, great balls of fire". It didn't. Musically, the record has its pros and cons. Roland (if indeed its him) takes one of his least memorable recorded solos, although Jimmy Van Eaton's final single stoke drum roll is a moment to be reckoned with. In 1979 Jerry Lee Lewis re-cut (the only real rocker on (the ''Would You Take Another Chance On Me'' album) is hotter, faster and wilder, but also somehow lacks the charm of the earlier cut.

Judging from some exchanges between Sam Phillips and Jerry Lee Lewis following the recording of ''Big Blon' Baby'', the song chosen to partner ''Lovin' Up A Storm'' as the flip of Sun 317, the prevailing mood in the studio was quite light-hearted. Sam asks that Jerry Lee should ''wail from the heart'' when setting himself to deal with the next matter on the agenda; the response doesn't lend itself to being reproduced in pint. Notwithstanding the flippancy, Jerry Lee set about his interpretation of the Hank Williams classic, ''I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You'' with all due reverence. A strange twist in the vocal, introducing the contortion ''pray-haps'' in place of ''perhaps'', occurs both in the first take and in the third, which proved to be the master. Despite that slip, the latter recording, which features an especially accomplished solo, was chosen for the country radio stations to spin as an alternative to Jerry Lee's sublime cover of Chuck Berry's ''Little Queenie'' when the two were paired on Sun 330.

It would seem, however, that there may have been some concerns over the similarity of the first few bars of this version of the song with the introduction to the issued cut of ''Fools Like Me'', sufficient to encourage another attempt in pursuit of a more innovative opening. But the several subsequent efforts reflect the perils of over-ambition; too much swing, too much embellishment with the right hand and too little sincerity. They're something of a hotchpotch and the number of false starts should have made it obvious to all involved that they were over-egging the pudding; nothing matched the quality of the earlier work on the song.

20 - Big Blon' Baby (1) (Master Sun 317) (1:42) 1959
21 - Big Blon' Baby (2) (Fragment) (1:24) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Rhoda Roberts-Kenny Jacobson) (Alamo Music Incorporated)

22 - Studio Chatter (0:30) 2015 Sun Unissued

Jerry Lee Lewis dips into the Hank Williams songbook for a powerful reading of the country classic. All things considered, this is a pretty stripped down version, with Jerry's piano handling all the solo chores and Roland Janes' guitar buried deep in the mix. Ironically, Jerry has taken such liberties with the lyrics that he's managed to soften, if not alter the impact of Williams' original intent. There's a hell of a different between singing "Makes no difference what you used to do" and "Makes no difference what they say or do". Given the well-known litany of sexual accusations Jerry put childbride Myra through, its not surprising his version of the lyric seems a lot more forgiving of his buddies than his girlfriend.

Williams cut ''I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You'' at his last recording session in Nashville at Castle Studio in the Tulane Hotel, with Fred Rose did the producing. By this point, the singer had been fired from the Grand Ole Opry for drunkenness and had returned to Shreveport to play the Louisiana Hayride. Although he was in terminal decline, the quality of the songs Williams recorded at his final session was astonishing, "I Could Never Be Ashamed of You'', "Take These Chains From My Heart'', "Kaw-Liga'', and "Your Cheatin' Heart''. As biographer Colin Escott marvels, "Most singers hope to hang their careers on one or two classics; Hank cut four classics between 1:30 and 3:40 on the afternoon of September 23, 1952...". Williams was backed by Tommy Jackson (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Chet Atkins (lead guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), and Floyd "Lightnin'" Chance (bass). A demo version of Williams singing this song with just his guitar, likely recorded in 1951, is also available.

23 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (1.1) (2:14) 2015 Sun Unissued
24 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (1.2) (2:25) 1992
25 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (1.3) (Master Sun 330) (2:25) 1959
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

12-25 Recorded December 1958 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Billy Riley (bass), Jimmy M. Van Eaton
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded probably on March 1959 a trio of fairly raw ''one-offs'', ''Release Me'', to the lack of sophistication of ''Shanty Town'' and Chris Kenner's ''Sick And Tired'', which collectively exemplify a very different technigue in the drumming. A not dissimilar sounding recording dating from this time, but distinguished from the aforementioned in having guitarist Brad Suggs taking a prominent part, is the high energy George Vaughn's ''Hillbilly Music'' also known as ''Country Music Is Here To Stay'', from March 22.

"(In A Shanty In Old) Shanty Town" is a popular song written by Ira Schuster and Jack Little with lyrics by Joe Young, published in 1932. Ted Lewis and His Band performed it in the film The Crooner in 1932. His version was released as a single and it went to number 1, where it remained for 10 weeks.

The Johnny Long and His Orchestra had a million seller of the song in 1946. This version was a slight revision of the Long band's 1940 version. Their version reached number 13. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a unfinished version here probably in March 1959. Somethin' Smith and the Redheads re-charted the song in 1956 where it reached to number 27.

In the contemporary ''stock'' dance-band orchestration published by B. Feldman & Co., sole agents for M. Witmark & Sons (arranged by Frank Skinner) credit is given thus: words by Joe Young and music by Little Jack Little and John Siras. Ira Schuster is not given credit. Ira Schuster is also not mentioned in the credits for the song in the 1940 film "Always A Bride" or in the 1951 film Lullaby of Broadway starring Doris Day.

26 - Shanty Town (Unfinished) (2:29) 1974
(Joe Young-Jack Little-John Siras) (Warner Bross Music)

The Sun cut ''Release Me'' from this March 1959 session as no-one seems sure of the exact date) is a mid-tempo rock and roll treatment with a heavy drumbeat. It’s been suggested that Jerry doesn’t play piano on this, but it certainly sounds like him to me. This was first released on the United Kingdon ''Rockin’ And Free'' compilation in 1974 (a superb collection of 22 previously unissued Sun cuts that seems to be almost forgotten by fans now). The preferable version for me is the stunning performance recorded for the ‘She Still Comes Around’ album in 1968 (some people may have noticed by now that I’m slightly biased towards this era; indeed my “creative peak” years for Jerry would probably cover the decade from 1961 to 1971, a time when he seemed almost incapable of making a bad recording or doing a sub-standard concert). A re-cut for his new album ‘Mean Old Man’ can only come 2nd or 3rd best, but it is one of the more palatable tracks on the album, with Gillian Welch’s (very obviously) overdubbed duet vocal working quite well.

"Release Me" (sometimes rendered as "Release Me (and Let Me Love Again)"), is a popular song written by Eddie Miller and Robert Yount in 1949. Shortly afterward it was covered by Jimmy Heap, and with even better success by Ray Price and Kitty Wells. Subsequently a big seller was recorded by Little Esther Phillips, who reached number one on the Rhythm And Blues chart and number eight on the pop chart. A version by Engelbert Humperdinck reached number one on the UK Singles Chart.

The Engelbert Humperdinck song has the distinction in the UK of holding the number-one slot in the chart for six weeks during March and April 1967, and preventing The Beatles single, "Penny Lane" backed with "Strawberry Fields Forever", from reaching the top. "Release Me" was also the highest selling single of 1967 in the UK, recording over one million sales, and eventually became one of the best selling singles of all time with sales of 1.38 million copies.

Although Miller later claimed to have written the song in 1946 and only being able to record it himself in 1949, he co-wrote it with Robert Yount in 1949. As they were working at that time with Dub Williams, (a pseudonym of James Pebworth), they gave him one-third of the song. The song was released with the writing credited to Miller-Williams-Gene, as Yount was using his stage name of Bobby Gene. Although owner of Four Star Records, William McCall, would usually add his pseudonym "W.S. Stevenson" to the credit of songs he published, he failed to do so in 1949. However in 1957, Miller and Yount entered into a new publishing agreement with Four Star Records, in which "W.S. Stevenson" replaced Williams as co-writer.

Yount signed away his royalty rights to William McCall in 1958, after which the credits to the song officially became "Miller-Stevenson", although multiple variations also existed. Engelbert Humperdinck's version, for example, is credited to Eddie Miller, Robert Yount, Dub Williams and Robert Harris. That last one, however, turned out to be also a pseudonym for James Pebworth.

With the bankruptcy of Four Star’s successor in interest, the copyright to the song was acquired by Acuff Rose Music. When the initial term of copyright ended in 1983, it was renewed for a second term. Between 1983 and 1985 Acuff-Rose paid royalties to Yount, until they were notified by the family of the deceased William McCall of the 1958 assignment. Acuff-Rose then suspended payments until the dispute between the claimants was resolved. On December 24, 1996 the United States Courts of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, upheld the claim of the McCalls.

In country music, "Release Me" became a hit for Jimmy Heap, Kitty Wells, and Ray Price, all in 1954. Even though Price had several major hits beforehand, "Release Me" is sometimes considered his breakthrough hit. The song had elements of the 4/4 shuffle, Price's signature sound that would become more evident on future successes such as "Crazy Arms''. Price's version was part of a double-A sided hit, paired with another song that introduced fans to the 4/4 shuffle: "I'll Be There (If You Ever Want Me)''. Both sides went on to become major hits for Price, with "Release Me" peaking at number 6 and "I'll Be There" stopping at number 2. Elvis Presley recorded ''Release Me'' on February 17, 19, 1970 live on stage at the International Hotel in Las Vegas for his live album ''On Stage''. This album was released in June 1970 and reached number 13 on both the Billboard 200 and country music charts. It was certified Gold on February 23, 1971, and Platinum on July 15, 1999, by the Recording Industry Association of America.

27 - Release Me (2:09) 1974
(Eddie Miller-Robert Young-Dub Williams) (Palace Music Company-4 Star Music Company Incorporated )

''Sick And Tired'' recorded here on this session by Jerry Lee Lewis was written by Chris Kenner and was a New Orleans rhythm and blues singer and songwriter, best known for two hit singles in the early 1960s that became staples in the repertoires of many other musicians.

Born on December 25, 1929 in the farming community of Kenner, Louisiana, upriver from New Orleans, Kenner sang gospel music with his church choir, and moved to New Orleans in his teens. In 1955 he made his first recordings, for a small label, Baton Records, without success; and in 1957 he had his first taste of success when he began working with Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew a year later at Lew Chudd's Imperial Records label, hitting the charts briefly in August 1957 with "Sick and Tired," a song he had written with help from the other two. Fats Domino covered it the next year and the song became a hit. "Rocket to the Moon" and "Life Is Just a Struggle", both cut for the Ron Records label, were other notable songs from this period.

Moving to another New Orleans label, Instant, he began to work with pianist and arranger Allen Toussaint. In 1961, this collaboration produced "I Like It Like That", his first and biggest hit, peaking at number 2 in the Billboard Hot 100 chart (covered in 1965 by The Dave Clark Five) and "Something You Got", covered by Wilson Pickett, Alvin Robinson, the Ramsey Lewis Trio, Chuck Jackson, Earl Grant, Maxine Brown, Bobby Womack, The Moody Blues on their 1965 debut album, The American Breed, Fairport Convention and Bruce Springsteen. "I Like It Like That" sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA.

In 1962 he produced his most enduring song, "Land Of A Thousand Dances", which was covered by various artists, including Cannibal and the Headhunters, Thee Midniters, Wilson Pickett, The Action, and Patti Smith. Kenner continued to record for Instant and for various other small local labels, including many of his lesser-known songs from the 1960s, such as "My Wife", "Packing Up" and "They Took My Money". He released an album on Atlantic Records in 1966; the Collectors' Choice label reissued the LP, Land Of A Thousand Dances, on CD in 2007.

In 1968 Kenner was convicted of statutory rape of a minor, and spent three years in Louisiana's Angola prison. Chris Kenner was found dead in his apartment at the age of 46 in New Orleans on January 25, 1976. The cause was a heart attack, triggered by his alcohol problems.

28 - Sick And Tired (2:44) 1974
(Christopher Kenner- Dave Bartholomew) (EMI Music Publishing)

26-28 Recorded March 1959 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Unknown (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

As the house drummer at Sun, J.M. Van Eaton probably saw more of the famed studio than anyone else. After his band The Echoes cut a demo there in 1956, he became first call for the majority of the sessions. His affable nature, which he fully displayed when the first clip was taped, was crucial to the recording equation. So when Jerry Lee Lewis might suddenly decide to re-jig something like Little Jimmy Dickes' hit from 1950, "Hillbilly Fever", J.M. would be all fired up ready to go to work in the blink of an eye.

29 - Hillbilly Music (Hillbilly Fever) (Master SLP-1265) (2:08) 1961
(George Vaughn Horton) (Anglo-Pic Music Corporation Limited)

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded several different takes of ''I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You'' here on this session, and is widely regarded as a song Hank Williams wrote for Billie Jean Jones Eshlimar, whom he married on October 18, 1952 in Minden, Louisiana. In the episode of American Masters about Hank's like, singer Billy Walker explained, "Billie Jean was Faron Young's girlfriend. Faron had just moved to Nashville. Billie Jean and Faron was out clubbin' around and Hank Williams joined them. And they went to the lavatory and Hank pulled out a gun on Faron and said, "Boy, this is gonna be my girlfriend from now on''. In the same film, Ray Price, who shared an apartment with Williams, recalls Hank using Billie Jean as leverage to try and win back his ex-wife Audrey Williams, "He told Audrey, 'If you don't come back to me I'm gonna marry Billie Jean'. Well, Audrey said, 'Go ahead'''.

Williams cut ''I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You'' at his last recording session in Nashville at Castle Studio in the Tulane Hotel, with Fred Rose did the producing. By this point, the singer had been fired from the Grand Ole Opry for drunkenness and had returned to Shreveport to play the Louisiana Hayride. Although he was in terminal decline, the quality of the songs Williams recorded at his final session was astonishing, "I Could Never Be Ashamed of You'', "Take These Chains From My Heart'', "Kaw-Liga'', and "Your Cheatin' Heart''. As biographer Colin Escott marvels, "Most singers hope to hang their careers on one or two classics; Hank cut four classics between 1:30 and 3:40 on the afternoon of September 23, 1952...". Williams was backed by Tommy Jackson (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Chet Atkins (lead guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), and Floyd "Lightnin'" Chance (bass). A demo version of Williams singing this song with just his guitar, likely recorded in 1951, is also available.

30 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (2.1) (2:27) 2015 Sun Unissued
31 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (2.2) (2 False Starts) (1:20) 1983
32 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (2.3) (2 False Starts & Take) (2:47) 1983
33 - I Could Never Be Ashamed Of You (2.4) (False Start & Take) (2:42) 1983
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee recorded two versions of "Near You" as a sort of warm-up, a popular song written and originally recorded by Francis Craig in 1947, with lyrics by Kermit Goell, that has gone on to become a pop standard.

The recording by Francis Craig (the song's composer) was released by Bullet Records as catalog number 1001. It first reached the Billboard Best Sellers chart on August 30, 1947, and lasted 21 weeks on the chart, peaking at number one. On the "Most Played By Jockeys" chart, the song spent 17 consecutive weeks at number one, setting a record for both the song and the artist with most consecutive weeks in the number-one position on a United states pop music chart. In 2009, hip-hop group The Black Eyed Peas surpassed Craig's record for artist with most consecutive weeks in the number one position with the songs "Boom Boom Pow" and "I Gotta Feeling". However, their record was accomplished with combined weeks of two number 1 songs, one succeeding the other in the top position. Billboard ranked it as the number 1 song overall for 1947.

In 1977, "Near You" became a number one country hit for the duo of George Jones and Tammy Wynette, one of the more unlikely compositions the two country legends ever sang together. Recorded in the winter of 1974, its atypical arrangement showed that country fans still had an appetite for any music performed by the estranged couple, who had been country music's "First Couple" in the early seventies. In fact, it was their second consecutive number 1 single since their divorce in 1975; they had only managed to top the charts once during their six year marriage with "We're Gonna Hold On" in 1973.

34 - Near You (1) (Chatter & False Start) (1:09) 1983
35 - Near You (2) (Chatter & Take) (1:58) 1989
36 - Near You (3) (2:38) 1974
(Kermit Goell-Francis Craig) (Warner Chappell Music)

29-36 Recorded March 22, 1959 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal except 34-36 and (piano), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Cliff Acred (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 10 Contains 1959-1960

No doubt inspired by Fats Domino’s hit at the time, Jerry cut 4 fast takes of ''My Blue Heaven'' the old Gene Autry song in early 1959. The best of these was first issued on Sun International’s ''Olde Tyme Country Music'' album in 1969, with the others issued during the 1980s. He made a 2nd attempt at the song 2 years in a slower ''cocktail'' style, but none of them saw the light of day until the late 1980s. These all pale into insignificance compared to the truly stunning 1969 cut (and check out those extra lyrics during the intro). Recorded at the productive ''Country Music Hall Of Fame'' sessions in February 1969 where he recorded two albums in two days, it’s a mystery why this wasn’t released at the time (though when Jerry heard it again in 1987 he claimed there was a mistake during the piano solo). Instead it was issued on Bear Family’s ''The Killer: 1969-1972'' box-set in 1986.

My Blue Heaven" is a popular song written by Walter Donaldson with lyrics by George A. Whiting. It has become part of various fake book collections. In 1928, "My Blue Heaven" became a huge hit on Victor 20964-A for crooner Gene Austin, accompanied by the Victor Orchestra as directed by Nat Shilkret; it charted for 26 weeks, stayed at number 1 and sold over five million copies becoming one of the best selling singles of all time. In 1928, Blue Amberol Records released an instrumental piano version by Muriel Pollock (issue number 5471). The music for "My Blue Heaven" was written in 1924.

Donaldson wrote it one afternoon at the Friars Club in New York while waiting for his turn at the billiard table. The song was written while Donaldson was under contract to Irving Berlin, working for Berlin's publishing company, Irving Berlin Inc. George Whiting wrote lyrics adapted for Donaldson's music, and for a while, performed it in his vaudeville act; three years later, Tommy Lyman started singing it on the radio as his theme song.

Donaldson established his own publishing company in 1928, and his rights in the song were apparently assigned to his company at that time, with the song listed as having been published by George Whiting Music and Donaldson Music. The song was subject to copyright in 1925 and 1927. These copyrights were renewed in 1953 and 1955, after the death of both composers, at which time the rights in the song were owned by Leo Feist, Inc.. The rights were thereafter assigned to the EMI Catalogue Partnership, controlled and administered by EMI Feist Catalog Inc.

The song has become a standard. Hit versions were also recorded by Jimmie Lunceford in 1935 and Fats Domino in 1956. The Fats Domino version was a two sided hit, with, "I'm In Love Again" and reached number nineteen on the Billboard magazine charts and number five on the Rhythm & Blues Best Sellers chart. Mary Lou Williams recording a version for her 1964 Folkways Records album Mary Lou Williams Presents (F 2843); Smithsonian Folkways re-issued the recording as part of its 2004 album Mary Lou Williams Presents Black Christ of the Andes (SFW40816).

1 - My Blue Heaven (1.1) (1:58) 1983
2 - My Blue Heaven (1.2) (1:42) 1992
3 - My Blue Heaven (1.3) (Chatter & Take) (1:45) 1983
4 - My Blue Heaven (1.4) (1:40) 1970
(Walter Donaldson-George A. Whiting) (Donaldson Music Publishing)

It took a great deal of largely fruitless experimentation to settle on the right arrangement for ''Let's Talk About Us''. After as many as thirteen takes involving a rigid, drumled pattern, in which Lewis sounds inhibited, increasingly frustrated and eventually bored, they take a break from the endeavour. Returning to it afresh at a later session, the earlier template is abandoned and Otis Blackwell's latest commission to furnish Lewis with another hit to complement ''Great Balls Of Fire'' and ''Breathless'' is reinvented with a striking boogie-woogie introduction.

Reassembling into a logical order the various alternates produced at the first, ultimately unproductive session, scattered as they were across a number of tape boxes, proved to be a painstaking process. Given the homogeneity of the musical arrangements across the piece, the analysis here relied much more upon the variations in Jerry Lee's efforts to learn, then master, and finally invest some interest in the lyrics. Notice how he stumbles in his first, uncertain foray, misreading the lyrics as ''...if you're not just a friend'' (at 1:010 and ''...if you just, just a friend'' (at 1:32) and towards the end of the take is clearly ad-libbing, having disregarded the script.

In the second alternate, again there are clumsy ''if it's just want to be your friend'' (at 0:59); he's having to concentrate on his playing rather than the vocal to be sure of keeping in time. Greater confidence is palpable from take 3 onwards, with some command of the words finally in evidence, the phrase ''if you just want me for your friend'' being sung cleanly for the first time. That's probably the wording that was printed on the lead sheets. As matters progress, however, Jerry Lee brings his own twist to the lyric and from take nine onwards the passive resignation of ''if you just want me for your friend, has given way to the rather more assertive challenge ''...if it's just to be a friend'', the phrase that would become familiar courtesy of the master take. The latter doesn't appear to have been the final attempt; a forceful alternate with a rather more rousing last few bars closes the sequence.

According to Jim King, manager of Jerry McGill and The Topcoats, said that the backup singers were not the Gene Lowery Singers but four juniors from the Treadwell High School, located at 920 North Highland Street in Memphis. The girls were probably brought in to keep the project costs within budget. The quartet actually had no official name, but consisted of (maiden names) Opal Green, Twila Taylor, Nanci Drake, and Carolyn Maharrey.

5 - Let's Talk About Us (1.1) (Chatter & Take) (2:09) 1992
6 - Let's Talk About Us (1.2) (Chatter & Take) (2:09) 2015 Sun Unissued
7 - Let's Talk About Us (1.3) (3 False Starts) (1:09) 2015 1st False Start Sun Unissued
8 - Let's Talk About Us (1.4) (2:05) 1983
9 - Let's Talk About Us (1.5) (False Start & Take) (2:10) 2015 Sun Unissued
10 - Let's Talk About Us (1.6) (2:00) 2015 Sun Unissued
11 - Let's Talk About Us (1.7) (2:00) 2015 Sun Unissued
12 - Let's Talk About Us (1.8) (2:04) 2015 Sun Unissued
13 - Let's Talk About Us (1.9) (2:00) 2015 Sun Unissued
14 - Let's Talk About Us (1.10) (2:01) 1992
15 - Let's Talk About Us (1.11) (Chatter & Take) (2:04) 1992
16 - Let's Talk About Us (1.12) (2:02) 2015 Sun Unissued
17 - Let's Talk About Us (1.13) (Chatter & Take) (2:05) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Let's Talk About Us (1.14) (2:00) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Otis Blackwell) (Roosevelt Music)

1-18 Recorded March 22, 1959 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Cliff Acred (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

In February 1989, Jerry Lee Lewis flew into the United Kingdom along with his portraying actor, Dennis Quaid, to help promote the glitzy biopic, Great Balls Of Fire. As part of the general hoopla, Jerry Lee checked into the Westbury Hotel in central London, the location where he'd stayed during his first visit to the country in 1958. It was there that we got to discuss numerous aspects of his intriguing career, particularly the way in which the classic Chuck Berry song "Little Queenie" entered the Lewis repertoire.

"Little Queenie" of course, is a song written and performed by Chuck Berry. It appeared on the 1959 album ''Chuck Berry Is On Top'' and was released as a double A-side with "Almost Grown" (Chess 1722). The song peaked at number 80 on the Billboard Hot 100 Charts. Berry performed the song in the movies ''Go, Johnny Go!'' (1959) and ''Hail! Hail! Rock 'N' Roll'' (1987). It has been covered by many artists, including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and REO Speedwagon. One year earlier a Christmas song using the same melody had been released by Berry with the title "Run Rudolph Run".

Allmusic calls the song an "incredible rock and roll anthem" and "one of the greatest dance and sex ritualistic classics''. It is included on many of Berry's greatest hits compilations, including ''The Great Twenty-Eight'' and ''Chuck Berry's Golden Decade''.

According to eminent author Mark Lewisohn in "The Complete Beatles Chronicles" (p. 363) The Beatles performed "Little Queenie" live from at least 1960 till 1963 (in Liverpool and Hamburg and elsewhere) with Paul McCartney on lead vocal. An audience recording of it was made (in December 1962) and is on live at the Star-Club in Hamburg, West Germany; 1962. Per author Doug Sulpy in "Drugs, Divorce And Slipping Image" (sec. 22.26) during the massive ''Get Back'' sessions John Lennon did lead vocal on a fairly brief version of it. Paul McCartney and Wings guitarist Denny Laine recorded a loose jam of it the early 1970s.

The Rolling Stones also frequently performed the song live, and a version recorded in November 1969 at Madison Square Garden in New York City, appears on ''Get Yer Ya-Ya's Out! The Rolling Stones in Concert''. Other artists who have covered the song include Jerry Lee Lewis for Sun Records, the Kinks, Eric Clapton, Rod Stewart, the Velvet Underground, Eric Burdon, Johnny Moped, Bruce Springsteen, Bob Seger, Johnny Thunders, Savoy Brown, Jan Berry and REO Speedwagon.

'Little Queenie" is mentioned in "Dance Franny Dance", a regional hit in 1964 for the Texas band The Floyd Dakil Combo, "She's Our Little Queenie, Princess of the U.S.A.". The song helped to inspire Marc Bolan to write the T. Rex song "Get It On", which quotes "Little Queenie" as it fades out, "And meanwhile, I'm still thinking...".

19 - Little Queenie (Master Sun 330) (2:24) 1959
(Chuck Berry) (Arc Music Incorporated)

19 Recorded March 22, 1959 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal except 34-36 and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Leo Ladner (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Jack Clement and/or Bill Justis

During the first half of 1959 Jerry Lee Lewis also recorded such gems as his cover of the Jim Reeves hit ''Home'' which, alongside the aforementioned ''Hillbilly Music'', was destined to find a place on his second long player a couple of years later. He added to stock no fewer than four takes of the pop standard ''My Blue Heaven'', together with a blissful performance of Roy Acuff's 1940 hit, Night Train To Memphis''. Not untypically, Lewis remembers nothing more than a single verse of a song from his childhood but he still makes it sound as if was written especially for him.

Sun's new promotion manager, Cecil Scaife, tried to talk Jerry Lee Lewis into adopting a new image. Scaife's account of the conversation shows how marginally Lewis grasped any concepts other than those he had already developed on his own. "At that time", recalls Scaife, "Jerry had his hair peroxided blond and it was extraordinarily long. That, and his thirteen-year-old bride, was the image that cartoonists caricatured. She would be holding a teddy bear in her hand''.

''I had a very serious talk with Jerry about his image. We went to the restaurant next door to the studio and sat down in a booth. Jerry had one of his pickers with him. He always had someone with him. You could rarely get him one-on-one. I told him what I thought we should do, in as much detail as I thought he could absorb in one sitting. I wanted to get him out of typical rock and roll regalia. Ivy League was in. I wanted him to get a crew cut. I wanted to hold a press conference where Jerry would announce that he was somewhat remorseful. He would take on an adult image."

"We discussed it for over an hour. Jerry was very polite and listening. He would not every once in a while, but he kept looking at his watch. Finally, he shook it like it wasn't working and he looked at his buddy across the table and said, 'What time is it?'. They guy said, 'Its five before one'. Jerry said, 'Oh! The double feature at the Strant starts in five minutes. It's Return Of The Werewolf and The Bride Of Frankenstein Meets Godzilla. Then he jumped up and left the table. That was the last time we discussed Jerry's image".

Jerry Lee's cover of the Jim Reeves hit ''Home'' is written by Roger Dean Miller, born on January 2, 1936 in Fort Worth, Texas, was an American singer, songwriter, musician and actor, best known for his honky-tonk-influenced novelty songs. His most recognized tunes included the chart-topping country/pop hits "King Of The Road", "Dang Me" and "England Swings", all from the mid-1960s Nashville sound era.

After growing up in Oklahoma and serving in the United States Army, Miller began his musical career as a songwriter in the late 1950s, penning such hits as "Billy Bayou" and "Home" for Jim Reeves and "Invitation To the Blues" for Ray Price. He later began a recording career and reached the peak of his fame in the mid1960s, continuing to record and tour into the 1990s, charting his final top 20 country hit "Old Friends" with Willie Nelson in 1982. Later in his life, he wrote the music and lyrics for the 1985 Tony-award winning Broadway musical Big River, in which he acted.

Miller died from lung cancer October 25, 1992, and was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame three years later. His songs continued to be recorded by younger artists, with covers of "Tall, Tall Trees" by Alan Jackson and "Husbands and Wives" by Brooks & Dunn, each reaching the number one spot on country charts in the 1990s. The Roger Miller Museum in his home town of Erick, Oklahoma, is a tribute to Miller.

20 - Home (Master SLP-1265) (1:59) 1961
(Roger Miller) (Acuff Rose Music)

21- Friday Night (1:42) 1972
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Copyright Control)

''I'm The Guilty One'' is a neglected classic from an unidentified songwriter (on some releases Aubrey Mayhew and Carl Stuart have the credits). It appears to have been committed to tape almost one year to the day after Jerry Lee was chased out of England and it stood no chance in the pop marketplace of mid-1959. It may even have been ''too country'' for the country market. Jerry Lee's vocal is rich with the intensity of his best Hank Williams interpretations. In fact, there's little distance between this and the country superstardom that lay a few years ahead.

22 - I'm The Guilty One (Chatter & Take) (2:14) 1983
(Aubrey Mayhew-Carl Stuart) (Peer Music International)

Still attempting to revive his career, Jerry Lee Lewis went back to the source of two of his biggest hits: composer Otis Blackwell. Everyone hoped that the magic that had struck on "Great Balls Of Fire" and "Breathless" would again on "Let's Talk About Us". This is a powerful piece of material that went beyond the teen market. Blackwell has created a lot of tension by holding the verses in one chord for 12 bars. Jerry, Roland and Jimmy Van Eaton worked long and hard on the arrangement (numerous outtakes remain in the vaults). Even a discreet female chorus was added to sweeten the arrangement. Neither Jack Clement nor Bill Justis were involved with the overdub session (both had recently been fired by Sam Phillips), and Ernie Barton had persuaded Sam Phillips that he was a producer. Clearly, there was indecision about how or whether to sweeten this pie. Some of the discarded outtakes include a male chorus.

23 - Let's Talk About Us (2.1) (Undubbed Master) (2:08) 1985 JLL LP 002
24 - Let's Talk About Us (2.2) (2:10) 1983
(Otis Blackwell) (Roosevelt Music)

''Will The Circle Be Unbroken'' is a heartfelt and very respectful version of the well-known religious song. Not released at the time, it was the highlight of the ''Sunday Down South'' album in 1970. The recent re-cut unusually features Jerry playing guitar (which probably explains why it’s in the key of ''E'') and is performed with an interesting mid-paced rhythm. Unfortunately the Mavis Staples overdub almost obliterates Jerry’s vocal, and during the last 40 seconds or so he isn’t heard at all while she carries on wailing. Combined with the absence of piano, this almost makes Jerry sound like a guest on a Mavis Staples record rather than the other way round (this would never have happened if Jimmy Rip had produced it, as he always made sure that Jerry was the most prominent vocalist and musician on every song). With a piano overdub and without Ms Staples (and perhaps with a decent ending) this could’ve been a great cut…

This Christian hymn, written in about 1907 by Ada Ruth Haberson and Charles H. Gabriel, is one of the best known and best loved of all religious anthems. The lyrics aim to provide comfort for people who have recently been bereaved but over the years, singing the song in unison has come to be seen as an anthem appropriate for groups of people standing together in the face of adversity of any kind, announcing their common resolve to overcome their difficulties to the world. Countless concerts by traditional country-oriented musical groups, right up to the present day, feature the song as their finale, with the audience joining in. The quartet was probably able to sing bits of it before they could read and write.

Modern arrangements vary from medium paced and soulful to uptempo and joyous. Most are based on a rearrangement of the song in the thirties by A.P. Carter, of the legendary Carter Family, whose music provided the foundation upon which much of modern folk and country music has been built.

As evidence of its continuing appeal and relevance, the song was used as the title for a famous recording in 1972 by the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band which brought together musicians young and old to record traditional old time songs. Bill Monroe was a notable refusenik.

At this point, Sam Phillips was still coming to terms with the "human jukebox" side of Jerry's nature, and simply encouraged him to perform whatever came to his mind in the studio. This title above appeared during a gospel interlude that also featured "When The Saints Go Marching On" and "Old-Time Religion" from February 1957. This ''Will The Circle Be Unbroken'' is by far the best of the three recordings. While it is unlikely anyone knew they were working on a master record, it soon became obvious that the results were very special. The male chorus was rapidly overdubbed and the result are among Jerry Lee's best early work. Although the undubbed master remains available on Bear Family BCD 15420. This is one of the few times that a vocal overdub actually enhanced the original, echoing Jerry Lee's fervour and helping to create a real tent meeting feeling. Roland Janes two bar guitar coda is priceless, although Jerry Lee still gets the last word/note.

25 - Will The Circle Be Unbroken (2:24) 1970
(Ada Ruth Haberson-Charles H. Gabriel) (Peer Music International)

''Night Train To Memphis'' is a 1946 American action film directed by Lesley Selander and written by Dorrell McGowan and Stuart E. McGowan. The film stars Roy Acuff, Allan Lane, Adele Mara, Irving Bacon, Joseph Crehan and Emma Dunn. The film was released on July 12, 1946, by Republic Pictures. The song was a major hit for Roy Acuff in 1942 and led to his appearance in a 1944 movie bearing the song's title. Jerry Lee Lewis' version, it shares with this track an almost eerie understated passion. Jerry's vocal is disarmingly laid back, yet the music just seethes with tension.

26 - Night Train To Memphis (2:10) 1970
(Beasley Smith-Marvin Hughes-Owen Bradley) (Roy Acuff Music)

Charlie Rich took control of this side as both pianist and composer. Jerry's reading is fine, but Rich has contributed a very strange piece of material, attempting to 'Cash in' on the success of "Don't Take Your Guns To Town". Johnny Cash's gunfighter ballad had a poignant, almost mythical quality: a wannabe tough kid rides off into town, takes on some anonymous cowpoke and, it turns out, fools with the wrong guy. He is pointlessly gunned down in an event that never should have happened. It would have made a fine, almost metaphysical western. Charlie Rich, speaking through Jerry Lee, says, "No, wait. It wasn't like that. It turns out that the young cowpoke really 'knew' the cowboy who shot him.

It was all over a girl named Mary Ann. It wasn't a senseless shootout in a tavern. It was pre meditated murder; or at least would have been if the young cowboy had been a faster draw". So Cash's fine piece of existential mythology is turned into a third rate crime of passion. It isn't Jerry Lee's fault that this doesn't work. He's given some pretty stilted dialogue to read, including one memorable howler of a line. After reviewing all the wrong this cowpoke has done him, Jerry concludes he had "to kill that little rat". It may rhyme with "Get away with that", but the line is better suited to James Cagney in a 1930s gangster movie, not a ballad of the old west.

Billboard gave SUN 324 a "pick Hit" but Jerry Lee's name was still poison in the marketplace. It would be a while before he enjoyed his next hit record.

27 - The Ballad Of Billy Joe (Master Sun 324) (2:58) 1959
(Charlie Rich) (Knox Music Incorporated)

28 - Sail Away (1) (2:25) 1974
29 - Sail Away (2) (2:26) 1975
(Charlie Rich) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Tape box information seems to indicate that this session was held on June 25, 26 and not May 25, 26 as had been previously indicated. Chatter also refers to "Russell" possibly indicating that Russ Smith was the drummer and not J.M. Van Eaton as logged. (See also Charlie Rich session May 25, 26, 1959).

This period witnessed a further collaboration with Charlie Rich, nothing of which saw the light of day until the 1970s. The most polished variant of ''Am I To Be The One'', when first issued on the Sun International LP ''A taste Of Country'', was attributed to Jerry Lee alone, causing no end of speculation about the identity of the other party heard singing. Just four years later, when anything with Rich's name on would be guaranteed to sell, the recordings of ''Sail Away'' were issued under the guise of both artists; and by no means unreasonably, given that to all intents and purposes this was the work of Rich with Lewis simply contributing a secondary vocal.

Had fate dictated otherwise, and Charlie's breakthrough in 1973 hit ''Behind Closed Doors'' been recorded and released prior to Lewis's own re-emergence in the country market in 1968, it's entirely possible that these duets would have been tagged by Shelby Singleton as products of a Charlie Rich session and not even associated directly with Lewis. The fact that Singleton saw fit to place one of them on a Lewis LP in 1970 has led to them being used subsequently as filler on any number of complications and explains their inclusion here; this despite the thought that Jerry Lee's own input is rather less interesting than what he bestowed upon a dozen or more recordings dating from his brief spell as a session musician in late 1956 and early 1957 which, for reasons stated in the introduction.

The reality is that ''Sail Away'' was cut as nothing more than a demo to enable Rich to pitch the song to Ray Smith who, recorded it on February 21, 1959, and saw it released as a single (Sun 319) on March 23, 1959; for Jerry Lee to be involved in something so mundane was surely symbolic of his fall from grace. And thus came to an end both the 1950s and his tenure at the studio on Union Avenue; not with a bang but a whimper. The scene of his greatest recording triumphs was about to pass into history as Sun Records entered the new decade with seemingly little idea of how to rehabilitate its fallen angel. For now, at least, paradise was far from being regained.

30 - Am I To Be The One (1) (1:44) 2015 Sun Unissued
31 - Am I To Be The One (2) (False Start & Take) (1:56) 1992
32 - Am I To Be The One (3) (3 False Starts) (1:08) 1983
33 - Am I To Be The One (4) (1:43) 1983
34 - Am I To Be The One (5) (1:42) 1970
(Otis Blackwell-R. Stevenson) (Carlin Music Incorporated)

20-34 Recorded June 25-26, 1959 at Sun Recording Studio, 706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Charlie Rich (vocal duet on 28-34 and piano on some tracks),
Roland Janes (guitar), Billy Riley (guitar), Russell Smith (drums), Leo Ladner (bass)
Producer - Ernie Barton

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 11 Contains 1960

"Mexicali Rose" is a popular song with music by Jack Tenney and lyrics by Helen Stone and published in 1923. The song is a love story of a man who must leave his love for a while. The song has become a pop standard, performed by many artists, including Bing Crosby and Jerry Lee Lewis.

While scratching around for potential hit material at a January 1960 Sun session, Jerry thought it would be a good idea to cut a version of Gene Autry’s ''Mexicali Rose'', splitting the tempo between slow for the 1st half and rocked-up for the 2nd half. Sam Phillips (probably rightly) remained unconvinced, but this is still wonderful music. The fast part (only) was issued on ''Rockin’ And Free'' in 1974, while the complete uncut performance (slow and fast) was released on the Zu-Zazz ''Keep Your Hand Off Of It''! album of early 1960s Sun outtakes in 1987. It was also in 1987 that Jerry attempted the song in the studio again, but unfortunately this time he recorded it without a band on a cheap (Casio?) keyboard; and even more unfortunately this was then overdubbed with some truly dreadful instrumentation. This was released on the mostly unlistenable ''At Hank Cochran’s'' CD in 1995 for those that really need to hear it, but it really is only for sad completists. Far better is the 2006 ''Last Man Standing'' download-only bonus cut. Rocked-up all the way, this live-in-the-studio performance with his road band would be a strong contender for the ultimate version if it wasn’t for the trembling & croaky vocals (sadly Jerry’s voice has usually sounded very ropey during the past few years, and I personally am of the opinion that his 70th birthday in September 2005 would’ve been a good time to hang up those rock and roll shoes).

1 - Mexicali Rose (1) (Chatter, Slate #1, False Start) (0:50) 1987
2 - Mexicali Rose (2) (Part 1) (1:59) 1987
3 - Mexicali Rose (3) (Chatter, Slate #2, Part 2)
(Jack Tenney-Helen Stone) (Universal MCA Music)

"In the Mood" is a big band era number 1 hit recorded by American bandleader Glenn Miller. Joe Garland and Andy Razaf arranged "In The Mood" in 1937-1939 using a previously existing main theme composed by Glenn Miller before the start of the 1930s. Miller's "In The Mood" did not top the charts until 1940 and one year later was featured in the movie Sun Valley Serenade.

''In The Mood" opens with a now-famous sax section theme based on repeated arpeggios that are rhythmically displaced; trumpets and trombones add accent riffs. The arrangement has two solo sections; a "tenor fight" solo, in the most famous recording, between Tex Beneke and Al Klink, and a 16-bar trumpet solo. The arrangement is also famous for its ending: a coda that climbs triumphantly, then sounds a simple sustained unison tonic pitch with a rim shot.

"In The Mood" was arranged by Joe Garland and Andy Razaf based on a per-existing melody. The main theme, featuring repeated arpeggios rhythmically displaced, previously appeared under the title of "Tar Paper Stomp" credited to jazz trumpeter/bandleader Wingy Manone. Manone recorded "Tar Paper Stomp" which did not become popular until the middle of 1930, just months before Horace Henderson used the same tune in "Hot and Anxious", recorded by his brother's band, The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, on 1931 March 19.

Under copyright rules of the day, a tune that had not been written down and registered with the copyright office could be appropriated by any musician with a good ear. A story says that after "In the Mood" became a hit, Manone was paid by Miller and his record company not to contest the copyright.

The original recording of Joe Garland's version was made by Edgar Hayes and his Orchestra in 1938, with Garland participating. In this recording there was a baritone sax duet rather than a tenor sax battle. Popular thought is that the melody had already become popular with Harlem bands (e.g. at the Savoy Ballroom) before being written down by Joe Garland. Before offering it to Glenn Miller, Garland sold the tune to Artie Shaw, who could not record it because the original arrangement was too long. The Hayes recording also bears signs of being a shortened arrangement. The tune was finally sold to Glenn Miller, who played around with its arrangement for a while. Although the arrangers of most of the Miller tunes are known, things are a bit uncertain for "In The Mood". It is often thought that Eddie Durham (who contributed other arrangements on the recording date of "In The Mood", August 1, 1939 as well), John Chalmers McGregor (Miller's pianist) and Miller himself contributed most to the final version.

Glenn Miller's "In the Mood", though undisputably a hit, represents an anomaly for chart purists. "In the Mood" was released in the period immediately prior to the inception of retail sales charts in Billboard magazine. While it led the Record Buying Guide (jukebox list) for 13 weeks and stayed on the Billboard charts for 30 weeks, it never made the top 15 on the sheet music charts, which were considered by many to be the true measure of popular song success. The popular Your Hit Parade program ranked the song no higher than ninth place, for one week only (1940).

The Glenn Miller 1939 recording on RCA Bluebird, B-10416-A, was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1983. The recording by Glenn Miller is one of the most recognized and most popular instrumentals of the 20th century. The song even appeared in The Beatles "All You Need is Love" number 1 single in 1967 and in the Jive Bunny and the Mastermixers rendition in 1989, "Swing The Mood", a worldwide hit. The Glenn Miller RCA Bluebird recording was released as V-Disc 123B in February 1944 and a new version was released as V-Disc 842B in May 1948 by Glenn Miller and the Overseas Band by the U.S. War Department. 1939 sheet music cover, "Introduced by Glenn Miller", Shapiro, Bernstein, and Co., New York.

Notable artists who have recorded big-band versions of "In The Mood" include the Joe Loss Orchestra, Xavier Cugat, Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Lubo D'Orio, the Brian Setzer Orchestra, The Shadows and John Williams with the Boston Pops Orchestra.

Non-big-band renditions were recorded by the Andrews Sisters, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chet Atkins, Bill Haley & His Comets, Bad Manners, the Puppini Sisters. In addition, in 1959 Ernie Fields and his Orchestra peaked at number 4 on the pop chart and number 7 on the Rhythm & Blues charts. The song charted at number 16 in 1953 in a version by Johnny Maddox. Jonathan King scored a UK Top 50 hit with his version of the song in 1976. Bette Midler recorded the song in 1973 (on the album Bette Midler). The avant-garde synthpop act Art of Noise occasionally performed a rendition of the song on their live shows, in their trademark sampled style. The rock band Chicago added their version in 1995. An unusual version of the song was released on Maynard Ferguson's 'Lost Tapes Volume 2' album. The first 30 seconds are the traditional version, but the band then re-starts with the trumpets taking the lead.

A novelty version of the song was recorded by country/novelty artist Ray Stevens in 1977. Stevens' version consisted of him performing the song in chicken clucks, bar-for-bar. The performance was credited to the "Henhouse Five Plus Two". The single was a Top-40 hit in both America and the UK.

In 1951 a Ferranti Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester played "In the Mood", one of the first songs to be played by a computer, and the oldest known recording of digitally generated music. Jive Bunny and the Mastermixers recorded a version of the song as part of a medley entitled "Swing the Mood" which went number 1 in the United Kingdom for 5 weeks. The record reached number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States where it also went gold. It was the 2nd best-selling single of 1989 in the United Kingdom.

Bluesman John Lee Hooker has said that "In The Mood" was the inspiration for "I'm In The Mood" which became a number 1 hit on the Rhythm & Blues Singles chart.

In one of the worst kept secrets in music business history, Jerry Lee Lewis had these instrumental sides released under the pseudonym ''The Hawk''. Supposedly, all of Jerry's problems with the musicians union (AFM) and the marketplace would go away if his identity were masked. The name was suggested by Sun's new general manager Bill Fitzgerald in a desperate attempt to kickstart Jerry's sagging career. There was certainly nothing wrong with these side, although their effect on the marketplace was considerably short of spectacular.

Note: The Jerry Lee Lewis fan club asked its members to plug ''The Hawk'' and gave each of them a free membership card for a new fan club. Sam's ingenuity failed to do the trick; Jerry was immediately identified, and the record sold poorly. The AFN ban was eventually lifted after Jerry reached a settlement with the Union in January 1961.

4 - In The Mood (1) (Chatter & Take) (2:31) 1987
5 - Studio Chatter (0:32) 1989
6 - In The Mood (2) (Master PI 3559) (2:22) 1960
(Andy Razaf-Joe Garland) (Louis Music-Shapiro Bernstein Music)

In an attempt to get Jerry some much-needed air-play, Sam Phillips in 1960 came up with the idea of releasing an instrumental single by Jerry under the name ‘The Hawk’, releasing it on the Phillips International label. The ruse failed miserably, but ‘I Get The Blues When It Rains’ was the B-side of the single (the A-side was the old Glen Miller hit ‘In The Mood’). A vocal version (albeit with a long instrumental passage) was finally recorded for the ''Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Volume 2'' album in 1969.

''I Get The Blues When It Rain'' (a 1929 hit for Guy Lombardo and others), is done in a style not normally associated with Jerry Lee. It's got an old-timey, Del Wood feel with barely a dollop of blues or rock and roll. Nevertheless, Jerry must have liked the song because he recorded a vocal version about a decade later for Mercury.

7 - I Get The Blues When It Rains (1) (Chatter & Take) (1:12) 1987
8 - I Get The Blues When It Rains (2) (False Start & Master PI 3559) (2:19) 1960
(Marcy Klauber-Harry Stoddard) (Foster Music)

''Don't Drop'' was written by Terry Fell, born on May 31, 1921, Dora, Alabama. Although Terry Fell's name appears only once in the Billboard country charts, he staked his claim to fame by being not only the writer of "Truck Driving Man" but also the original recorder of the song. In 1930, he swapped his pet groundhog for a guitar, although it was to be three years before anyone showed him how to play it, or the mandolin that he also acquired. At 16, he hitch-hiked his way to California, spending some time with the Civilian Conservation Corps. He eventually returned home but he and his widowed mother finally relocated to the Los Angeles area. In 1943, while working for Tru-Flex tyres, he began to play bass with Merle Lindsey's Nightriders.

Around 1945, he joined Billy Hughes, made his first recordings for Fargo and began to write songs for the American Music Company. In 1954, after further recordings for Memo, Courtney and 4-Star, he joined RCA Victor Records, making his first recordings on their subsidiary "X" label. "Truck Driving Man" appeared as the B-side of his first "X" single, in April 1954. The A-side, "Don't Drop It", became a number 4 country chart hit (his only one) and although "Truck Driving Man" failed to chart for Fell, it went on to become a country standard. It has since been charted by both George Hamilton IV and Red Steagall (as late as 1976!) and recorded by countless other artists, including Buck Owens, who was managed by Fell early in his career.

''Don't Drop It" also spawned its share of covers, both for the country and the pop markets, including versions by Wilbert Harrison (Savoy) and some great versions for Jerry Lee Lewis (Sun). Fell made further recordings and worked as an artist for a few years, until the lack of further hits and throat problems saw him lose interest in performing. In 1962, he relocated to Nashville, where he wrote songs and worked for several publishing companies, until he eventually retired. In 1993, Bear Family Records issued a CD containing all 24 of his RCA masters, two previously unissued. Fell also co-wrote "You're The Reason", a US country and pop Top 12 hit for Bobby Edwards in 1961, also recorded by Hank Locklin and Joe South (and many others since then). Terry Fell died on April 4, 2007 in Madison, Tennessee.

9 - Don't Drop It (1) (Chatter, Slate, Take 1) (2:13) 1989
10 - Don't Drop It (2) (Chatter & Take) (2:33) 1988
(Terry Fell) (Sun Entertainment)

The Great Speckled Bird" is a Southern hymn whose lyrics were written by the Reverend Guy Smith. It is an allegory referencing Fundamentalist self-perception during the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy. The song is in the form of AABA and has a 12 bar count. It is based on Jeremiah 12:9, "Mine heritage is unto me as a speckled bird, the birds round about are against her; come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, come to devour''. It was recorded in 1936 by Roy Acuff. It was also later recorded by Johnny Cash and Kitty Wells (both in 1959), Hank Locklin (1962), Lucinda Williams (1978), Bert Southwood (1990), Marion Williams, and Jerry Lee Lewis.

The tune is the same apparently traditional melody used in the folk song "I Am Thinking Tonight Of My Blue Eyes'', originally recorded in the 1920s. The same melody was later used in the 1952 country hit "The Wild Side Of Life'', sung by Hank Thompson, and the even more successful "answer song" performed by Kitty Wells called "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky-Tonk Angels''. A notable instrumental version is found on the Grammy Award-Nominated album 20th Century Gospel by Nokie Edwards and The Light Crust Doughboys on Greenhaw Records.

The connection between these songs is noted in the David Allan Coe song "If That Ain't Country" that ends with the lyrics "I'm thinking tonight of my blue eyes/ And finding the great speckled bird/ I didn't know God made honky-tonk angels/ and went back to the wild side of life''. Both the song "The Great Speckled Bird" and the passage from Jeremiah may be a poetic description of mobbing behavior.

11 - Great Speckled Bird (1) (Slate #1 & 5 False Starts) (0:53) 1989
12 - Great Speckled Bird (2) (Take 1) (2:06) 1988
13 - Great Speckled Bird (3) (Chatter & Take) (1:44) 1988
(Reverend Guy Smith) (Duchess Music)

''Bonnie B'' comes from this session, and is one of Jerry’s best teen slanted songs. Composer Charles Underwood, the husband of Bonnie Beatrice Underwood, provides outwardly a lyrical teenage love song, full of praise for Bonnie’s turned-up nose. But the lyrics say ''We’re too young, we've got a long time to wait / But Bonnie baby that don’t mean hesitate / ’bout lovin’ me''.

Sounds about right for Jerry, but pretty risqué for the time. The song has a lovely rolling tempo, and if there were any justice it would have been a big hit when issued in the United States in November 21, 1961, as the flip-side to ''Money'' (not issued in Britain).

According to April Underwood, daughter of Charlie Underwood, ''Dewey was destined to become a legendary disc jockey bridging black and white audiences with their music the first to put an Elvis record on the air '' That's All Right'' and on a more intimate note; the best man and financier to my parent's wedding. Elvis was destined to become well, "Elvis the Legend", a voice no other will ever match, and ''a Godinspired man of great faith"; often this part people forget about. And my parents well, they made everyday their "play-day" to birth their dreams: From humble Tennessee beginnings with my dad at the forefront of Sun Records as artist's and repertoire director, writing hit songs like "Bonnie B" (about my mom Beatrice) for Jerry Lee Lewis, as well as many more songs for Elvis and Charlie Rich, and befriending and working with the likes of Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, and so many more, to my mom's childhood belief she could clearly see the "Hollywood Sign'' in the flat-lands of Tennessee, cut to, my parents packing all their dreams in a car with no starter and playing poker to finance their way across the U.S. to California to (unbeknownst to them at that time) build a recording studio called "Nashville West" at the site of the legendary Decca Records (where Bing Crosby formerly recorded White Christmas), right next door to the legendary Paramount Studio's entrance, all to unleash those dreams''.

What better antidote for your aching ears than the sweet rolling tempo of ''Bonnie B''. This side remains one of the most enjoyable items in Jerry's Sun catalogue. Its lovely feel is established during the 6 bar intro when Jerry offers a barrelhouse right hand chord against some two string guitar work neatly lifted from Bill Doggett's ''Honky Tonk''. The mixture works well and is repeated during the piano solo. If you listen closely, you'll find a clear case for unconscious plagiarism here between sweet Miz Bonnie and Melvin Endsley's classic ''Singing The Blues''. It's hard to guess composer Charles Underwood's lyrical intent here. What is the song really telling us? After extolling the virtues of sweet young Bonnie (Underwood's future wife, by the way), Jerry makes it clear that just because she's underage doesn't mean she ought to hesitate about satisfying his lust. Was this what radio programmers needed to hear with the memory of the childbride scandal not so distant?

14 - Bonnie B (1) (Chatter, Slate, Take 1) (2:42) 1987
15 - Studio Chatter #1 & Slate #1-Channel B (0:24) 1987
16 - Bonnie B (2) (Take 1 Channel B) (2:31) 1987
17 - Studio Chatter #2 & Slate #2-Channel B (0:26) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Bonnie B (3) (Take 2 Channel B) (2:29) 1989
19 - Bonnie B (4) (Chatter, Slate, Take 3 Channel B) (2:37) 1988
20 - Studio Chatter #3 (0:21) 2015 Sun Unissued
21 - Bonnie B (5) (Master Sun 371) (2:22) 1961
22 - Bonnie B (6) (Fragment) (0:49) 2015 Sun Unissued
23 - Bonnie B (7) (Chatter & Take) (2:35) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Charles Underwood) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

The recordings of ''As Long As I Live'' fall into two distinct groups. The first seven possess that residual stamp of the ''Bonnie B'' arrangement, whereas the remainder evince a contrasting tone which indicates they may well have been cut on another day of the extended session. Within each group, there is sufficient variation bot in Lewis's singing and, more so, in the solos to tell each take apart with relative ease; Jerry Lee is in his element performing ad-lib licks on the keyboard while, on occasions, he either quite deliberately mixes things up lyrically or even loses his way altogether. For example, notice how in the first four takes the second line following the solo is delivered variously as ''I gotta set your lips on fire'', ''I want to set your lips on fire'', ''I want to feel your lips of fire'' and ''honey, I've got to feel your lips of fire'', while take 3 ends prematurely when Jerry Lee fails to repeat the last line. In take 5 we become aware of a further change in lyrical content; the song now concludes not with the boast ''I'm gonna make this whole world yours and mine'' but instead settles for the rather more passive ''I want to be your one desire''. In the second verse of take 6 Jerry Lee strays off the lyric altogether when singing ''you do something to me''; to all intents and purposes this renders the track a ''dud'' but along the way there's still much to admire. As matters progress, with Sam sounding suitably impressed, the remaining wrinkles are ironed out and take 7 faithfully repeats the efficacious formula of its immediate predecessor but with Jerry Lee now having mastered the lyric.

There were few complaints from diehard Jerry Lee fans about this side, however. ''As Long As I Live'' was written by former Memphis rockabilly Dorsey Burnette. It is an energetic performance on all counts in the 1-6-2-5 gospel progression. Instrumentally, the record really soars, with Jerry's piano and Jimmy Van Eaton's drumming pushing each other to greater heights. Van Eaton's crisp work on the closed hi-hat during the final verse is a moment to treasure.

The second suite of just two complete recordings of ''As Long As I Live'', prefaced both by Sam's confusion and a false start, sees a return to the more dramatic lyric hinting at megalomania, albeit Jerry Lee fluffs the first attempt. The plan all comes together with the accomplished final take that was eventually mastered for a 1961 release.

24 - As Long As I Live (1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:30) 2015 Sun Unissued
25 - As Long As I Live (2) (Slate & Take 2) (2:34) 1989
26 - As Long As I Live (3) (Slate, False Start, Take 3) (2:32) 2015 Sun Unissued
27 - As Long As I Live (4) (Chatter, Slate, Take 4) (2:39) 2015 Sun Unissued
28 - As Long As I Live (5) (Slate #5 & False Start) (0:26) 2015 Sun Unissued
29 - As Long As I Live (6) (Slate & Take 5) (2:34) 2015 Sun Unissued
30 - As Long As I Live (7) (Chatter, Slate, Take 6) (2:44) 1987
31 - As Long As I Live (8) (Chatter, Slate (Wrongly 6), Take 7) (2:37) 1989
32 - As Long As I Live (9) (Slate #1-track B & 3 False Starts) (2:02) 1988
33 - As Long As I Live (10) (Take 1 Track B) (2:30) 1988
34 - As Long As I Live (11) (Slate, False Start, Master Take 3 Track B) (2:40) 1961 Sun 367
(Dorsey Burnette) (Corel Music)

"I Can't Help It (If I'm Still in Love with You)" is a song, of course, written and originally recorded by Hank Williams on MGM Records. It hit number two on the Billboard country singles chart in 1951. According to Colin Escott's 2004 book ''Hank Williams: The Biography'', fiddler Jerry Rivers always claimed that Hank wrote the song in the touring Sedan, and when he came up with the opening line, "Today I passed you on the street'', and then asked for suggestions, steel guitarist Don Helms replied, "And I smelled your rotten feet''. The song was recorded at Castle Studio in Nashville, Tennessee, on March 16, 1951, the same session that yielded "Hey Good Lookin'", "My Heart Would Know", and "Howlin' At The Moon". Williams was backed on the session by members of his Drifting Cowboys band, including Jerry Rivers, Don Helms, Sammy Pruett (electric guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), Ernie Newton or "Cedric Rainwater", aka Howard Watts (bass), and either Owen Bradley or producer Fred Rose on piano. It was released as the B-side of "Howlin' At The Moon" but on the strength of its simple language and passionate singing, soared to number two on the Billboard country singles chart. Hank Williams sang the song with Anita Carter on the Kate Smith Evening Hour on April 23, 1952. The rare television appearance is one of the few film clips of Williams in performance.

Other significant recordings are by Ray Price cut the song on Columbia in 1957; Ricky Nelson recorded a version for Imperial in 1958; Kitty Wells recorded it for Decca; Marty Robbins covered the song for Columbia in 1961; Tennessee Ernie Ford cut the song in 1961; George Jones included the song on his 1960 album ''George Jones Salutes Hank Williams''. In his autobiography, Jones printed the first six lines of the song and stated, "Its lyrics couldn't be more simple, or profound''; Sun Records released an recording version by Johnny Cash for his 1960 album ''Sings Hank Williams''; Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a version for Sun Records, with characteristic bravado, he changed it to "You Can't Help It (If You're Still In Love With Me)''; Patsy Cline cut the song for Decca; Burl Ives recorded the tune for Decca, and Ferlin Husky recorded it in 1961.

In 1962, Connie Stevens recorded ''I Can't Help It'' for the 1962 album ''The Hank Williams Songbook'', and the son of Williams Sr., Hank Williams Jr. recorded it for his 1963 album LP ''Sings The Songs Ff Hank Williams''; Charlie Rich covered the song in 1963; Dean Martin cut the song for Reprise; Eddy Arnold recorded the song in 1964; Marty Robbins included it on his 1968 LP ''I Walk Alone''; Ernest Tubb covered the song in 1968; Stonewall Jackson recorded the song for Columbia in 1969; ''I Can't Help It'' appears on Roy Orbison's 1970 LP ''Hank Williams The Roy Orbison Way''; Glen Campbell recorded it for his 1973 album ''I Remember Hank Williams''; Linda Ronstadt and Emmylou Harris covered the song in 1974, and the song is featured on the reissue of Willie Nelson's 1975 LP ''Red Headed Stranger'' album as a bonus track. Charlie McCoy recorded it as an instrumental in 1977; Charlie Pride recorded it on his 1980 tribute ''There's A Little Bit Of Hank In Me'' with Loretta in a duet. Conway Twitty recorded ''I Can't Help It'' and was released as flip-side of the 1993 single "Divine Hammer''.

35 - I Can't Help It (You Can't Help It) (2.1) (Slate & Take 1 Channel B) (2:04) 2015 Sun Unissued
36 - I Can't Help It (You Can't Help It) (2.2) (Slate & Take 2) (2:03) 1987
37 - I Can't Help It (You Can't Help It) (2.3) (Slate #3 & 3 False Starts) (1:29) 1989
38 - I Can't Help It (You Can't Help It) (2.4) (Take 3) (1:51) 1988
39 - Studio Chatter & Slate #4 (0:29) 2015 Sun Unissued
40 - I Can't Help It (You Can't Help It) (2.5) (Take 4) (1:56) 1989
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

"Your Cheatin' Heart" is a song written and recorded by country music singer and songwriter Hank Williams in 1952, regarded as one of country's most important standards. Country music historian Colin Escott writes that "the song, for all intents and purposes, defines country music''. He was inspired to write the song while driving with his fianceé from Nashville, Tennessee to Shreveport, Louisiana. After describing his first wife Audrey Sheppard as a "Cheatin' Heart", he dictated in minutes the lyrics to Billie Jean Jones. Produced by Fred Rose, Williams recorded the song on his last session at Castle Records in Nashville, Tennessee, on September 23, 1952.

"Your Cheatin' Heart" was released in January 1953. Propelled by Williams' recent death during a trip to a New Year's concert in Canton, Ohio, the song became an instant success. It topped Billboard's Country and Western chart for six weeks, while over a million units were sold. The success of the song continued. Joni James' version reached number two on Billboard's Most Played in Jukeboxes the same year, while Ray Charles' 1962 version reached number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100 and 13 on the UK Singles Chart. The song ranked at 217 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, and was ranked number 5 on Country Music Television's 100 Greatest Songs in Country Music.

By 1952, Williams was enjoying a successful streak, releasing multiple hits, including "Honky Tonk Blues", "Half As Much", "Settin' The Woods On Fire", "Jambalaya (On the Bayou)" and "You Win Again". While his career was soaring, his marriage to Audrey Sheppard became turbulent. He developed serious problems with alcohol, morphine and painkillers prescribed to ease his severe back pain caused by spina bifida. The couple divorced on May 29, and Williams moved in with his mother. Soon after, Williams met Billie Jean Jones backstage at the Ryman Auditorium, a native of Shreveport, Louisiana, who was, at the time, dating Faron Young. Williams started dating Jones, upon the end of her relationship with Young and soon began to plan their marriage. While driving from Nashville, Tennessee to Shreveport to announce the wedding to her parents, Williams talked to her about his previous marriage and described Audrey Sheppard as a "cheatin' heart", adding that one day she would "have to pay". Inspired by his line, he instructed Jones to take his notebook and write down the lyrics of the song that he quickly dictated to her. The finished composition included the line "You'll walk the floor, the way I do", which evoked Ernest Tubb's hit "Walking The Floor Over You".

Williams recorded the song on September 23 at the Castle Studios in Nashville. The session, which became Williams' last, also produced the A-side "Kaw-Liga", as well as the songs "I Could Never Be Ashamed of You" and "Take These Chains From My Heart". It was produced by Williams' publisher Fred Rose, who made minor arrangements of the lyrics of "Your Cheatin' Heart". Williams described the song to his friend, Braxton Schuffert, as he was about to play it, as "the best heart song (he) ever wrote". Williams is backed on the session by Tommy Jackson (fiddle), Don Helms (steel guitar), Chet Atkins (lead guitar), Jack Shook (rhythm guitar), and Floyd "Lightnin'" Chance (bass).

While traveling to a scheduled New Year's show in Canton, Ohio, the driver found Williams dead on the backseat of the car during a stop in Oak Hill, West Virginia. "Your Cheatin' Heart" was released at the end of January 1953. Propelled by Williams' death, the song and the A-side "Kaw-Liga" became a hit, selling over a million records. Billboard initially described the songs as "superlative tunes and performances", emphasizing the sales potential. Within a short time from its release, the song reached number one on Billboard's Top Country and Western Records, where it remained for six weeks. A demo version of Williams singing "Your Cheatin' Heart" with just his guitar, likely recorded in 1951, is also available.

Released in the wake of his passing, the song became synonymous with the myth of Hank Williams as a haunted, lonely figure who expressed pain with an authenticity that became the standard for country music. The name of the song was used as the title of Hank Williams' 1964 biopic. "Your Cheatin' Heart", as well as other songs by Williams were performed on the movie, with George Hamilton dubbing the soundtrack album recorded by Williams' son, Hank Williams, Jr. In the 2003 documentary series ''Lost Highway'', country music historian Ronnie Pugh comments, "It's Hank's anthem, it's his musical last will and testament. It's searing, it's powerful, it's gripping. If you want to say this is his last and best work, I wouldn't argue with that''. AllMusic described the track as the "signature song" of Hank Williams, and an "unofficial anthem" of country music. Rolling Stone magazine called it "one of the greatest country standards of all time", ranking it at number 217 on their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song ranked at number 5 in Country Music Television's 100 Greatest Songs in Country Music in 2003, Two Pepsi Super Bowl commercials featured the song, one aired during Super Bowl XXX, featured Williams' recording while a Coca-Cola deliveryman grabbed a Pepsi. The second one, aired during Super Bowl XLVI, featured the same situation, but with the song covered by Jennifer Nettles of Sugarland. The song forms the title of the 1990 TV drama 'Your Cheatin' Heart' by John Byrne.

Other significant recordings are, February, 1953 by Hank Williams (MGM 11416); February, 1953 by Joni James; September, 1958 by George Hamilton IV (ABC Paramount 9946); March, 1959 by Billy Vaughn, an instrumental (Dot 15936); November, 1962 by Ray Charles (ABC Paramount 10375); 1965 Elvis Presley for his LP ''Elvis For Everyone'' (RCA Victor LSP-3450).

41 - Your Cheatin' Heart (2) (1:47) 1987
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

1-41 Recorded January 21-25, 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal except 6-8 and piano), Roland Janes (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Leo Ladner or Jay W. Brown (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 12 Contains 1960

Contrary to the experience with ''As Long As I Live'', successive takes of ''Baby Baby Bye Bye'' offer little in the way of variation and they offer no real sense of progress as can be perceived in the case of, for example, ''Break Up''. At times, Jerry Lee himself sounds increasingly distracted, even bored by the process, seemingly being unable to find any scope within the format of the song to impress his own personality on the exercise. Were it not for Sam Phillips identifying most of the nine takes by their sequential numbers it might have been easy to dismiss a particular selection as a duplicate tape of another, but on close inspection there are a number of distinguishing characteristics.

The first take stands out by virtue of a rather more aggressive sounding piano solo, opening with rapid fire repeat strikes of the same chords. Thereafter, even though the opening passage of each solo keeps to much the same formula, there are a number of variable fills in the second half of each; the more critical listener might even point to some ''duff'' notes here and there. Takes 5, 6 and 10 all exhibit the one noticeable twist in the lyric, when Jerry Lee declares that he'll love the object of his affection ''till the day I die'' rather than simply the staccato ''till - I - die''. The latter part of take 5 also features a gratuitous ''goodbye honey'' casually delivered towards the fade out that isn't heard elsewhere. On Sam's instruction, take 10 is performed at a much slower pace and both this and the final take, here made available for the first time without the overdubbed addition of the Gene Lowery Singers as heard on the issued master, are the easiest to tell apart from the mass of similar sounding recordings that precede them.

'Baby, Baby Bye Bye'', musically are from high points in Jerry's recorded career for Sun. Aside from the embalming job by the omnipresent Gene Lowery Chorus, swamp echo from the new studio again cut a swath through most everything. Even Jerry's performance seems lackluster on ''Baby, Baby Bye Bye'', a fairly catchy tune that might have caught some attention had Jerry's name not still been box office poison. Ironically, the one place in the world it charted was England, where it reached on the chart in June 1960 number 48 for one week ( London Records HLS 9131). The song got its last shot in October 1960 when Wanda Jackson recorded it for an album.

Jerry Lee's recording was reissued in 1969 as a 7'' 45 single as Sun 42 as part of the Sun Golden Treasure Series. The song was also released as 45 single in Australia, New Zealand, France, and Japan.

1 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:04) 1989
2 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (2) (Slate & Take 2) (2:04) 2015 Sun Unissued
3 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (3) (Chatter, Slate, Take 3) (2:10) 1988
4 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (4) (Chatter, Slate, Take 4 Channel B) (2:08) 2015 Sun Unissued
5 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (5) (Unfinished) (1:52) 2015 Sun Unissued
6 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (6) (Chatter, Slate, Take 6) (2:14) 2015 Sun Unissued
7 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (7) (Chatter & Take) (2:07) 2015 Sun Unissued
8 - Studio Chatter #1 & Slate #8 Track B (0:36) 1987
9 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (8) (Take 8 Track B) (1:59) 1987
10 - Studio Chatter #2 & Slate #9-Track B-Take 2) (0:28) 2015 Sun Unissued
11 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (9) (Take 9-Track B-Take 2) (2:02) 2015 Sun Unissued
12 - Studio Chatter #3 & Slate #10 (0:24) 2015 Sun Unissued
13 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (10) (Take 10 Unfinished) (1:57) 1992
14 - Studio Chatter #4 & Slate #11 (0:24) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (1.1) (Undubbed Master Take 11) (2:03) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Hughie Piano Smith-Daniel White) (Knox Music Incorporated)

The real highlights of these sessions involved Jerry Lee again casually dipping into the distant past, putting in the shade all the hard work in trying to make something creditable out of the two pop songs, ''Bonnie B'' and ''Baby Baby Bye Bye'' scripted for the occasion. Although ''Old Black Joe'' had no more chance of achieving a chart placing than the overtly commercial side of the 45 when paired ''Baby Baby Bye Bye'', many Lewis fans rate it as one of his finest pieces of work at Sun. It is fair to say, however, that it's not universally admired given the origins of the song and its association with the minstrel show tradition. Whatever one's perspective, the recording is a timeless demonstration both of the subtle power of Lewis's playing and his skill at reinventing material from across the musical spectrum. Irrespective of the intent of writer Stephen Foster in the 1850s, a century later Lewis surely displays a degree ob innocence in an interpretation that transcends political incorrectness; this is the rebirth of the song as an elegiac African American spiritual. Emulating the approach taken with ''Night Train To Memphis'', all Jerry Lee reproduces of Foster's ''Old Black Joe'' is a limited, in this instance inaccurate, recollection of the first verse and then the refrain, thereafter simply repeating the latter. In anyone else's hands that sort of technique, or lack of, sounds like a recipe for a potentially pointless, even calamitous, couple of minutes; in defying such logic Jerry Lee conceives a minor classic.

Old Black Joe" is a parlor song by Stephen Foster (1826-1864). It was published by Firth, Pond & Co. of New York in 1853. Ken Emerson, author of Doo-Dah!, indicates that Foster's fictional Joe was inspired by a servant in the home of his father-in-law, Dr. McDowell of Pittsburgh. The song is not written in dialect, Emerson writes, "yet the bluntness of Joe's blackness and his docility reduce Old Black Joe to the status of Old Dog Tray rather than its owner, to simply another white man's possession prized solely for its loyalty''. He believes the song "epitomizes Foster's racial condescension" but W. E. B. Dubois points to the song as a piece standing apart from the debasing minstrel and "coon" songs of the era. Emerson believes that the song's "soft melancholy" and its "elusive undertone" (rather than anything musical), brings the song closest to the traditional African American spiritual. Harold Vincent Milligan describes the song as "one of the best of the Ethiopian songs ... its mood is one of gentle melancholy, of sorrow without bitterness. There is a wistful tenderness in the music''.

Jim Kweskin covered the song on his 1971 album Jim Kweskin's America. Roy Harris made a choral adaptation of the song, Old Black Joe, A Free Paraphrase for full chorus of mixed voices a capella (1938).

The devastation to Jerry's career was far from over when he recorded this side effort in January 1960. He was reduced to playing the sort of low rent gig he would have laughed at just two years earlier. During this otherwise bleak period, he played his share of southern fraternity puke-outs and duke-outs. ''Old Black Joe'' probably went down well at those gigs. It was a Stephen Foster song, in fact Foster's only ''drakie'' song not in patois, and it was a servant in his wife-to-be's household. Jerry recorded it exactly one hundred years after Foster had written it, and it came out just as many in the South were wondering where the Old Black Joes had gone. Southern sales were probably quite respectable, but it utterly stiffed in the North. Sam Phillips' consolation lay in the fact that the song was in the public domain, allowing him to copyright Jerry Lee's arrangement.

16 - Old Black Joe (1) (Slate, Take 1, Chatter) (2:17) 2015 Sun Unissued
17 - Old Black Joe (2) (Slate #2 & False Start) (0:32) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Old Black Joe (3) (Take 2) (1:58) 1987
19 - Old Black Joe (4) (Slate & Undubbed Master Take 3) (2:13) 1989
20 - Old Black Joe (5) (Slate & Take 1 Track B) (2:27) 1988
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Stephen Foster) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

The escapades on this session also informed Jerry Lee's re-working of ''Hound Dog'', now sounding far more true to Big Mama Thornton's original than the version dating from early 1958 when he had covered several Elvis Presley hits looking for potential album tracks.

"Hound Dog" is a twelve-bar blues song by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. It was recorded by Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton on August 13, 1952 in Los Angeles and released by Peacock Records in March 1953. "Hound Dog" was Thornton's only hit record, spending 14 weeks in the Rhythm and Blues charts, including seven weeks at number 1. Thornton's recording of "Hound Dog" is listed as one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll", and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in February 2013.

"Hound Dog" has been recorded more than 250 times. The best-known version of "Hound Dog" is the July 2, 1956 recording by Elvis Presley, which is ranked number 19 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the ''500 Greatest Songs of All Time''; it is also one of the best-selling singles of all time. Presley's version, which sold about more than 10 million copies globally, was his best-selling song and "an emblem of the rock and roll revolution. It was simultaneously number 1 on the United States pop, country, and Rhythm and Blues charts in 1956, and it topped the pop chart for 11 weeks - a record that stood for 36 years. Presley's 1956 (RCA 20/47-6604) recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1988.

"Hound Dog" has been at the center of many lawsuits, including disputes over authorship, royalties, and copyright infringement by the many answer songs released by such artists as Rufus Thomas and Roy Brown. From the 1970s onward, the song has been featured in numerous films, in ''Grease'', ''Forrest Gump'', ''Lilo and Stitch'', ''A Few Good Men'', ''Hounddog'', ''Indiana Jones'', ''The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'', and ''Nowhere Boy''.

On August 12, 1952, rhythm and blues bandleader Johnny Otis asked 19-year-old songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller to his home to meet blues singer Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton. Thornton had been signed by Don Robey's Houston-based Peacock Records the year before, and after two failed singles, Robey had enlisted Otis to reverse her fortunes. After hearing Thornton rehearse several songs, Leiber and Stoller "forged a tune to suit her personality, brusque and badass". In an interview in Rolling Stone in April 1990, Stoller said: "She was a wonderful blues singer, with a great moaning style. But it was as much her appearance as her blues style that influenced the writing of ''Hound Dog'' and the idea that we wanted her to growl it''. Leiber recalled: "We saw Big Mama and she knocked me cold. She looked like the biggest, baddest, saltiest chick you would ever see. And she was mean, a ''lady bear'', as they used to call 'em. She must have been 350 pounds, and she had all these scars all over her face" conveying words which could not be sung. "But how to do it without actually saying it? And how to do it telling a story? I couldn't just have a song full of expletives''. In 1999, Leiber said, "I was trying to get something like the Furry Lewis phrase 'Dirty Mother Furya'. I was looking for something closer to that but I couldn't find it, because everything I went for was too coarse and would not have been playable on the air''. Using a "black slang expression referring to a man who sought a woman to take care of him", the song's opening line, "You ain't nothin' but a hound dog", was a euphemism, said Leiber. The song, a Southern blues lament, is "the tale of a woman throwing a gigolo out of her house and her life".

The song was written for a woman to sing in which she berates "her selfish, exploitative man", and in it she "expresses a woman's rejection of a man, the metaphorical dog in the title". According to Iain Thomas, "'Hound Dog' embodies the Thornton persona she had crafted as a comedienne prior to entering the music business" by parading "the classic puns, extended metaphors, and sexual double entendres so popular with the bawdy genre''. Rhythm and blues expert George A. Moonoogian concurs, calling it "a biting and scathing satire in the double-entendre genre" of 1950s rhythm and blues.

Leiber and Stoller wrote the song "Hound Dog" in 12 to 15 minutes, with Leiber scribbling the lyrics in pencil on ordinary paper and without musical notation in the car on the way to Stoller's apartment. Said Leiber, "Hound Dog'' took like twelve minutes. That's not a complicated piece of work. But the rhyme scheme was difficult. Also the metric structure of the music was not easy''. According to Leiber, as soon as they reached the parking lot and Stoller's 1937 Plymouth, "I was beating out a rhythm we called the 'buck dance' on the roof of the car. We got to Johnny Otis's house and Mike went right to the piano…didn't even bother to sit down. He had a cigarette in his mouth that was burning his left eye, and he started to play the song''.

Elvis Presley's 1956 version Larry Birnbaum described "Hound Dog" as "an emblem of the rock 'n' roll revolution". George Plasketes argues that Elvis Presley's version of "Hound Dog" should not be considered a cover "since, most listeners, were innocent of Willie Mae Thornton's original 1953 release". Michael Coyle asserts that "Hound Dog", like almost all of Presley's "covers were all of material whose brief moment in the limelight was over, without the songs having become standards''. While, because of its popularity, Presley's recording "arguably usurped the original", Plasketes concludes: "anyone who's ever heard the Big Mama Thornton original would probably argue otherwise''.

Presley was aware of and appreciated Big Mama Thornton's original recording of "Hound Dog". Ron Smith, a schoolfriend of Presley's, says he remembers Elvis singing along to a version by Tommy Duncan (lead singer for the classic lineup of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys). According to another schoolmate, Elvis' favorite rhythm and blues song was "Bear Cat (the Answer to Hound Dog)" by Rufus Thomas, a hero of Presley's. Nevertheless, it was Freddie Bell and the Bellboys' performance of the song, with Bell's amended lyrics, that influenced Presley's decision to perform, and later record and release, his own version: "Elvis's version of ''Hound Dog'' (1956) came about, not as an attempt to cover Thornton's record, but as an imitation of a parody of her record performed by Freddie Bell and the Bellboys. ..The words, the tempo, and the arrangement of Elvis' ''Hound Dog'' come not from Thornton's version of the song, but from the Bellboys'''.

According to Rick Coleman, the Bellboys' version "featured Dave Bartholomew's three-beat Latin riff, which had been heard in Bill Haley's ''Shake, Rattle and Roll'''. Just as Haley had borrowed the riff from Bartholomew, Presley borrowed it from Bell and the Bellboys. The Latin riff form that was used in Presley's "Hound Dog" was known as "Habanera rhythm'', which is a Spanish and African-American musical beat form. After the release of "Hound Dog" by Elvis Presley, the Habanera rhythm gained much popularity in American popular music.

Presley's first appearance in Las Vegas, as an "extra added attraction", was in the Venus Room of the New Frontier Hotel and Casino from April 23 through May 6, 1956, but was reduced to one week "because of audience dissatisfaction, low attendance, and unsavory behavior by underage fans''. At that time, Freddie Bell and the Bellboys, who had been performing as a resident act in the Silver Queen Bar and Cocktail Lounge in the Sands Casino since 1952, were one of the hottest acts in town. Presley and his band decided to take in their show, and not only enjoyed the show, but also loved their reworking of "Hound Dog", which was a comedy-burlesque with show-stopping va-va-voom choreography. According to Paul W. Papa: "From the first time Elvis heard this song he was hooked. He went back over and over again until he learned the chords and lyrics''. Presley's guitarist Scotty Moore recalled: "When we heard them perform that night, we thought the song would be a good one for us to do as comic relief when we were on stage. We loved the way they did it''. When asked about "Hound Dog", Presley's drummer D. J. Fontana admitted: "We took that from a band we saw in Vegas, Freddie Bell and the Bellboys. They were doing the song kinda like that. We went out there every night to watch them. He'd say: 'Let's go watch that band. It's a good band!' That's where he heard 'Hound Dog,' and shortly thereafter he said: 'Let's try that song'''.

When asked if Bell had any objections to Presley recording his own version, Bell gave Colonel Tom Parker, Presley's manager, a copy of his 1955 Teen Records' recording, hoping that if Presley recorded it, "he might reap some benefit when his own version was released on an album''. According to Bell, "Parker promised me that if I gave him the song, the next time Elvis went on tour, I would be the opening act for him - which never happened''. In May 1956, two months before Presley's release, Bell re-recorded the song in a more frantic version for the Mercury label, however it was not released as a single until 1957. It was later included on Bell's 1957 album, ''Rock& Roll…All Flavors'' (Mercury Records MG 20289). By summer 1956, after Presley's recording of the song was a million-seller, Bell told an interviewer: "I didn't feel bad about that at all. In fact, I encouraged him to record it''. After the success of Presley's recording, "Bell sued to get some of the composer royalties because he had changed the words and indeed the song, and he would have made millions as the songwriter of Elvis’s version: but he lost because he did not ask Leiber and Stoller for permission to make the changes and thereby add his name as songwriter''.

Soon after, Elvis Presley added "Hound Dog" to his live performances, performing it as comic relief. "Hound Dog" became Elvis and Scotty and Bill's closing number for the first time on May 15, 1956 at Ellis Auditorium in Memphis, during the Memphis Cotton Festival before an audience of 7,000. Presley's performance, including the lyrics (which he sometimes changed) and "gyrations", were influenced by what he had seen at the sands. As the song always got a big reaction, it became the standard closer until the late 1960s.

By 1964, Elvis Presley's version of "Hound Dog" had been covered over 26 times, and by 1984, there were at least 85 different cover versions of the song, making it "the best-known and most often recorded rock and roll song". In July 2013 the official Leiber and Stoller website listed 266 different versions of "Hound Dog", but acknowledged that its list is incomplete. Among the notable artists who have covered Presley's version of "Hound Dog" are: Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps; Jerry Lee Lewis in July 1974 for his Sun International LP ''Rockin' And Free'' and in November 1988 for the Zu-Zazz LP ''Jerry Lee Lewis - Dony Drop It''; Chubby Checker; Pat Boone; Sammy Davis, Jr.; Betty Everett; Little Richard; The Surfaris; The Everly Brothers; Junior Wells; The Mothers of Invention; Jimi Hendrix; Vanilla Fudge; Van Morrison; Conway Twitty; Jimi Hendrix and Little Richard; John Lennon and the Plastic Ono Elephant's Memory Band; John Entwistle; Carl Perkins; Eric Clapton; James Taylor; and (in 1993) Tiny Tim (in his full baritone voice). In 1999 David Grisman, John Hartford, and Mike Seeger included "Hound Dawg" on their 1999 album Retrograss, which was nominated for a Grammy in the Traditional Folk Album category in 2000.

21 - Hound Dog (2) (Slate & Take 8) (2:10) 1988
(Jerry Leiber-Mike Stoller) (Jerry Leiber Music – Mike Stoller Music)

22 - What'd I Say (1.1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:25) 1989
23 - What'd I Say (1.2) (Slate & Take 2) (2:39) 1988
(Ray Charles) (Unichappel Music Incorporated)

There's more than a touch of irony in the fact that nearly thirty years after the event this minor work should be elevated to the status of the title track on an entirely new Lewis Sun LP, following the rediscovering of these lost tapes in the later 1980s; ''Keep Your Hands Off Of It'', more deserving of the accolade, was itself celebrated as the other headliner on a twin-set of albums issued on the Zu-Zazz label (Z-2003) in 1987; here, we're treated to another example of Jerry Lee's capacity to recall some of the licentious blues material he would doubtless have heard in Haney's Big House during teenage excursions from his home in Ferriday''.

''Keep Your Hands Off It'' was originally written as "Hands Off'', later known as "Keeps Your Hands Off Her", is a 1955 song written and recorded by Jay McShann. The single, on the Vee-Jay label, was the most successful Jay McShann release on the Billboard rhythm and blues chart. "Hands Off", with vocals performed by Priscilla Bowman, was number one on the rhythm and blues best seller chart for three weeks. The single is notable because this was the last single to hit number one on the rhythm and blues chart without making the Billboard Hot 100 until 1976: For the next twenty-one years, all singles which made the top spot on the Billboard rhythm and blues chart would make the Hot 100.

In 1961, Damita Jo DeBlance recorded her version of "Keeps Your Hands Off Her" for Mercury Records (Mercury 71760). Elvis Presley recorded and worked in a jam with "Got My Mojo Working", but not before Elvis interpolated "Keep Your Hands Off Her" during his sessions in June 1970 at RCA Studio B. in Nashville, Tennessee. ''We grew up on this mediocre shit man'', Elvis declared enthusiastically. ''It's the type of material that's not good or bad, it's just mediocre shit, you know''. But it was ''mediocre shit'' with which he was totally comfortable, for which he had great respect, and that he would always love.

24 - Keep Your Hands Off Of It (2) (Chatter, Slate, Take 1) (2:36) 1987
(Jay McShann) (Conrad Music)

1-24 Recorded January 21-25, 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums),
Leo Ladner or Jay W. Brown (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips

In the early days at Madison Avenue Jerry Lee Lewis also turned to a couple of traditional folk rhymes more familiar in nursery playrooms than in rock and roll dance halls; he nevertheless made sparkling recordings of both ''Billy Boy'' and ''My Bonnie'', neither of would emerge until the 1970s. The occasion is of added significance inasmuch as stereo techniques were employed for the first time on a Lewis recording. In the delivery of ''Billy Boy'', Lewis returned to an arrangement he had previously used, but ultimately discarded, in the latter stages of recording ''Break Up'' some eighteen months earlier. The same engagement also produced a polished reading of Hank Thompson's ''The Wild Side Of Life''; this song may well have been on his mind following the recording of ''The Great Speckled Bird'', from which the tune was derived, at the extended January 21-25 session.

"The Wild Side Of Life" is a song made famous by country music singer Hank Thompson. Originally released in 1952, the song became one of the most popular recordings in the genre's history, spending 15 weeks at number 1 Billboard country charts, solidified Thompson's status as a country music superstar and inspired the answer song, "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels" by Kitty Wells.

"The Wild Side Of Life" carries one of the most distinctive melodies of early country music, used in "I'm Thinking Tonight Of My Blue Eyes" by the Carter Family and "Great Speckled Bird" by Roy Acuff. That, along with the song's story of a woman shedding her role as domestic provider to follow the night life, combined to become one of the most famous country songs of the early 1950s.

According to country music historian Bill Malone, "Wild Side Of Life" co-writer William Warren was inspired to create the song after his experiences with a young woman he met when he was younger, a honky tonk angel, as it were, who "found the glitter of the gay night life too hard to resist''. Fellow historian Paul Kingsbury wrote that the song appealed to people who "thought the world was going to hell and that faithless women deserved a good deal of the blame''.

Jimmy Heap and His Melody Masters first recorded "Wild Side Of Life" in 1951, but never had a hit with the song. Thompson did, and his version spent three and one-half months atop the Billboard country chart in the spring and early summer of 1952. "Wild Side Of Life" was Thompson's first charting single since 1949's two-sided hit "Soft Lips"/"The Grass is Greener Over Yonder''. Thompson had hooked up with producer Ken Nelson in the interim, and one of their first songs together was "Wild Side''.

The lyric, "I didn't know God made honky tonk angels," and the tune's overall cynical attitude, Kingsbury noted the song"... just begged for an answer from a woman", inspired "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels''. Recorded by Kitty Wells and released later in 1952, that song, too, became a number 1 country hit. In "It Wasn't God ... '', Wells shifts the blame for the woman's infidelity to the man, countering that for every unfaithful woman there is a man who has led her astray.

''Wild Side Of Life'' not released at the time, this was first issued on the obscure U.S. Power Pak label’s 1974 ''From The Vaults Of Sun'' collection. Jerry re-cut the song during the 1965 sessions for ''The Return Of Rock'' album, though as it didn’t really fit on that album it was issued on his next one towards the end of the year, ''Country Songs For City Folks''. Great though this is, the memorable saxophone on the earlier version makes that one the winner for it.

25 - The Wild Side Of Life (2:48) 1974
(Arlie A. Carter-William Warren) (Acuff Rose Music)

"Billy Boy" is a traditional folk song and nursery rhyme found in the United States. It has a Round Folk Song Index number of 326. It is a variant of the traditional English folksong "My Boy Billy," collected by Ralph Vaughan Williams and published by him in 1912 as number 232 in "Novello's School Songs''.

Further variants have been recorded, that greatly extend the number of verses and tasks she can perform. An extended version of the song in which the lover performs many tasks besides the cherry pie was collected by Alan Lomax and John Avery Lomax: it appears in American Ballads and Folk Songs. The Lomax version names the woman being courted Betsy Jane. Jerry Lee Lewis released a version of the song on his 1972 album, Rural Rout Number 1.

The folk group, The Almanac Singers, wrote an anti-war version of this song by Millard Lampell. The final verse may be intended as a math puzzle, or it may be a humorous indication that the woman is considerably older than the protestation of her youth in the refrain seems to indicate. While the tone of the nursery rhyme is ironic and teasing, both the question and answer form and the narrative of the song have been related to Lord Randall, a murder ballad from the British Isles. In Lord Randall, the suitor is poisoned by the woman he visits.

By contrast, Robin Fox uses the song to make a point about cooking and courtship, and observes that: Feeding has always been closely linked with courtship. . . With humans this works two ways since we are the only animals who cook: the bride is usually appraised for her cooking ability. (''Can she bake a cherry pie, Billy boy, Billy boy''?). In some cultures this is far more important than her virginity.

26 - Billy Boy (Slate & Take 7) (2:23) 1972
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

"My Bonnie Lies Over Te Ocean" is a traditional Scottish folk song which remains popular in Western culture. The origin of the song is unknown, though it is often suggested that the subject of the song may be Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) published sheet music for "Bring Back My Bonnie To Me". Theodore Raph in his 1964 book American song treasury: 100 favorites, writes that people were requesting the song at sheet music stores in the 1870s, and Pratt was convinced to publish a version of it under the pseudonyms, and the song became a big hit, especially popular with college singing groups but also popular for all group singing situations.

27 - My Bonnie (Slate & Take 4) (2:40) 1974
(Charles Edward Stuart) (Sony-ATV Music Publishing)

25-27 Recorded Early 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums),
Leo Ladner (bass), Martin Willis (saxophone)
Producer - Charles Underwood

At the third Madison Avenue session in mid-1960, Jerry Lee Lewis brought new life to yet another folk memory, the tale of the railroad pioneer ''John Henry''. In getting back on the rhythm and blues track, he complemented this with a rousing version of Chuck Willis's ''Hang Up My Rock And Roll Shoes'', the two being paired for the next single release, Sun 344. This same get-together also witnessed both his first known recording of ''C.C. Rider'', with which Willis had himself scored a hit in 1957, and a frenetic ''What'd I Say. Finally, in a characteristic melding of genres, Jerry Lee refurbished an old western swing favourite, ''When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again'', albeit Elvis Presley had pointed the way on this one with his own uptempo reading of the same song in 1956.

28 - Hang Up My Rock And Roll Shoes (False Start, Slate, Master Take 1 Sun 344) (2:58) 1960
(Chuck Willis) (Rush Music)

''John Henry'' was the strongest release by Jerry Lee in quite a while. To his credit, the man never failed to surprise. He's turn his hand to a maudlin pop ballad, a vintage hillbilly weeper, or – as he does here – to decidedly bluesy material. ''Hang Up My Rock And Roll Shoes'' features Jerry's attempt at Chuck Willis's swan song. To add authenticity, Jerry is joined by a honking sax, played either by Ace Cannon or Martin Willis.

But it is the flipside that deservedly caused a stir. ''John Henry'' is what they mean by an artist getting into a groove. Admittedly, this particular groove owed a lot to the fact that Don Hosea was generating a lot of local attention with his own version of ''John Henry'' on Roland Janes's Rita label. The folks at Sun figured they's better get on the bandwagon while the pickings were good, and who batter to call upon than Jerry Lee. The groove Jerry found here owed a lot to Ray Charles, but it was a fine one nonetheless. As Jerry, himself observed mis-session, it was ''too good to stop now!''. In fact, Jerry's music would soon result in his first bona fide hit in years.

It's also clear that Jerry had been doing some hard partying prior to this session, and was singing his heart out during the date. His vocals have rarely sounded more hoarse. There was probably some discussion about whether Jerry's performance was over the line here. Plainly, it was on the cusp, but fortunately, the decision was made to release the track as is. Nearly four decades later, Jerry's vocal state seems to add to the authenticity of the disc.

John Henry is an African American folk hero and tall tale. He is said to have worked as a "steel-driving man", a man tasked with hammering a steel drill into rock to make holes for explosives to blast the rock in constructing a railroad tunnel. According to legend, John Henry's prowess as a steel-driver was measured in a race against a steam powered hammer, which he won, only to die in victory with his hammer in his hand as his heart gave out from stress. The story of John Henry is told in a classic folk song, which exists in many versions, and has been the subject of numerous stories, plays, books and novels. Various locations, including Big Bend Tunnel in West Virginia, Lewis Tunnel in Virginia, and Coosa Mountain Tunnel in Alabama, have been suggested as the site of the contest.

The story of John Henry is traditionally told through two types of songs: ballads, commonly called "The Ballad of John Henry", and work songs known as hammer songs, each with wide-ranging and varying lyrics. Some songs, and some early folk historian research, conflate the songs about John Henry with those of John Hardy, a West Virginian outlaw. Ballads about John Henry's life typically contain four major components: a premonition by John Henry as a child that steel-driving would lead to his death, the lead-up to and the results of the race against the steam hammer, Henry's death and burial, and the reaction of John Henry's wife.

The well-known narrative ballad of "John Henry" is usually sung in at an upbeat tempo. The hammer songs (or work songs) associated with the "John Henry" ballad, however, are not. Sung slowly and deliberately, these songs usually contain the lines "This old hammer killed John Henry / but it won't kill me." Nelson explains that: ...workers managed their labor by setting a "stint'', or pace, for it. Men who violated the stint were shunned... Here was a song that told you what happened to men who worked too fast: they died ugly deaths; their entrails fell on the ground. You sang the song slowly, you worked slowly, you guarded your life, or you died.

There is some controversy among scholars over which came first, the ballad or the hammer songs. Some scholars have suggested that the "John Henry" ballad grew out of the hammer songs, while others believe that the two were always entirely separate. Songs featuring the story of John Henry have been recorded by many blues, folk, and rock musicians of different ethnic backgrounds. Many notable musicians have recorded John Henry ballads, including Bill Monroe, Johnny Cash, Drive-By Truckers, Joe Bonamassa, Furry Lewis, Big Bill Broonzy, Pink Anderson, Fiddlin' John Carson, Uncle Dave Macon, J. E. Mainer, Leon Bibb, Leadbelly, Woody Guthrie, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Van Morrison, Bruce Springsteen, Gillian Welch, Cuff the Duke, Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Jerry Reed, Jerry Lee Lewis, Merle Travis, Harry Belafonte, Mississippi John Hurt (as "Spike Driver Blues"), Lonnie Donegan, Jack Warshaw, Jason Molina, and Steve Earle.

The story also inspired the Aaron Copland's orchestral composition "John Henry" (1940, revised 1952) and the 2009 chamber music piece Steel Hammer by the composer Julia Wolfe. Henry is the subject of the 1931 Roark Bradford novel John Henry, illustrated by noted woodcut artist J. J. Lankes. The novel was adapted into a stage musical in 1940, starring Paul Robeson in the title role. According to Steven Carl Tracy, Bradford's works were influential in broadly popularizing the John Henry legend beyond railroad and mining communities and outside of African American oral histories. In a 1933 article published in The Journal of Negro Education, Bradford's John Henry was criticized for "making over a folk-hero into a clown''. A 1948 obituary for Bradford described John Henry as "a better piece of native folklore than Paul Bunyan''. Ezra Jack Keats's John Henry: An American Legend, published in 1965, is a notable picture book chronicling the history of John Henry and portraying him as the "personification of the medieval Everyman who struggles against insurmountable odds and wins''.

Colson Whitehead's 2001 novel John Henry Days uses the John Henry myth as story background. Whitehead fictionalized the John Henry Days festival in Talcott, West Virginia and the release of the John Henry postage stamp in 1996. The DC Comics superhero Steel's civilian name, "John Henry Irons," is inspired by John Henry. The Ghost of John Henry appears as a character in Elizabeth Bear's novel "One Eyed Jack''.

29 - John Henry (Extended Master Sun 344) (2:35) 1960
(Traditional Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Knox Music Incorporated)

What'd I Say" (or "What I Say") is a song by American rhythm and blues rhythm and blues musician Ray Charles, released in 1959 as a single divided into two parts. It was improvised one evening late in 1958 when Charles, his orchestra, and backup singers had played their entire set list at a show and still had time left; the response from many audiences was so enthusiastic that Charles announced to his producer that he was going to record it. After his run of rhythm and blues hits, this song finally broke Charles into mainstream pop music and itself sparked a new sub-genre of rhythm and blues titled soul, finally putting together all the elements that Charles had been creating since he recorded "I Got A Woman" in 1954.

The gospel influences combined with the sexual innuendo in the song made it not only widely popular but very controversial to both white and black audiences. It earned Ray Charles his first gold record and has been one of the most influential songs in R&B and rock and roll history. For the rest of his career, Charles closed every concert with the song. It was added to the National Recording Registry in 2002 and ranked at number 10 in Rolling Stone's "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

Ray Charles was 27 years old in 1958, with ten years of experience recording primarily rhythm and blues music for Downbeat and Swingtime record labels, in a style similar to that of Nat King Cole and Charles Brown. Charles signed with Atlantic Records in 1954 where producers Ahmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler encouraged Charles to broaden his repertoire. Wexler would later remember that Atlantic Records' success came not from the artists' experience, but the enthusiasm for the music: "We didn't know shit about making records, but we were having fun". Ertegun and Wexler found that a hands-off approach was the best way of encouraging Charles. Wexler later said, "I realized the best thing I could do with Ray was leave him alone".

From 1954 into the 1960s Charles toured for 300 days a year with a seven-piece orchestra. He employed another Atlantic singing trio named The Cookies and renamed them The Raelettes when they backed him up on the road. In 1954 Charles began merging gospel sounds and instruments with lyrics that addressed more secular issues. His first attempt was in the song "I Got A Woman", based either on the melodies of gospel standards "My Jesus Is All the World to Me" or an uptempo "I Got A Savior (Way Across Jordan)". It was the first Ray Charles record that got attention from white audiences, but it made some black audiences uncomfortable with its black gospel derivatives; Charles later stated that the joining of gospel and rhythm and blues was not a conscious decision.

In December 1958, he had a hit on the rhythm and blues charts with "Night Time Is The Right Time", an ode to carnality that was sung between Charles and one of the Raelettes, Margie Hendricks, with whom Charles was having an affair. Since 1956 Charles had also included a Wurlitzer electric piano on tour because he did not trust the tuning and quality of the pianos provided him at every venue. On the occasions he would play it, he was derided by other musicians.

According to Charles' autobiography, "What'd I Say" was accidental when he improvised it to fill time at the end of a concert in December 1958. He asserts that he never tested songs on audiences before recording them, but "What'd I Say" is an exception. Charles himself does not recall where the concert took place, but Mike Evans in Ray Charles: The Birth of Soul places the show in Brownsville, Pennsylvania. Shows were played at "meal dances" which typically ran four hours with a half hour break, and would end around 1 or 2 in the morning. Charles and his orchestra had exhausted their set list after midnight, but had 12 minutes left to fill. He told the Raelettes, "Listen, I'm going to fool around and y'all just follow me".

Starting on the electric piano, Charles played what felt right: a series of riffs, switching then to a regular piano for four choruses backed up by a unique Latin conga tumbao rhythm on drums. The song changed when Charles began singing simple, improvised unconnected verses ("Hey Mama don't you treat me wrong / Come and love your daddy all night long / All right now / Hey hey / All right"). Charles used gospel elements in a twelve-bar blues structure. Some of the first lines ("See the gal with the red dress on / She can do the Birdland all night long") are influenced by a boogie-woogie style that Ahmet Ertegun attributes to Clarence "Pinetop" Smith who used to call out to dancers on the dance floor instructing what to do through his lyrics. In the middle of the song, however, Charles indicated that the Raelettes should repeat what he was doing, and the song transformed into a call and response between Charles, the Raelettes, and the horn section in the orchestra as they called out to each other in ecstatic shouts and moans and blasts from the horns. The audience reacted immediately; Charles could feel the room shaking and bouncing as the crowd was dancing. Many audience members approached Charles at the end of the show to ask where they could purchase the record. Charles and the orchestra performed it again several nights in a row with the same reaction at each show. He called Jerry Wexler to say he had something new to record, later writing, "I don't believe in giving myself advance notices, but I figured this song merited it".

The Atlantic Records studio had just purchased an 8-track recorder, and recording engineer Tom Dowd was familiarizing himself with how it worked. In February 1959 Charles and his orchestra finally recorded "What'd I Say" at Atlantic's small studio. Dowd recalled that it did not seem special at the time of recording. It was second of two songs during the session and Charles, the producers, and the band were more impressed with the first one at the session, "Tell The Truth". "We made it like we made all the others. Ray, the gals, and the band live in the small studio, no overdubs. Three or four takes, and it was done. Next!".

In retrospect, Ahmet Ertegun's brother Nesuhi credits the extraordinary sound of the song to the restricted size of the studio and the technologically advanced recording equipment used; the sound quality is clear enough to hear Charles slapping his leg in time with the song when the music stops during the calls and responses. The song was recorded in only a few takes because Charles and the orchestra had perfected it while touring.

Dowd, however, had two problems during the recording. "What'd I Say" lasted over seven and a half minutes when the normal length of radio-played songs was around two and a half minutes. Furthermore, although the lyrics were not obscene, the sounds Charles and the Raelettes made in their calls and responses during the song worried Dowd and the producers. A previous recording called "Money Honey" by Clyde McPhatter had been banned in Georgia and Ahmet Ertegun and Wexler released McPhatter's song despite the ban, risking arrest. Ray Charles was aware of the controversy in "What'd I Say". "I'm not one to interpret my own songs, but if you can't figure out 'What I Say', then something's wrong. Either that, or you're not accustomed to the sweet sounds of love''.

Dowd solved the recording issues by mixing three versions of the song. Some call-outs of "Shake that thing!" were removed, and the song was split into two three-and-a-half minute sides of a single record, titling the song "What'd I Say Part I" and "What'd I Say Part II". The recorded version divides the parts with a false ending where the orchestra stops and the Raelettes and orchestra members beg Charles to continue, then goes on to a frenzied finale. Dowd later stated after hearing the final recording that not releasing the record was never an option: "we knew it was going to be a hit record, no question''. It was held for the summer and released in June 1959.

Billboard magazine initially gave "What'd I Say" a tepid review: "He shouts out in percussive style ... Side two is the same''. The secretary at Atlantic Records started getting calls from distributors, however. Radio stations refused to play it because it was too sexually charged, but Atlantic refused to take the records back from stores. A slightly sanitized version was released in July 1959 in response to the complaints and the song hit number 82. A week later it was at 43, then 26. In contrast to their earlier review, Billboard several weeks later wrote that the song was "the strongest pop record that the artist has done to date".

Within weeks "What'd I Say" topped out at number one on Billboard's rhythm and blues singles chart, number six on the Billboard Hot 100, and it became Charles' first gold record. It also became Atlantic Records' best-selling song at the time.

"What'd I Say" was banned by many black and white radio stations because of, as one critic noted, "the dialogue between himself and his backing singers that started in church and ended up in the bedroom". The erotic nature was obvious to listeners, but a deeper aspect of the fusion between black gospel music and rhythm and blues troubled many black audiences. Music, as was much of American society, was also segregated, and some critics complained that gospel was not only being appropriated by secular musicians, but it was being marketed to white listeners. During several concerts in the 1960s, the crowds became so frenetic and the shows so resembled revival meetings while Charles performed "What'd I Say" that the police were called in, when the organizers became worried that riots might break out. The moral controversy surrounding the song has been attributed to its popularity; Charles later acknowledged in an interview that the beat was catchy, but it was the suggestive lyrics that attracted listeners: "See the girl with the diamond ring. She knows how to shake that thing.' It wasn't the diamond ring that got 'em''. "What'd I Say" was Ray Charles' first crossover hit into the growing genre of rock and roll. He seized the opportunity of his immense newfound success and announced to Ertegun and Wexler that he was considering signing with ABC Paramount Records (later renamed ABC Records) later in 1959. While he was in negotiations with ABC Paramount, Atlantic Records released an album of his hits, titled ''What'd I Say''.

Michael Lydon, another of Charles' biographers, summarized the impact of the song: "'What'd I Say' was a monster with footprints bigger than its numbers. Daringly different, wildly sexy, and fabulously danceable, the record riveted listeners. When 'What'd I Say' came on the radio, some turned it off in disgust, but millions turned the volume up to blasting and sang 'Unnnh, unnnh, oooooh, oooooh' along with Ray and the Raelets. It became the life of a million parties, the spark of as many romances, and a song to date the summer by. The song's impact was not immediately seen in the U.S.; it was particularly popular in Europe. Paul McCartney was immediately struck by the song and knew that when he heard it he wanted to be involved in making music. George Harrison remembered an all-night party he attended in 1959 where the song was played for eight hours non-stop: "It was one of the best records I ever heard''. While The Beatles were developing their sound in Hamburg, they played "What'd I Say" at every show, trying to see how long they could make the song last and using the audience in the call and response, with which they found immense popularity. The opening electric piano in the song was the first John Lennon had ever heard, and he tried to replicate it with his guitar. Lennon later credited Ray Charles' opening of "What'd I Say" to the birth of songs dominated by guitar riffs.

When Mick Jagger sang for the first time with the band that would become The Rolling Stones, he performed a duet of "What'd I Say". Eric Burdon from The Animals, Steve Winwood of The Spencer Davis Group, Brian Wilson of The Beach Boys, and Van Morrison counted the song as a major influence on why they were interested in music and incorporated it into their shows. Music historian Robert Stephens attributes the birth of soul music to "What'd I Say" when gospel and blues were successfully joined; the new genre of music was matured by later musicians such as James Brown and Aretha Franklin. "In an instant, the music called Soul comes into being. Hallelujah!" wrote musician Lenny Kaye in a retrospective of Atlantic Records artists.

In the late 1950s, rock and roll was faltering as its major stars dropped from public view. Elvis Presley was drafted, Buddy Holly and Eddie Cochran died in 1959 and 1960 respectively, Chuck Berry was in jail, and Jerry Lee Lewis had been disgraced by press reports that he married his 13-year-old cousin. Music and culture critic Nelson George disagrees with music historians who attest the last two years of the 1950s were barren of talent, pointing to Ray Charles and this song in particular. George writes that the themes in Charles' work were very similar to the young rebels who popularized rock and roll, writing.

By breaking down the division between pulpit and bandstand, recharging blues concerns with transcendental fervor, unashamedly linking the spiritual and the sexual, Charles made pleasure (physical satisfaction) and joy (divine enlightenment) seem the same thing. By doing so he brought the realities of the Saturday-night sinner and Sunday-morning worshipper, so often one and the same, into raucous harmony.

"What'd I Say" has been covered by many artists in many different styles. Elvis Presley used the song in a large dance scene in his 1964 film ''Viva Las Vegas'' and released it as a single with the title song on the B-side. Cliff Richard, Eric Clapton with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, The Big Three, Eddie Cochran, Bobby Darin, Nancy Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Johnny Cash all put their own style on the song. Jerry Lee Lewis found particular success with his rendition in 1961, which peaked at number 30 and spent eight weeks on the charts. Charles noticed, later writing "I saw that many of the stations which had banned the tune started playing it when it was covered by white artists. That seemed strange to me, as though white sex was cleaner than black sex. But once they began playing the white version, they lifted the ban and also played the original''.

Charles later spoofed this double standard on the television comedy show Saturday Night Live in 1977. He hosted an episode and had the original band he toured with in the 1950s to join him. In one skit, he tells a producer that he wants to record the song, but the producer tells him that a white band named the "Young Caucasians", composed of beaming white teenagers, are to record it first, which they do on the show, in a chaste, sanitized, and unexciting performance. When Charles and his band counter with their original version, Garrett Morris tell them, "Sorry. That'll never make it''.

Charles closed every show he played for the rest of his career with the song, later stating, "'What'd I Say' is my last song on stage. When I do 'What'd I Say', you don't have to worry about it, that's the end of me; there ain't no encore, no nothin'. I'm finished!". It was ranked tenth on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", with the summary, "Charles' grunt-'n'-groan exchanges with the Raeletts were the closest you could get to the sound of orgasm on Top Forty radio during the Eisenhower era".In 2000, it ranked number 43 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs in Rock and Roll and number 96 on VH1's 100 Greatest Dance Songs, being the oldest song in the latter ranking. The same year it was chosen by National Public Radio as one of the 100 most influential songs of the 20th century. A central scene in the 2004 biopic Ray features the improvisation of the song performed by Jamie Foxx, who won an Academy Award for his portrayal of Charles. For its historical, artistic, and cultural significance, the Library of Congress added it to the U.S. National Recording Registry in 2002. The Rock And Roll Hall of Fame featured it as one of 500 Songs that Shaped Rock And Roll in 2007.

30 - What'd I Say (2) (3:22) 1983
(Ray Charles) (Unichappel Music Incorporated)

"See See Rider", also known as "C.C. Rider" or "See See Rider Blues" or "Easy Rider" is a popular American 12-bar blues" song. It was first recorded by Gertrude "Ma" Rainey in 1924, and since then has been recorded by many other artists. The song uses mostly traditional blues lyrics to tell the story of an unfaithful lover, commonly called easy riders: "See see rider, see what you have done," making a play on the word see and the sound of easy.

The song is generally regarded as being traditional in origin. Ma Rainey's version became popular during 1925, as "See See Rider Blues''. It became one of the most famous of all blues songs, with well over 100 versions. It was recorded by Big Bill Broonzy, Mississippi John Hurt, Leadbelly, Lightnin' Hopkins, Peggy Lee and many others. Broonzy claimed that "when he was about 9 or 10", that is, around 1908, he had learned to play the blues from an itinerant songster named "See See Rider", "a former slave, who played a one-string fiddle.... one of the first singers of what would later be called the blues...".

In 1943, a version by Wee Bea Booze became a number 1 hit on the Billboard "Harlem Hit Parade'', precursor of the rhythm and blues chart. Some blues critics consider this to be the definitive version of the song. A doo-wop version was recorded by Sonny Til and The Orioles in 1952. Later rocked-up hit versions were recorded by Chuck Willis (as "C.C. Rider'', also a number 1 rhythm and blues hit as well as a number 12 pop hit, in 1957) and LaVern Baker (number 9 rhythm and blues and number 34 pop hit in 1963). Willis' version gave birth to the dance craze "The Stroll''.

Other popular performances were recorded by Mitch Ryder & the Detroit Wheels (as part of a medley entitled "Jenny Take A Ride!'', number 10 US pop hit in 1965) and The Animals (number 10 US pop hit in 1966).

The Animals' heavy version (featuring Eric Burdon's screaming) also reached number 1 on the Canadian RPM chart, and number 8 in Australia. It was the last single before the group disbanded in September 1966. The arrangement of the song was credited to band member Dave Rowberry.

Other renditions came from Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Ray Charles, Chuck Berry, Gary Lewis and the Playboys, The Who, The Everly Brothers, Charlie Rich, Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, Leon Thomas, Snooks Eaglin, John Fahey, Old Crow Medicine Show and many more.

In later years, Elvis Presley regularly opened his performances with the song, such as was captured on his 1970 On Stage album and in his Aloha from Hawaii television special. Elvis's drummer Ronnie Tutt opened Elvis's version with a rolling drum riff followed by the band entering and Elvis's famous brass melody.

Similarly, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band long had "C.C. Rider" as part of their "Detroit Medley" encore romp, which achieved significant visibility on the 1980 No Nukes live album. Film director Martin Scorsese credited the song with stimulating his interest in music. He later said: "One day, around 1958, I remember hearing something that was unlike anything I'd ever heard before... The music was demanding, "Listen to me!"... The song was called "See See Rider'', which I already knew from the Chuck Willis cover version. The name of the singer was Lead Belly... I found an old Folkways record by Lead Belly... And I listened to it obsessively. Lead Belly's music opened something up for me. If I could have played guitar, really played it, I never would have become a filmmaker''.

In 2004, the original Ma Rainey recording received a Grammy Hall of Fame Award. There is a chapter in Richard Brautigan's classic Trout Fishing in America titled "Sea, Sea Rider''.

The term "See See Rider" is usually taken as synonymous with "easy rider." In particular, in blues songs it often refers to a woman who had liberal sexual views, had been married more than once, or was skilled at sex. Although Ma Rainey's version seems on the face of it to refer to "See See Rider" as a man, one theory is that the term refers to a prostitute and in the lyric, "You made me love you, now your man done come'', "your man" refers to the woman's pimp. So, rather than being directed to a male "easy rider," the song is in fact an admonition to a prostitute to give up her evil ways.

31 - C C Rider (1) (2:55) 1969
(Chuck Willis) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

''When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again'' is a song written by Wiley Walker and Gene Sullivan in 1940. They first recorded it for Columbia Records in 1941 (Columbia 20264). Walker was inspired to write the song while travelling in West Texas with the full moon in his face. As he drove down the highway, daybreak approached. Walker noted the apparent change of colour of the moon from a bluish tint to gold.

Elvis Presley recorded ''When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again' (RCA Victor EPA-992) on September 2, 1956 at Radio Recorders, 7000 Santa Monica Boulevard, Hollywood, California, with Thorne Nogar and Bones Howe behind the board. Elvis sang "When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again" in his appearance on "The Ed Sullivan Show" (January 6, 1957) and on his TV special taping "Elvis", June 27, 1968, at the 6:00pm and 8:00pm shows. It has also been recorded by Zeke Manners (1947), in 1947 by The Singing Lariateers (RCA 20-2130), in 1949 by Tex Ritter (Capitol 1977), and recorded by Cindy Walker, Cliffie Stone, Sammi Smith, the Statler Brothers, Hank Thompson, Emmylou Harris, Eddy Arnold, Jim Reeves, Bill Monroe, Merle Haggard, and of course, Jerry Lee Lewis, among others.

32 - When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again (1) (2:33) 1989
33 - When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again (2) (Slate & 2nd Series Take 1) (2:26) 1974
(Wiley Walker-Gene Sullivan) (Peer Music International Corporation)

28-33 Recorded June 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums),
Leo Ladner (bass), Martin Willis or Ace Cannon (saxophone)
Producer - Sam Phillips

The final studio engagement in October 1960 produced what many regard as being amongst the least appealing recordings Jerry Lee Lewis made at Sun, or elsewhere for the matter. The main purpose was to fashion a single, Sun 352, which coupled ''When I Get Paid'' with ''Love Made A Fool Of Me''. There's not a great deal to say about either other than to confirm the fact that it's not Jerry Lee at the piano but a session artist named Larry Muhoberac, who later made a decent living playing on Elvis movie soundtracks. It's necessary to draw attention to the fact that, as originally issued, the single master of ''When I Get Paid'' was edited, a process which involved the removel of several notes of Muhoberac's intro and an overall reduction in length to 2 minutes 45 seconds, principally due to the premature fade out applied; ignoring the abbreviation, the full length of the recording is presented in mono here. On the stereo mix, there is also evidence of some added percusssion but, other than in its curtaiment on the issued mono master, Lewis's overdubbed vocal contribution does not, of course, vary. It appears that Sam Phillips wanted to end the year by realising fully the potential of his new facilities at 639 Madison Avenue; in so doing he engineered something quite forgettable. The same session let us ''No More Than I Get'', need more be said?

34 - No More Than I Get (2:25) 1975
(Stan Kesler) (Copyright Control)

''When I Get Paid'' is a standard ''bitch about work'' song performed to a mild 1960s funk riff. No one would have guessed it at the time these Ray Charles rhythmic figures were everywhere, but the formulaic music they spawned was going to sound pretty dated pretty quickly. If this song ever had any passion, the tinkly sounding 5-4-1 piano riff manages to declaw it. The pianist, incidentally and thankfully, wasn't Jerry Lee, who was on the outs with the American Federation of Musicians and therefore prohibited from playing sessions.

35 - When I Get Paid (Extended Master Sun 352) (3:27) 1960
(Harold Shedd-York Wilburn) (Bluff City–Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Love Made A Fool Of Me'' is, to put it mildly, utterly bizarre. It begins as a soul ballad, complete with a churchy chorus (probably the Gene Lowery singers in blackface). Then things start to go downhill. The release contains that 4-4 minor sequence to no good effect. And suddenly things unravel. The song that follows, both chorally and instrumentally seems to bear no relation to what preceded the release. From soul ballad, we've evolved into the lowest kind of pop schmaltz. There's a rather surprising quick fade, as if someone in the studio cried out, ''Please fade us before we hurt ourselves''. It happens not a moment too soon.

36 - Love Made A Fool Of Me (Extended Master Sun 352) 2:46) 1960
(Harold Shedd-York Wilburn) (Bluff City–Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

34-36 Recorded October 13, 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal) Larry Muhoberac (piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Billy Riley (bass), Fred Ford, Ronnie Capone,
Robert Alexius (horns), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Charles Underwood or Scotty Moore

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 13 Contains 1961-1962

On February 9, 1961, Jerry Lee Lewis breezed into Sam Phillips' new studio in Nashville and laid down the inaugural session. The last song recorded that night was a revival of ''What'd I Say''. The song had been written by Ray Charles in 1959 and recorded by Jerry Lee in January 1960 and again in June 1960. However, the Nashville version was a much fuller production and Phillips had such confidence in it that he released it three weeks after the session. Billboard said, ''Lewis pumping piano work is tops and the vocal matches it. This can go''. And it did.

''I Forgot To Remember To Forget" is a country song written by Stan Kesler and Charlie Feathers. It was recorded at Sun Studio on July 11, 1955, by Elvis Presley, Scotty Moore, Bill Black, and Johnny Bernero on drums, and released on August 20, 1955, along with "Mystery Train" (Sun 223).

It was re-released by RCA Victor (47-6357) in December 1955. Moore's guitar had a Nashville steel guitar sound, and Black played a clip-clop rhythm. Elvis sang a brooding vocal. This is the closest the trio came to a traditional country song while at Sun.

The song reached the Billboard national country music chart number 1 position on February 25, 1956 on the Billboard Country &Western Best Sellers in Stores chart, and remained there at number 1 for 2 weeks, and spent 5 weeks at number 1 on the Billboard Country &Western Most Played in Juke Boxes chart. The record reached number 4 on the Billboard Most Played by Jockeys chart. It was the first recording to make Elvis Presley a national known country music star. The song remained on the country charts for 39 weeks. The flip side of this release, "Mystery Train", peaked at the number 11 position on the national Billboard Country Chart.

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded the song probably on August 21, 1957 and on this session on February 9, 1961. Composer Charlie Feathers has also recorded it. The Beatles covered this song once for the BBC radio show, ''From Us To You'', on 1 May 1964, which was included on the Live at the BBC compilation in 1994. Johnny Cash covered and released this song in 1959 on the Sun LP ''Greatest!'' and on the album The Survivors Live in 1981. Chuck Jackson, Ral Donner, Robert Gordon, Johnny Hallyday, The Deighton Family, Hicksville Bombers, and Wanda Jackson recorded this song as well. Chris Isaak also covered this song on his 2011 album, Beyond the Sun.

The song is referenced in the Modest Mouse song "A Different City", on their 2000 album The Moon & Antarctica. The name of this song also appears as a quest in the video game Fallout: New Vegas where the Courier and Boone defend a small settlement from a full-scale attack while dealing with Boone's regret over a massacre that took place at that same settlement.

Several takes of ''I Forgot To Remember To Forget'' were attempted during a August 1957 session, though none of them are totally successful, with Jerry and he band attempting to find the right key, rhythm and tempo. All takes remained unissued until at least the 1980s. Far superior is this February 1961 version, recorded in Nashville at the same session that produced the hit versions of ''What’d I Say'' and ''Cold Cold Heart''. Surprisingly this wasn’t released until 1974, via Charly's ''Rare Jerry Lee Lewis Volume 2'' compilation. Incidentally, this has never been issued in true stereo on CD, though it was available on the Sun International ''Roots'' LP in 1981 (but not the CD reissue!).

1 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (2) (2:14) 1974
(Charlie Feathers-Stanley Kesler) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

''Cold Cold Heart'' (Sun 364) with Count-In is an absolutely brilliant record. It is wel recorded, arranged and performed. Jerry's vocal, as it usually does, exudes personality. His piano playing is exceptionally strong and assertive. Indeed, it becomes a second voice swirling around his vocal. When the vocal is absent during the 16-bar piano solo, the piano lines are brimming with energy; they soar, almost out of control. If you knew nothing about Jerry Lee Lewis and discovered this record on the radio, it would surely grab your attention. Your first question might well be, ''Who is that piano player?''. Not ''Who is that singer?''. Fortunately, you get them both for the same price.

"Cold Cold Heart" here recorded by Jerry Lee Lewis, is a country song, written by Hank Williams. This blues ballad is both a classic of honky-tonk and an entry in the Great American Songbook.

Williams adapted the melody for the song from T. Texas Tyler's 1945 recording of "You'll Still Be In My Heart," written by Ted West in 1943. The song achingly and artfully describes frustration that the singer's love and trust is unreciprocated due to a prior bad experience in the other's past. Stories of the song's origins vary. In the Williams episode of American Masters, country music historian Colin Escott states that Williams was moved to write the song after visiting his wife Audrey in the hospital, who was suffering from an infection brought on by an abortion she had carried out at their home unbeknownst to Hank. Escott also speculates that Audrey, who carried on extramarital affairs as Hank did on the road, may have suspected the baby was not her husband's. Florida bandleader Pappy Neil McCormick claims to have witnessed the encounter: "According to McCormick, Hank went to the hospital and bent down to kiss Audrey, but she wouldn't let him. 'You sorry son of a bitch,' she is supposed to have said, 'it was you that caused me to suffer like this'. Hank went home and told the children's governess, Miss Ragland, that Audrey had a 'cold, cold heart,' and then, as so often in the past, realized the bitterness in his heart held commercial promise''.

The first draft of the song is dated November 23, 1950 and was recorded with an unknown band on May 5, 1951. Like his earlier masterpiece "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry'', it was released as the B-side (MGM10904B) to "Dear John" (MGM-10904A), since it was an unwritten rule in the country music industry that the faster numbers sold best. "Dear John" peaked at number 8 after only a brief four-week run on Billboard magazine's country music charts, but "Cold Cold Heart" proved to be a favorite of disc jockeys and jukebox listeners, whose enthusiasm for the song catapulted it to number 1 on the country music charts. Williams featured the song on his Mother's Best radio shows at the time of its release and performed the song on the Kate Smith Evening Hour on April 23, 1952, which ran from September 1951 to June 1952; the appearance remains one of the few existing film clips of the singer performing live. He is introduced by his idol Roy Acuff. Although a notorious binge drinker, Williams appears remarkably at ease on front of the cameras, with one critic noting, "He stared at the camera during his performance of ''Cold Cold Heart'' with a cockiness and self-confidence that bordered on arrogance''.

The song would become a pop hit for Tony Bennett, paving the way for country songs to make inroads into the lucrative pop market. In the liner notes to the 1990 Polygram compilation Hank Williams: The Original Single Collection, Fred Rose's son Wesley states, "Hank earned two major distinctions as a songwriter: he was the first writer on a regular basis to make country music national music; and he was the first country songwriter accepted by pop artists, and pop A&R men''.

That same year, it was recorded in a pop version by Tony Bennett with a light orchestral arrangement from Percy Faith. This recording was released by Columbia Records as catalog number 39449. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on July 20, 1951 and lasted 27 weeks on the chart, peaking at number 1. The popularity of Bennett's version has been credited with helping to expose both Williams and country music to a wider national audience. Allmusic writer Bill Janovitz discusses this unlikely combination: "That a young Italian singing waiter from Queens could find common ground with a country singer from Alabama's backwoods is testament both to Williams' skills as a writer and to Bennett's imagination and artist's ear''.

Williams subsequently telephoned Bennett to say, "Tony, why did you ruin my song''? But that was a prank, in fact, Williams liked Bennett's version and played it on jukeboxes whenever he could. In his autobiography ''The Good Life'', Bennett described playing "Cold Cold Heart" at the Grand Ole Opry later in the 1950s. He had brought his usual arrangement charts to give to the house musicians who would be backing him, but their instrumentation was different and they declined the charts. "You sing and we'll follow you'', they said, and Bennett says they did so beautifully, once again recreating an unlikely artistic merger.

The story of the Williams-Bennett telephone conversation is often related with mirth by Bennett in interviews and on stage; he still performs the song in concert. In 1997, the first installment of A&E's Live By Request featuring Bennett (who was also the show's creator), special guest Clint Black performed the song, after which Bennett recounted it. A Google Doodle featured Bennett's recording of the song on its Valentine's Day doodle in February 2012.

Other significant recordings there are including Louis Armstrong recorded "Cold Cold Heart" on September 17, 1951, and released it on Decca Records; Donald Peers recorded it on October 5, 1951, released EMI via His Master's Voice label as catalog number B 10158; Dinah Washington recorded it in 1951; Petula Clark and Gene Autry sang the song in the 1952 movie Apache Country; Jerry Lee Lewis released the song as a single on Sun Records in 1961 and included another version on the 1969 LP ''Sings the Country Music Hall of Fame Hits, Volume 2''; Jazz singer Norah Jones included a sultry swing version on her 2002 album ''Come Away With Me'', which was seen as "reintroducing" modern audiences to the song.

2 - Cold Cold Heart (2) (Slate & Master Take 5 Sun 364) (3:10) 1961
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

Even without such overt sexuality, this record took Jerry Lee back on the pop charts, peaking at number 30, a neighborhood he hadn't visited in over two years. There was little competition from this side. ''Livin' Lovin' Wreck'' from the pen of Otis Blackwell is easily the weakest of the four tracks recorded that day in Nashville. Like many of Jerry's teen-oriented songs, this one has not weathered the ravages of time and style too well. Jerry seems constrained by the chord changes, although guitarist Hank Garland seems to fare a bit better. In fact, this is one of the few times that Jerry's piano solo is outclassed by the guitar break.

3 - Livin' Lovin' Wreck (Master Sun 356) (2:04) 1961
(Otis Blackwell) (Sito Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee Lewis has spent a lot of time preaching about resurrections but the truth is that the release of Sun 356 was a resurrection almost comparable to his 1968 rebirth as a country singer. By any measure, it was a resounding success. Things were looking pretty bleak for the Killer before ''What'd I Say'' appeared in February 1961.

Yes, it's true that Jerry had been turning his attention to rhythm and blues of late, and had done more than his share or listening to (and copying) instrumental riffs from Ray Charles, but here is where it finally came together from him.

This track reveals that Jerry's affinity for Charles's music was more than a commercial aspiration. Charles's style meshes well with Jerry's talent. In Jerry's hands, ''What'd I Say'' is a fine vocal and piano workout. The backup instrumental work is ideal and even the chorus sounds a bit shrill (as in ''White'') when they echo Jerry's vocal lines. Conspicuously absent from the arrangement is the lascivious ''Don't stop, baby'' portion of Ray Charles' original. (More information about ''What'd I Say'' see Jerry's sessions June 1960).

4 - What'd I Say (3) (Master Sun 356) (2:27) 1961
(Ray Charles) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

1-4 Recorded February 9, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Hank Garland (guitar), Kelton Herston (guitar),
Buddy Harmon (drums), Bob Moore (bass), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Billy Sherrill

''It Won't Happen With Me'' chosen as the follow up to ''What'd I Say'', this song stems from Jerry's second Nashville session and was released almost immediately after he recorded it in June, 1961. There was a lot of momentum in Jerry's career and no one wanted to squander it. Hopes must have been high for this one. Certainly, it was as commercial self conscious as anything Jerry had ever recorded. In truth, the song was a fine vehicle for our man; it gave him a chance to trash the competition while extolling his own virtues. The song begins in true pop-gospel fashion, shuttling between 1 and 6-minor chords, with some simulated Raelets along for the ride. The lyrics is a Who's Who of pop stars of the day, from Fabian to Jackie Wilson. Not even Elvis is safe. There are also references to pop hits, like Ricky Nelson's ''Traveling Man'' from April, 1961. Yet, there is something really bizarre about the lyric. If you listen closely, what Jerry seems to be saying is ''Look, honey, why mess around with all those other guys? Sure they'll have casual sex with you and treat you like a groupie. But ''me'', I'll take you seriously. I'll even marry' you''. The truth is, given Jerry's matrimonial history, this song is more than an empty promise.

5 - It Won't Happen With Me (1) (3:10) 1976
6 - It Won't Happen With Me (2) (Master Sun 364) (2:57) 1961
(Ray Evans) (Knox Music Incorporated)

7 - C C Rider (2) (2:26) 1983
(Chuck Willis) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

"I Love You Because" is a 1949 song written and originally recorded by Leon Payne. The single went to number four on the Billboard Country & Western Best Seller lists and spent two weeks at number one on the Country & Western Disk Jockey List, spending a total of thirty-two weeks on the chart. "I Love You Because" was Payne's only song to make the country charts. "I Love You Because" has been covered by several artists throughout the years like Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Hank Locklin and many more.

In 1950, Ernest Tubb a number 2 and Clyde Moody each recorded their own version both making the Top 10 on the Country & Western charts. In 1963, Al Martino recorded the most successful version of the song peaking at number three on the Hot 100 and number one on the Middle-Road (or Easy Listening) chart for two weeks in May that year.

In 1964, Jim Reeves took the song to number five in the United Kingdom. In 1976, the song was the title track of a posthumous Jim Reeves album, which peaked at number 24 on the Billboard Country chart. The single version reached to number 54 in the United States that year. In 1983, Roger Whittaker got the song "into the lower reaches of the country chart''.

The 1956/1957 version of ''I Love You Because'' is performed at a very slow and plodding tempo, though it’s not without its charm and features some nice piano. This remained unissued until the 1983 ''The Sun Years'' box-set. Far better is this faster June 1961 version (though the backing singers are a bit annoying), first released on ''Original Golden Hits Volume Three'' in 1971. Lastly is the beautiful 1969 version, released on ''Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Volume 1''.

8 - I Love You Because (2) (1:53) 1971
(Leon Payne) (Acuff Rose Music Publishing)

When ''It Won't Happen With Me'' didn't sustain any chart action, Sun came quickly with another single. Jerry again had one finger on the pulse of teen America with his reprise of the Drifters' ''Save The Last Dance For Me''. With its notably brief running time, the record is a consummate pop record, aimed directly at the AM radio playlists. The song, of course, is excellent. Its pedigree had been well established in the Fall of 1960. Jerry's version sports some crisp and lively drumwork and memorable pounding piano. To its detriment was the overpowering choral work. But, then, there had been similar complains about the excessive violins on the Drifters original record.

"Save The Last Dance For Me" is the title of a popular song written by Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman, first recorded in 1960 by The Drifters, with Ben E. King on lead vocals. In a 1990 interview songwriter Doc Pomus tells the story of the song being recorded by the Drifters and originally designated as the B-side of the record. He credits Dick Clark with turning the record over and realizing ''Save The Last Dance'' was the stronger song.

The Drifters' version of the song would go on to spend three non-consecutive weeks at number 1 on the U.S. pop chart, in addition to logging one week atop the U.S. Rhythm and Blues chart. In the UK, the Drifters' recording reached number 2 in December 1960. This single was produced by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, two noted American music producers who at the time had an apprentice relationship with a then-unknown Phil Spector. Although he was working with Leiber and Stoller at the time, it is unknown whether Spector assisted with the production of this record; however, many Spector fans have noticed similarities between this record and other music he would eventually produce on his own.

Damita Jo had a hit with one of the answer songs of this era called "I'll Save The Last Dance For You". In the song, the narrator tells his lover she is free to mingle and socialize throughout the evening, but to make sure to save him the dance at the end of the night. During an interview on Elvis Costello's show ''Spectacle'', Lou Reed, who worked with Pomus, said the song was written on the day of Pomus' wedding while the wheelchair-bound groom watched his bride dancing with their guests. Pomus had polio and at times used crutches to get around. His wife, Willi Burke, however, was a Broadway actress and dancer. The song gives his perspective of telling his wife to have fun dancing, but reminds her who will be taking her home and "in whose arms you're gonna be''. Musicians on the Drifters' recording were: Bucky Pizzarelli, Allen Hanlon (guitar), Lloyd Trotman (bass), and Gary Chester (drums).

Emmylou Harris covered the song in a country/bluegrass style in 1979, including it on her ''Blue Kentucky Girl'' album. Also released as a single, her version reached the top-ten on the U.S. country singles chart in mid-1979. In late 1983, Dolly Parton recorded "Save The Last Dance for Me", releasing it as a single in late December; the song subsequently appeared on Parton's album of 1950s and 1960s covers ''The Great Pretender'', released in January 1984. Reaching the top ten on the country singles chart in late February, the single also crossed over, reaching number45 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States.

''Save The Last Dance For Me" was later covered by Canadian crooner Michael Bublé, and released as the third and final single from his second major-label studio album, ''It's Time''. The song was heavily remixed for its release as a single. For its release as a single, the song was heavily remixed, with mixes from producers including Ralphi Rosario and Eddie Baez. All of the chart positions for the single are for each of the remixed versions of the song respectively. The single first peaked at number 22 on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play Chart in September 2005. After Bublé performed the album version of the song during the closing credits of the film ''The Wedding Date'', this version was released to radio, peaking at number 5 on the Billboard adult contemporary chart, as well as reaching number 99 on the Billboard Hot 100. The music video for the track was once again directed by Noble Jones, who directed the videos for both of the album's previous singles, ''Home'' and ''Feeling Good''. The music video was choreographed by Raymondo Chan, a Salsa Latin dance coach and performer. It was shot in Vancouver, Canada.

Other significant recordings, Jay and the Americans released a cover version of the song on their 1962 album, ''She Cried''. In 1960 Polydor Records published a German cover version with lyrics by Kurt Schwabach and singer Ivo Robić and the German text is no translation. In 1961 Ivo Robic did a German song to this tune called "Mit 17 Fangt Das Leben Erst An" (Live begins at 17). Buck Owens released a cover version in 1962; it peaked at number 11 on the US country charts and appeared on the album ''Together Again.'' The Swinging Blue Jeans recorded a version in 1964 for their first UK studio album ''Blue Jeans A Swinging'' on HMV 1802. Ike and Tina Turner recorded and released a cover version of the song on their 1966 album, ''River Deep - Mountain High''. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a two different versions of the song during his later years on Sun Records on June 12, 1961, in Nashville's Sam Phillips's studio. The Swedish group the Spotnicks had an instrumental version of the song, called "Valentina" on their 1964 album ''The Spotnicks In Spain''. Billy Joe Royal released a version of the song on his 1967 for his album, ''Billy Joe Royal Featuring Hush''.

During the Get Back/Let It Be sessions of January 1969, the Beatles played a short, impromptu variation of this song. It was in the original lineup of songs to be included on the album that would become ''Let It Be'', although it was later scrapped. However, their version has appeared on many bootleg releases, including 2 LP set "The Black Album" (not to be confused with their official released ''The White Album'' issued before). In 1969, John Rowles recorded a version arranged and conducted by British arranger, bandleader, Johnny Arthey, released on 7" vinyl by MCA-UK the following year. Harry Nilsson covered the song, in a rather dark fashion, on his 1974 album, ''Pussy Cats'', which was produced by his friend and drinking buddy John Lennon. The Walkmen did a cover of ''Pussy Cats'' which included "Save The Last Dance For Me". Also in 1974, the Canadian group the DeFranco Family reached number 18 on the Billboard pop chart with their version of "Save The Last Dance For Me", with lead vocals sung by the 14-year-old group member Tony DeFranco.

Patti LaBelle included a disco-flavored cover of the song as the lead track on her 1978 album, ''Tasty''. In 1978, country music singer-songwriter Ron Shaw recorded the song on Pacific Challenger Records; this version reached the Top 40 on the Billboard country music chart. In 1979, Marcia Hines covered the song for her album, ''Ooh Child''. The Forgotten Rebels recorded the song on their 1981 album ''This Ain't Hollywood''. The song was covered by Mud in 1982. In 1983 Herbie Armstrong included a haunting version of the song on his solo album ''Back Against The Wall''. Mort Shuman himself endorsed it, certain it would be a hit. Sadly the distribution company went bust and only 800 copies of the CD were ever distributed. The song was translated into French by André Salvet and François Llenas and recorded by, among others, Petula Clark, Dalida, and Mort Shuman himself.

Geno Delafose recorded the song as a zydeco version on the CD ''LaChason Perdu'' in 1998 on Rounder Records. Bruce Willis released a version which appears on his 1989 album, ''If It Don't Kill You, It Just Makes You Stronger''. ''An Intimate Evening With Anne Murray'' is a live album by Canadian singer Anne Murray, recorded December 18, 1986 performed on MTV, released in 1997 and features the song. In 2000, Japanese band The Neatbeats recorded the song for their album ''Everybody Need!''. Irish singer Daniel O'Donnell recorded it on his 2003 album, ''Daniel In Blue Jeans''. In the 2000s, UK musician and ex-band member of Fox, Herbie Armstrong, recorded a slower, minor version of the song and released it as a single from his album, ''Last Dance''. In 2003, the Troggs recorded their version of this song on an album with rerecorded songs, called "Wild Thing". In 2010, Jerry Lawson and Talk of the Town performed this song on the second season of the album ''Sing Off''. In 2012 Leonard Cohen performed this song as a part of his Old Ideas World tour. In 2010, Matchbox 20 lead singer Rob Thomas performed a live acoustic version at the 2010 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony. In 2012, the Bally Ramblers recorded it for their debut album, and in 2012, American composer and producer Kramer covered the song and included it on his sixth album ''The Brill Building''.

9 - Save The Last Dance For Me (Master Sun 367) (1:52) 1961
(Doc Pomus-Mort Schuman) (Rumbalero Music)

5-9 Recorded June 12, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Marvin Hughes (piano on some tracks),
Wayne Moss (guitar), Kelton Herston (guitar), Buddy Harmon (drums),
Bob Moore (bass), Unknown (organ) Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Probably Billy Sherrill

In the meantime, Jerry Lee's only registered day of work in 1961 at the Madison Avenue studio, on June 14, saw him getting the measure of a couple of numbers associated with Fats Domino, at least two more readings of ''My Blue Monday'' adding to those recorded back at 706 Union in 1959, together with a single take of Fat's own ''My Girl Josephine''. The latter was the sole product of this session to be released during the currency of Lewis's contract at Sun, when included on ''Jerry Lee's Greatest''. Both this song and a rival candidate for that exercise, his first attempt at Chuck Berry's ''Sweet Little Sixteen'', would be returned to a year or so later. At one stage Jerry Lee takes something of a back seat to allow sax player Ace Cannon to lead on a ''jam'' instrumental which, since its first outing in 1975, has been graced with the rather unimaginative title ''Lewis Workout''. On its first release in 1983 this anonymous tape was attributed to a session at the 706 Union Avenue studio in 1959. However, on the strength of the similarity of the arrangement both to the intro of ''High Powered Woman'' and the fade-out of ''Hello Josephine'', it is believed that its rightful place in the continuum is alongside these titles.

10 - Lewis Workout (3:13) 11975
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Sun Entertainment)

My Girl Josephine" is a song written by Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew. Domino recorded the song on Imperial records (Imperial 5704) in 1960, and it charted number 7 on the Billboard Rhythm & Blues charts and number 14 on the Billboard pop charts. According to Allmusic, the song has also been performed by The Bill Black Combo, Curley Bridges, Van Broussard, Snooks Eaglin, Chris Farlowe, The Flamin' Groovies, Michael Herman, The Holmes Brothers, Jerry Jaye, Jerry Lee Lewis, Sandy Nelson, Tracy Pendarvis, Queen Ida & Her Zydeco Band, Noel Redding, Warren Storm, Super Cat, and Billy Vera, among others.

Only two albums were issued during Jerry’s 1956-1963 stay at Sun, ''Jerry Lee Lewis'' in 1958 and ''Jerry Lee’s Greatest'' in late 1961, the latter of which featured this song ''Hello Josephine'', driven along by some very fine sax playing from Johnny ‘Ace’ Cannon. For some reason Jerry recorded the song again 12 months later, this time with some fine guitar work by Roland Janes (or was it Scotty Moore?) replacing Johnny’s sax, though this wasn’t issued until the 1969 ''Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues'' album (a 3rd version was cut at a session a week after the 2nd one, but this sounds like little more than a rough session warm-up so isn't included in this analysis). It’s difficult to choose between the two, though the 1962 cut features a more expressive vocal.

"My Girl Josephine" is a song written by Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew. Domino recorded the song on Imperial Records (Imperial 5704) in 1960, and it charted number 7 on the Billboard Rhythm And Blues charts and number 14 on the Billboard pop charts. The song is also listed and recorded as "Josephine" and "Hello Josephine" in various cover versions. According to AllMusic, the song has also been performed by Bill Black's Combo, Curley Bridges, Van Broussard, Snooks Eaglin, Chris Farlowe, the Flamin' Groovies, Michael Herman, the Holmes Brothers, Jerry Jaye, Jerry Lee Lewis, Sandy Nelson, Tracy Pendarvis, Queen Ida & Her Zydeco Band, Noel Redding, Warren Storm, Super Cat, Them, and Billy Vera, among others.

11 - Hello Josephine (1) (Slate & Master Take 10) (1:47) 1961
(Dave Bartholomew-Antoine ''Fats'' Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

Two very different recordings of ''High Powered Woman'' were recorded at Sun, though none were released until well into the 1970s. This 1961 version features a ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ intro and some very fine saxophone, and wasn’t released until the Sun International ''Golden Rock And Roll'' collection in 1977. The January 4, 1962 cut features a strong Ray Charles influence right down to the ''What’d I Say'' inspired intro, though at around 1 minute and 43 seconds it’s even shorter than the 2 minute version from a year earlier.

12 - High Powered Woman (1) (Slate & Take 5) (2:04) 1977
(Sonny Terry) (Copyright Control)

My Blue Heaven" is a popular song written by Walter Donaldson with lyrics by George A. Whiting. It has become part of various fake book collections. In 1928, "My Blue Heaven" became a huge hit on Victor 20964-A for crooner Gene Austin, accompanied by the Victor Orchestra as directed by Nat Shilkret; it charted for 26 weeks, stayed at number 1 and sold over five million copies becoming one of the best selling singles of all time. In 1928, Blue Amberol Records released an instrumental piano version by Muriel Pollock (issue number 5471). The music for "My Blue Heaven" was written in 1924.

Donaldson wrote it one afternoon at the Friars Club in New York while waiting for his turn at the billiard table. The song was written while Donaldson was under contract to Irving Berlin, working for Berlin's publishing company, Irving Berlin Inc. George Whiting wrote lyrics adapted for Donaldson's music, and for a while, performed it in his vaudeville act; three years later, Tommy Lyman started singing it on the radio as his theme song.

Donaldson established his own publishing company in 1928, and his rights in the song were apparently assigned to his company at that time, with the song listed as having been published by George Whiting Music and Donaldson Music. The song was subject to copyright in 1925 and 1927. These copyrights were renewed in 1953 and 1955, after the death of both composers, at which time the rights in the song were owned by Leo Feist, Inc.. The rights were thereafter assigned to the EMI Catalogue Partnership, controlled and administered by EMI Feist Catalog Inc.

The song has become a standard. Hit versions were also recorded by Jimmie Lunceford in 1935 and Fats Domino in 1956. The Fats Domino version was a two sided hit, with, "I'm In Love Again" and reached number nineteen on the Billboard magazine charts and number five on the Rhythm & Blues Best Sellers chart. Mary Lou Williams recording a version for her 1964 Folkways Records album Mary Lou Williams Presents (F 2843); Smithsonian Folkways re-issued the recording as part of its 2004 album Mary Lou Williams Presents Black Christ of the Andes (SFW40816).

13 - My Blue Heaven (2.1) (2:00) 1989
14 - My Blue Heaven (2.2) (Slate & Take 4) (2:42) 1989
(Walter Donaldson-George Whiting) (George Whiting Music-Donaldson Music)

"Sweet Little Sixteen" is a rock and roll song written and originally performed by Chuck Berry (Chess), who released it as a single in January 1958. It reached number 2 on the Billboard charts, Berry's highest position ever on the charts, with the exception of the suggestive number one hit "My Ding-A-Ling" in 1972. "Sweet Little Sixteen" also reached number one on the Rhythm & Blues Best Sellers chart. Rolling Stone magazine ranked the song number 272 on their list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004.

Eddie Cochran performed a live version in 1960 which was released posthumously on his ''On The Air'' album. There is a cover version by Joe Brown and the Bruvvers on their 1962 album ''Pictures Of You''.

The Beach Boys' 1963 song "Surfin' USA" has virtually the same melody, with new lyrics that focus on the Beach Boys' ongoing theme of surfing. Following litigation by Chuck Berry the song is credited to Chuck Berry and Brian Wilson.

Between 1963 and 1965 the Beatles performed the song on BBC radio. It can be heard on the compilation album Live at the BBC. John Lennon recorded the song again for his album Rock 'n' Roll. The Animals' version is available on their 1966 album Animalisms. Ten Years After released a live version of this song on their 1970 album Watt. Jesse Colin Young also covered it on his 1972 album Together. Fictional synth pop band Silicon Teens recorded a version of the song for their 1980 album Music For Parties released on Mute Records.

Rock and roll artist Jerry Lee Lewis also covered this song for Sun Records and later with Beatles drummer Ringo Starr; this version appeared on Lewis's 2006 duet album ''Last Man Standing''. The Rolling Stones covered this song on their 1978 US Tour.

Backed by a band that includes Ace Cannon’s honking sax and drummer Gene Chrisman (who incidentally also played drums on the 1982 ''My Fingers Do The Talkin'' album), it’s surprisingly that Sam Phillips didn’t see the potential of this great version. 12 months later he cut another 4 takes, of which the slowest of these was selected as a single soon afterwards. Though the tempo drags a bit, it has a great vocal & a memorable bass guitar intro from session man R.W. McGhee. The fastest alternate take from this session was chosen for the ''Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues'' album in 1969, while the other two takes weren’t released until the late 1980s/early 1990s. The 1977 version would potentially be the ultimate cut if it weren’t for the backing vocalists’ “oohs” and “ahhs”, but this was still one of the stronger tracks on his final Mercury album, 1978’s ''Keeps Rockin''. The 2005 version is a duet with Ringo Starr, and although he isn’t the greatest of singers, he’s perfect for this (as is his drumming style). The fact that they were actually in the studio together at the time makes this one of the most enjoyable and spontaneous-sounding tracks on the 2006 ‘Last Man Standing’ album.

Other recordings of ''Sweet Little Sixteen'' are John Lennon (Capitol; Bill Black's Combo (Hi); Bobby Vee (Liberty); Jesse Colin Young (Warner Bross.); The Beatles (Bellaphon); The Animals (MGM). Also available on early live recordings of The Beatles (Poludor), and on the United Artists release of a Britsh TV soundtrack featuring Eddie Cochran.

15 - Sweet Little Sixteen (1) (Slate & Take 2) (2:42) 1989
(Chuck Berry) (Arc Music)

10-15 Recorded June 14, 1961 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal except 10 and piano), Brad Suggs, (guitar), Gene Chrisman (drums),
Jay W. Brown (bass), Johnny ''Ace'' Cannon (saxophone)
Producer – Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

''Ramblin' Rose'' has been identified in some earlier discographies as having been recorded three times, once more than the evidence to hand indicates, a misconception now shown to be the result of the post-production manipulation of tape speeds. The good news is that this makes available an extension to take 1 serving up more than twenty extra seconds of the cut to add to what has hitherto been made widely available. These recordings date from this session in September 1961 when Sam Phillips pushed out the boat in trying to find a new sound. An eight piece horn section was in attendance to help generate the big brass sound, as Sam described it in the liner notes of the second LP (Sun LP 1265), on Jerry Lee's version of ''Money''. As we can hear in the concluding moments of the complete performance, greatly extended beyond the original fade out point at 2:22, in the end it all fell apart. But the suitably truncated ''Money'' was nonetheless good enough for a single release, (Sun 371), coupled with the best of the six takes of ''Bonnie B'' held over from January 1960.

''Ramblin' Rose'', while not typical Jerry Lee fare, is a powerful, bluesy effort that holds a surprising amount of tension throughout its nearly three minutes running time. You know you're listening to something special within that first four bars of instrumental work. The performance is very sexy, without any of the overt gurgles Jerry used to insert gratuitously into his material. The track, not to be confused with the insipid Nat Cole of the same name, features powerful drumming and piano work. Not even the chorus can diminish this one. Sam Phillips' Nashville connection probably acquired the song; it was by Fred Burch (who had co-written ''Tragedy'') and Marijohn Wilkin, together they would go on to write Jimmy Dean's hits, ''PT 109'' and ''Big Bad John''. This, a finer song in every way, stiffed.

16 - Ramblin' Rose (1) (Extended Master Sun 374) (3:30) 1962
17 - Ramblin' Rose (2) (3:22) 1969
(Fred B. Burch-Marijohn Wilkin) (Cedar Wood Music)

"Money (That's What I Want)" is a song written by Tamla founder Berry Gordy Jr. and Janie Bradford that became the first hit record for Gordy's Motown enterprise. The song was recorded in 1959 by Barrett Strong for the Tamla label, distributed nationally on Anna Records. It went on to be covered by many artists, including the Beatles in 1963 and the Flying Lizards in 1979.

The song was originally recorded by Barrett Strong and released on Tamla in August 1959. Anna Records was operated by Gwen Gordy, Anna Gordy and Roquel "Billy" Davis. Gwen and Anna's brother Berry Gordy had just established his Tamla label (soon Motown would follow) and licensed the song to the Anna label in 1960, which was distributed nationwide by Chicago-based Chess Records in order to meet demand; the Tamla record was a resounding success in the Midwest. The song has Strong curtly insisting that money is what he needs, more than anything else.

In the US, the single became Motown's first hit in June 1960, making it to number 2 on the Hot Rhythm and Blues Sides chart and number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was listed as number 288 on Rolling Stone's "The 500 Greatest Songs Of All Time''. Greil Marcus has pointed out that "Money" was the only song that brought Strong's name near the top of the national music charts, "but that one time has kept him on the radio all his life''. Piano and lead vocals were supplied by Barrett. Guitar on the track was played by Eugene Grew. Virtually all of the records issued were 45's, the 10" 78 format, issued by Anna, is described as "extremely rare''.

Singer Barrett Strong claims that he co-wrote the song with Berry Gordy and Janie Bradford. His name was removed from the copyright registration three years after the song was written, restored in 1987 when the copyright was renewed, and then excised again the following year. Gordy has stated that Strong's name was only included because of a clerical error.

Jerry Lee Lewis recorded in September 1961 ''Money'' for his Sun single (Sun 371), backed with ''Bonnie B'' and released on November 21, 1961, but didn't the charts. Even the Beatles recorded "Money" in seven takes on July 18, 1963, with their usual lineup. A series of piano overdubs was later added by producer George Martin. The song was released in November 1963 as the final track on their second UK album, ''With The Beatles''. According to George Harrison, the group discovered Strong's version in Brian Epstein's NEMS record store (though not a hit in the UK, it had been issued on London Records in 1960). They had previously performed it during their audition at Decca Records on January 1, 1962, with Pete Best still on drums at the time. They also recorded it six times for BBC radio. A live version, taped at a concert date in Stockholm, Sweden in October 1963, was included on ''Anthology 1''.

In July 1979 British band the Flying Lizards released a new wave version of the song. An unexpected hit, this version peaked at number 5 in the UK chart and at number 50 on the Billboard Hot 100. It also peaked at number 22 on the US dance charts.

The song has been covered by many artists, with several of the versions appearing in a variety of charts. For example, the Kingsmen reached number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 6 in the US Rhythm and Blues charts in 1964. Jennell Hawkins hit number 17 in the Rhythm and Blues charts with her recording in 1962. Junior Walker and The All Stars reached number 52 on the Hot 100 and number 35 on the Rhythm and Blues charts in 1966 and Bern Elliott and the Fenmen reached number 14 on the UK Singles Chart in November 1963.

The song was a staple for British beat bands, including the Searchers, the Undertakers, Kingsize Taylor and the Dominoes and the Rolling Stones. It was also covered by Freddie and the Dreamers and John Lee Hooker. The song was covered during live performances by the Doors and appears twice on their 2009 released album ''Live In New York'', which covers four sets from January 1970. It also appears on their live album Live in Vancouver 1970 and the bootleg album ''Boot Yer Butt: The Doors Bootlegs''.

18 - Money (Extended Master Sun 371) (2:41) 1961
(Janie Bradford-Berry Gordy Jr.) (Jobett Music)

19 - Rockin' The Boat Of Love (2:43) 1974
(Carl Mann) (Sun Entertainment)

16-19 Recorded September 21, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Wayne Moss (guitar), Jerry Kennedy (guitar),
Jerry Tuttle (organ), Buddy Harmon (drums), Bob Moore (bass), Cam Mullins,
John Wilkin, Don Sheffield, Bill McElhiney (horns), Jimm Hall, Karls Garvin,
Homer ''Boots'' Randolph (saxophones), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Probably Billy Sherrill

Excluding Jerry's earliest records for Sun at the start of his career five years later, this was undoubtedly his strongest two-sided release (Sun 374) in memory. Indeed, none of his subsequent releases on the original Sun label would even come close to the standard. Both sides, ''I've Been Twistin'''and ''Rambling Rose'' deserved to have been hits in terms of their musical standard and their synchrony with the marketplace in early 1962. Sadly, neither dented the charts. It's a wonder Sam Phillips (and Jerry himself didn't wonder, ''If you can't make money like this, what's the point?''. ''Twistin'''is a wonderful remake of ''Feelin' Good'', Little Junior Parker's Sun classic from July 1953. Jerry has retained all its zany charm and backwoods folkways, and force-fed them into the twist craze. Instead of the disaster this should have been, the record retains a surprising amount of energy and good nature 35 years later. It my seems like Jerry was reprising 'ancient' material here, yet his source was less than a decade old when he tried his hand at it. It has been four times that long since Jerry's record was released in 1962.

Notice that at the operative moment (2:15) on take 1, at the point that Jerry Lee sings ''I said'' immediately before he launches into the prolonged ''whoa-hooah'' (...choose your own phonetics), a guitar note is heard. That same note can also be detected on the Sun 374 master. Up to tis point, there are numerous references in the spoken/sung words both to distinguish take 1 from take 2 and to align the master squarely with take 1. As take 1 develops beyond 2:15, the guitar is silent throughout Jerry Lee's extended wail. However, on the issued master, during the course of ''whoa-hooah'', you will hear another guitar note struck at 2:18. Staying with the master, we then hear an additional exclamation at the end of the wail, ''well I'' before Jerry Lee sings ''feel so good''. Go back to take 1; he comes out of the wail straight into ''feel so good''; there's no ''well I'' receding the familiar refrain ''feel so good''. Now, check take 2; there's no note audible behind Jerry Lee singing ''I said'' prior to ''whoa-hooah'' but, as the wail develops, there's the guitar again. So, just as soon as Jerry Lee utters ''I said'' we find the evidence of where the tapes have been snipped to move seamlessly from take 1 to take 2.

It would appear that Sam Phillips didn't think much of Jerry Lewis's hesitancy at around the 2:43 mark on the first take and recognised that an improvement could be wrought by grafting on the latter part of the second take to the bulk of the first to manufacture ''take 3'', i.e. the master. To add to the confusion, the release in the late 1980s of an extra few seconds of take 1, which took listeners beyond the original fade out, gave rise to the spurious claim that a third alternate existed. Nor were matters helped by Shelby Singleton having published an LP in 1977 featuring both take 1 as ''I've Been Twistin'' and the Sun 374 master as ''Feel So Good'', an exercise that was something of a disservice to fans. But let's be clear, there are only two takes of ''Ive Been Twistin''', plus the spliced master.

20 - I've Been Twistin' (1) (3:08) 1974
21 - I've Been Twistin' (2) (Slate & Take 4) (3:21) 1983
(Herman Parker Jr.) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

The twist craze was, of course, at its height, Jerry Lee used the opportunity to -re-record ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'' in the latest popular idiom. One can't help feeling that this might have had more chance of success than the revival of Junior Parker's shuffling blues number had Sam Phillips had the nerve to release it. Listeners may be wondering why only one take of ''Whole Lotta Twistin' Goin' On'' is to be found, given that previously published discographies have indicated that there were two distinct recordings. The notionally shorter version was the first outing for the song when it materialised on a Charly LP in 1954. The fact is that this so-called ''take 1'', which will not be found in this collection, was simply an edit of the longer, full recording, with a passage of some 27 seconds, commencing at 2:27, having been excised. This piece of engineering lends weight to the idea that consideration may well have been given to issuing the recording back in 1962, although even after the removal of some of the more risqué commentary there was still potentially sufficient innuendo remaining to provoke offence. It's an intriguing ''might have been'' which serves as a further reminder that Sam was very capable of adding a ''twist'' pf his own to the proceedings.

Jerry has often claimed that his biggest hits were recorded in one take, and although it’s definitely not true of ''Great Balls Of Fire'', ''Breathless'' and ''High School Confidential'' it’s at least partly true with this song. Prior to recording the hit version (probably several weeks earlier though exact dates are lost) he quickly ran-through 4 takes of the song: although these are perfectly okay, they lack the passion of the well-known version and weren’t released at the time (the first released version from 1957 session was on ‘The Sun Years’ box-set in 1983, with other takes following over the next few years). The single (his 2nd single following ‘Crazy Arms’) changed his life of course, launching his career and becoming one of the most revered (and covered) rock and roll songs of all time.

Now in 1962 his career was pretty much washed-up, and in an attempt to cash-in on the then-current “twist” craze he recorded 2 takes as ‘Whole Lotta Twistin’ Goin’ On’. Unfortunately not released at the time (a shame as the song might’ve been a hit all over again), it was first issued on Charly’s ''Jerry Lee Lewis & His Pumpin’ Piano'' in 1974, with the very similar alternate take appearing on the United States ''Golden Rock And Roll'' album 3 years later. The 1963 re-cut for ''Golden Hits'' has a very similar “twist” beat to the 1962 versions, and would be a candidate for the best cut if it wasn’t for the over-production. In 1973 he cut the song again for ''The Session'', a modern (for the time) “rock” treatment that works well apart from the unfortunate faded-in intro, and in 1988 he recorded it once again for the ''Great Balls Of Fire''! movie and soundtrack album, again a more than creditable version.

22 - Whole Lotta Twistin' Going On (3) (3:20) 1974
(David Curley Williams-Sonny David) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

Jerry Lee talk and sings his way through ''I Know What It Means'', a leftover from this January 1962 session. The bass heavy arrangement is a curious hybrid of old timey and bluesy elements. All in all, this track is a perfect example of a B-side.

23 - I Know What It Means (1) (Master Sun 396) (2:41) 1965
24 - I Know What It Means (2) (2:41) 1981
(Stan Kesler) (Knox Music Incorporated-Beckie Music)

Two very different recordings of ''High Powered Woman'' were recorded by Jerry Lee at Sun, though none were released until well into the 1970s. The June 14, 1961 version features a ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ intro and some very fine saxophone, and wasn’t released until the Sun International ''Golden Rock And Roll'' collection in 1977. This January 1962 cut features a strong Ray Charles influence right down to the ''What’d I Say'' inspired intro, though at around 1 minute and 43 seconds it’s even shorter than the 2 minute version from a year earlier.

25 - High Powered Woman (2) (1:50) 1975
(Sonny Terry) (Copyright Control)

20-25 Recorded January 4, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), R.W. McGee (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips

Jerry began this January 5, 1962 session with ''Sweet Little Sixteen''. What might have simply been a warm-up take to get things going, apparently had more planning behind it. This song was tried on at least three occasions,suggesting that it was being groomed for release right from the start. Jerry rarely turned in a bad version of a Chuck Berry song and this is no exception. It's surprisingly laid-back compared with Chuck Berry's original,and it is revealing to note that on at least one of the surviving alternate versions Jerry storms its way through the changes and includes some driving piano work. When it came time to select a version for release, the powers at Sun rightly concluded that laid-back and mellow were the order of the day.

Jerry Lee's wrestling with one of the relatively small number of songs recorded during the post 706 Union era to endure in multiple takes, here, at least, there is no cause to bemoan the implications of the high slate numbers uttered by Sam ahead of so many songs that remain only as ''one-offs'', ''Sweet Little Sixteen'', having been the subject of an isolated run-through at a June 1961 session, was revisited with the intention of producing a master for single release. Three of the four takes recorded on this occasion are distinguished by an introduction involving the bass player's rapid fire plucking of a single note which, together with the fact that the piano is at times almost inaudible in a mix dominated by the organ, reduces the force of Lewis's personality. In the end the third of these alternates was chosen for release on Sun 379.

"Sweet Little Sixteen" is a rock and roll song written and originally performed by Chuck Berry, who released it as a single in January 1958. It reached number two on the Billboard charts, Berry's highest position ever on the charts, with the exception of the suggestive number one hit "My Ding-A-Ling" in 1972. "Sweet Little Sixteen" also reached number one on the Rhythm & Blues Best Sellers chart. Rolling Stone magazine ranked the song number 272 on their list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004.

Eddie Cochran performed a live version in 1960 which was released posthumously on his ''On The Air''album. There is a cover version by Joe Brown and the Bruvvers on their 1962 album ''Pictures Of You. The Beach Boys' 1963 song "Surfin' USA" has virtually the same melody, with new lyrics that focus on the Beach Boys' ongoing theme of surfing. Following litigation by Berry the song is credited to Berry/Wilson.

Between 1963 and 1965 the Beatles performed the song on BBC radio. It can be heard on the compilation album Live at the BBC. John Lennon recorded the song again for his album Rock 'n' Roll. The Animals' version is available on their 1966 album Animalisms. Ten Years After released a live version of this song on their 1970 album Watt. Jesse Colin Young also covered it on his 1972 album Together. Fictional synth pop band Silicon Teens recorded a version of the song for their 1980 album Music For Parties released on Mute Records. Rock and roll phenomenon artist Jerry Lee Lewis also re-covered this song for Sun Records with Beatles drummer Ringo Starr; this version appeared on Lewis's 2006 duet album''Last Man Standing''. The Rolling Stones covered this song on their 1978 US Tour.

26 - Sweet Little Sixteen (2.1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:36) 1969
27 - Sweet Little Sixteen (2.2) (2:30) 1992
28 - Sweet Little Sixteen (2.3) (2:33) 1992
29 - Sweet Little Sixteen (2.4) (Slate & Master Take 4 Sun 379) (2:59) 1962
(Chuck Berry) (Chuck Berry Music–Arc Music)

26-29 Recorded January 5, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 14 Contains 1962-1963

Experimentally, for one take, they upped the tempo and gave Lewis himself greater licence on a more vivacious recording that was destined to remain unheard until Shelby Singleton saw fit to publish it on an LP in 1969. At the time of that unveiling, accidental or otherwise, given that this take was also presented in lieu of the authentic Sun 379 recording on a contemporaneous 45rpm single, many thought that Sam Phillips had missed a trick and that this was Lewis's best reading of the Chuck Berry song. He also had another stab at Fats Domino's ''Hello Josephine'', though with an earlier version dating from a June 1961 session having already been released on the LP ''Jerry Lee's Greatest'' it's difficult to imagine there was any serious intent to do very much with the song. It was no doubt a casual, spur of the moment, decision to record it again.

''My Girl Josephine" is a song written by Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew. Domino recorded the songon Imperial records (Imperial 5704) in 1960, and it charted number 7 on the Billboard Rhythm & Bluescharts and number 14 on the Billboard pop charts.

According to Allmusic, the song has also been performed by The Bill Black Combo, Curley Bridges, VanBroussard, Snooks Eaglin, Chris Farlowe, The Flamin' Groovies, Michael Herman, The Holmes Brothers,Jerry Jaye, Jerry Lee Lewis, Sandy Nelson, Tracy Pendarvis, Queen Ida & Her Zydeco Band, Noel Redding,Warren Storm, Super Cat, and Billy Vera, among others.

1 - Hello Josephine (2) 2:26) 1969
(Dave Bartholomew-Fats Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

Jerry Lee trying something of the pop-country number ''Set My Mind At Ease'', of which three takes remain. It need be explained that the quality of the third, hitherto unreleased, has been compromised very slightly by a tape crease at around the 52 seconds mark. Not for the first time the casual insertion of the word ''honey'', here prefacing the fourth line of the song, gives an early pointer to the individual status of the take in question.

An excellent athlete and former U.S. Marine, West played football for his high school and junior college (Jones County Junior College) teams and was a boxer in the Golden Gloves championships. Red West contributed to several songs written for Elvis Presley in 1961 and 1962. He received help from Elvis Presley in writing two songs in the early 1960s, which were collaborations, "You'll Be Gone" and "That's Someone You Never Forget''. "You'll Be Gone" was also co-written with Charlie Hodge, and appeared on the ''Girl Happy'' soundtrack album and as a 45 single in 1965. The single reached number 35 on the Canadian singles chart in 1965. "That's Someone You Never Forget" was the final track on the 1962 album ''Pot Luck'' and was released as a 45 B side single in 1967 and was featured on the Artist of the Century compilation.

Red West also wrote ''Set My Mind At Easy'' for Jerry Lee Lewis and co-wrote "If You Think I Don't Need You" with Joey Cooper for the motion picture ''Viva Las Vegas''. He teamed up with Joey Cooper again on "I'm A Fool", which Ricky Nelson recorded. "I'm A Fool" later became a hit for Dino, Desi and Billy, the partnership of Dean-Paul "Dino" Martin, Desi Arnaz Jr., and William "Billy" Hinsche. Red West also co-wrote the song "Separate Ways" for Elvis in 1972. The song was the title of an Elvis album released on RCA's budget album line, Camden, in January 1973. The song "Separate Ways" was the B side release of the single "You Were Always On My Mind" in November 1972. The single reached number 20 on Billboard's Hot 100. It reached number 16 on the Country Music Billboard chart. Again, largely due to the success of "Always On My Mind".

When Presley was making films in the 1960s in Hollywood, Red West appeared in small roles in sixteen of the star's films. During this time, West became good friends with actor Nick Adams and his physical abilities got him hired on as a stuntman on Adams' television series, ''The Rebel''. From there, West went on to do more stunt work in film as well as developing a career as an actor in a number of motion pictures and on television. He was often on screen as a henchman in the television series ''The Wild Wild West''. West played master sergeant Andy Micklin on ''Baa Baa Black Sheep''. He guest starred twice on the CBS hit detective series ''Magnum, P.I.'' as different characters, as four different ones on ''The A-Team'', the Knight Rider pilot episode "Knight Of The Phoenix", on ''The Fall Guy'' and in ''The Once And Future King'' (The Twilight Zone). In 1989 West appeared in the action film ''Road House'' with Patrick Swayze as Red Webster, the auto parts store owner. West continued to work in motion pictures as of early February 2013. His most recent role was in the 2013 film ''Safe Haven''.

In 1976, Red West was involved in a series of heavy-handed incidents in Las Vegas with aggressive fans that got out of hand, drawing criticism by the media. More than that, West was becoming more vocal about Presley's drug problem and how he needed help. As a result, Red West, his cousin Sonny, and a third bodyguard named David Hebler was fired by Elvis Presley and subsequently helped write the book Elvis: What Happened, which was published weeks before Presley's death. The book, according to West in the book, was an attempt to help Presley, but believed by some to be an attempt to retaliate and earn an income after being fired. Red West died on July 18, 2017, aged 81, from an aortic aneurysm, at the Baptist Hospital in his native Memphis. His death occurred less than two months after the death of his cousin, actor Sonny West, in May 2017. His funeral and burial at Memorial Park Cemetery was held on July 24 in Memphis, Tennessee

2 - Set My Mind At Ease (1) (1:44) 1974
3 - Set My Mind At Ease (2) (2:05) 1987
4 - Set My Mind At Ease (3) (2:04) 2015 Sun Unissued
(Red West) (Sun Entertainment)

Jerry actually recorded ''Waiting For A Train'' at least 5 takes of this song at different sessions in 1962: In January of that year 2 takes were recorded, featuring the expected guitars, bass and drums plus Shirley Sisk on the organ. The slightly faster version was released first: mistitled ''All Around The Watertank'' it was issued on ''Olde Tyme Country Music'' in 1970, with the slower version appearing on the United Kingdom album ''Good Rockin’ Tonite'' 9 years later (the faster version was also released as single - backed by the dirty blues ''Big Legged Woman'' of all songs - and was a top 20 United States country hit). In September of 1962 he tackled the song another several times, this time without Shirley Sisk’s organ but with Boots Randolph’s saxophone! One of these takes was apparently issued on a Sun International single by mistake in the early 1970s (though this didn't seem to be common knowledge amongst fans until well into the 1980s), with the other takes released on various CDs during the 1980s. Lastly, he recorded the song again for the ''She Even Woke Me Up To Say Goodbye'' album in 1969. Backed by a very tasteful and nobtrusive string section, once again (to my ears) a late 1960s Smash recording blows away all the earlier versions.

Note: Shirley Sisk, born Ernestine Brooks in Memphis. First recorded for Sam Phillips as a pianist and vocalist with her sister in-law Judy Dismukes on guitar. The session was on February 8, 1952 when ''Let Me Count The Curls'' and''Mean Old Memphis'' were recorded. Sam Phillips assigned Chess master numbers and shipped masters to Chess and to local radio stations. However, Chess did not release the titles, but Acuff-Rose picked up the publishing rights to the song ''Let Me Count The Curls''. By the late 1950s and early 1960s, Shirley Sisk was back in Memphis, working out of the Echo studios as a pianist and organist. She was featured on a Phillips International disc by the Memphis Bells and in her own right on Sun 365, recorded at the Echo studio on Manassas Avenue in 1961. She owned Permanent Records in Memphis, which did not live up to its name.

5 - Waiting For A Train (1.1) (Master Sun 69) (1:53) 1973
6 - Waiting For A Train (1.2) (1:41) 1970 SI-1119 1st Pressing
(Jimmie Rodgers) (Peer International)

1-6 Recorded January 5, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

A superb bluesy modern (for 1962) country song, this features a tremendous opening riff similar to Sam Cooke’s ''Bring It On Home To Me'' by Jay W. Brown on his bass (though a weaker alternate take 1 from this same session doesn’t feature this). Released as the B-side to ''Sweet Little Sixteen'' in the same year, this was a minor hit in it’s own right in some territories, including Fort Worth in Texas; so when Jerry cut the live album ''By Request (More Of The Greatest Live Show On Earth)'' there in 1966 the song was greeted with cheers.

The side of this track below was geared to kiddies, albeit the mellow ones, this side ''How's My Ex Treating You'' was plainly adult fare. The spirit of Marty Robbins and his hits ''Don't Worry'' and ''It's Your World''loom large over the proceedings here as Jay W. Brown and his electric bass growl their way through the arrangement. Even Shirley Sisk, last glimpsed sitting at the organ on Sun 365, supports Jerry Lee on this one. There is a deep bluesy vein to this Vic McAlpin tune, thus laying the groundwork for Jerry's pedigree in the country market for the next several decades.

In September 1962, this became the last charted record on the Sun label - some nine years after the first. It was a sad commentary on Jerry Lee's declining fortunes and Sam Phillips' declining commitment to the business that it rose to the rather lowly peak of number 95.

A third, little heard take of ''How's My Ex Treating You'', the song chosen to partner ''Sweet Little Sixteen'' on Sun 379, is immediately distinguishable from the similar sounding take first released in 1989 by the slower pace and the way in which Jerry Lee repeats the opening phrase ''How's my ex...'' in full rather than truncated simply to ''..my ex...'' in the first verse. Both of these takes were disregarded at the time of recording and left in the shadow of the favoured cut which, uniquely in respect of the song, features a bass guitar introduction.

Some might say that these June 1962 sessions lay bare the dangers in having too many musicians in the studio with Lewis all competing for space, no matter that the producers were able to accommodate them on multi-track tape. A new version of ''Good Rockin' Tonight'' recorded at this time pales when compared to the forceful performance of the same song at 706 Union and Jerry Lee sounds constrained by the relatively laboured arrangement.

7 - How's My Ex Treating You (1) (Master Sun 379) (2:38) 1962
8 - How's My Ex Treating You (2) (2:02) 1989
9 - How's My Ex Treating You (3) (2:13) 1999
(Vic McAlpin) (Tree Music)

"Good Rocking Tonight" was originally a jump blues song released in 1947 by its writer, Roy Brown and was covered by many other recording artists. The song includes the memorable refrain, "Well I heard the news, there's good rocking tonight!".

Brown had first offered his song to Wynonie Harris, who turned it down. Only after the Brown's record-gained traction in New Orleans did Harris decide to cover it. Harris's version was even more energetic than Brown's original version, featuring black gospel style hand clapping. This may have contributed to the composition's greater success on the national rhythm and blues chart. Brown's original recording hit number13 of the Billboard Rhythm & Blues chart, but Harris' record became a number one rhythm and blues hit and remained on the chart for half a year. Brown's single would re-enter the chart in 1949, peaking at number 11.Harris had a reputation for carousing, and sometimes forgot lyrics. His "Good Rockin'" recording session largely followed Brown's original lyrics, but by the end, he replaced the last section with a series of raucous"hoy hoy hoy!" interjections, a commonly used expression in jump blues tunes of the time, going back to1945's "The Honeydripper" by Joe Liggins.

The song is a primer of sorts on the popular black music of the era, making lyrical reference to Sweet Lorraine, Sioux City Sue, Sweet Georgia Brown, Caldonia, Elder Brown, and Deacon Jones. All of these characters had figured prominently in previous hit songs. While Brown missed out on the biggest hit version of his song, its success kicked off his own career, which included two number 1 rhythm and blues hits. In 1949, he released "Rockin' at Midnight", a sequel to "Good Rockin' Tonight", which might be thought of as "Good Rockin' Tonight Part II" because it included updates on the same characters as the original. It reached number 2 on the Rhythm & Blues chart, where it remained for a month.

In 1954, "Good Rockin' Tonight" was the second Sun Records release by Elvis Presley, along with "I Don't Care If The Sun Don't Shine" on the flip side. Elvis Presley and his band mates hewed closer to the original Roy Brown version, but omitted the lyrics' by-then-dated roster of names in favor of a simpler, more energetic "We're gonna rock, rock, rock!" Described as "a flat-out rocker" country radio programmers blanched, and older audiences were somewhat mystified.

A live show broadcast from Houston disc jockey Bill Collie's club documented that the crowd "barely responded" to the song. "Blue Moon Of Kentucky", the uptempo version of the Bill Monroe classic, has "the fans go stark raving nuts with joy". Both sides of this second record featuring "Elvis Presley, Scotty and Bill" "stiffed".

The song was used for the Elvis Presley biopic Elvis which starred Jonathan Rhys-Meyers as Presley; it was used for a scene where he is performing at the Louisiana Hayride in 1956. Jerry Lee Lewis recorded an unreleased version the song for Sun Records. Ronnie Montrose recorded a hard rock cover of the song on his band's debut album with Sammy Hagar on vocals. The Honeydrippers with Robert Plant & Jeff Beck,recorded the song under the name "Rockin at Midnight". Paul McCartney recorded the song for the Unplugged (The Official Bootleg) album.

Bruce Springsteen performed the song during his 1978 Darkness Tour, usually as the opening number. He also occasionally performed the song on The River Tour in 1980-81. Springsteen performed the song for the first time in 27 years in 2008 on the Magic Tour. A Gene Summers cover version of "Good Rocking Tonight"was included on a French compilation album The Big Beat Show issued by Big Beat Records (BBR1000) in1981. Contraband, an all-star hard rock group recorded their version of the song for their debut self-titled album in 1991. Ricky Nelson recorded the song for his 1958 album Ricky Nelson. Lonnie Lee recorded the song for his 1993 album Don't Look Back; his version is a more guitar-based rock 'n' roll version.

Other cover versions of the song include the Treniers', Pat Boone's, James Brown's, Dread Zeppelin's (on their Hot & Spicy Beanburger album), Montrose's (whose version was covered by NWOBHM band Diamond Head), Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen and Kevin DuBrow's. Robert Plant and the Honeydrippers had a successful cover of "Rockin' at Midnight". Early 60s Mexican band Los Teen Tops recorded a Spanish and successful version: "Buen rock esta noche". Wes Paul Gerrard features this song heavily in his live performances, often opening up with it in his second set. He will record the song in his new Manchester to Memphis album which he is recording at Sun Studio, Memphis, Tennessee in May 2010.

10 - Good Rockin' Tonight (2) (Slate, Take 2, Chatter) (2:50) 1969
(Roy Brown) (Blue Ridge Music)

''Be Bop A Lula'' the writing of the song is credited to Gene Vincent and his manager, Bill "Sheriff Tex" Davis. There is evidence that the song was started in 1955, when Vincent was recuperating from a motorcycle accident at the US Navy hospital in Norfolk, Virginia.

There, he met Donald Graves, who supposedly wrote the words to the song while Vincent wrote the tune. "Money Honey" by the Drifters, 1953,the song came to the attention of Davis, who allegedly bought out Graves' rights to the song for some $50(sources vary as to the exact amount), and had himself credited as the lyric writer.

Davis claimed that he wrote the song with Gene Vincent after listening to the song "Don't Bring Lulu", and Vincent himself sometimes claimed that he wrote the words inspired by a comic strip, "Little Lulu". "Be-Bop-A-Lula" is number 102 in the list of the 500 greatest songs of all time.

"I come in dead drunk and stumble over the bed. And me and Don Graves were looking at this bloody book;it was called 'Little Lulu'. And I said, "Hell, man, it's 'Be-Bop-a-Lulu.' And he said, 'Yeah, man, swinging.'And we wrote this song'', recalled Gene Vincent later in 1970.

The phrase "Be-Bop-A-Lula" is almost identical to "Be-Baba-Leba", the title of a number 3 Rhythm &Blues chart hit for Helen Humes in 1945, which became a bigger hit when recorded by Lionel Hampton as"Hey! Ba-Ba-Re-Bop''. This phrase, or something very similar, was widely used in jazz circles in the 1940s,giving its name to the bebop style, and possibly being ultimately derived from the shout of "Arriba! Arriba!"used by Latin American band-leaders to encourage band members.

In early 1956, Gene Vincent performed the song on a radio show in Norfolk, Virginia, and recorded a demo version which was passed to Capitol Records, who were looking for a young singer to rival Elvis Presley. Capitol invited Vincent to record the song and it was recorded at Owen Bradley's studio in Nashville,Tennessee on May 4, 1956. Cliff Gallup (lead guitar), "Wee" Willie Williams (rhythm guitar), "Jumpin'" Jack Neal (string bass), and Dickie "Be Bop" Harrell (drums) comprised the band. When the song was being recorded, Harrell screamed in the background, he said because he wanted to be sure his family could hear twas him on the record.

The song was released in June 1956 on Capitol Records single F3450, and immediately sold well. The song was successful on three American singles charts: it peaked at number 7 on the US Billboard pop music chart,number 8 on the Rhythm &Blues chart, and also made the top ten on the Country & Western Best Seller chart peaking at number 5. In the UK, it peaked at number 16 in August 1956. In April 1957, the record company announced that over 2 million copies had been sold to date.

Gene Vincent recorded a new version of the song in 1962 which appeared on the flip-side of the single "The King of Fools". Vincent sang the song in the movie ''The Girl Can't Help It''. The song also featured in the films "The Delinquents" (1989), "Wild At Heart" (1990), and "Pleasantville" (1998).

Often unfairly criticised by 50s rock and roll fans, Jerry’s 1962 recording is a slowed down and more bluesy performance than Gene Vincent’s fine original, though it wasn’t released until 1971 (on the Sun International album ''Monsters''). At the 1973 London sessions he and the band emphasised the blues feel even further, recording an over-long slowed down dirge that quite rightly wasn’t released until years later.

11 - Be-Bop-a-Lula (2:27) 1971
(Gene Vincent-Bill Tex Davis) (Hal Leonard Music)

Only two albums were issued during Jerry’s 1956-1963 stay at Sun, ''Jerry Lee Lewis'' in 1958 and ''Jerry Lee’s Greatest'' in late 1961, the latter of which featured on this ''Hello Josephine'', driven along by some very fine sax playing from Johnny ''Ace'' Cannon. For some reason Jerry recorded the song again 12 months later, this here time with some fine guitar work by Roland Janes (or was it Scotty Moore?) replacing Johnny’s sax, though this wasn’t issued until the 1969 ''Rockin’, Rhythm & Blues'' album (a 3rd version was cut at a session a week after the 2nd one, but this sounds like little more than a rough session warm-up so isn't included in this analysis). It’s difficult to choose between the two, though the 1962 cut features a more expressive vocal.

12 - Hello Josephine (3) (Slate, Chatter, Take) (2:37) 1989
(Dave Bartholomew-Fats Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

7-12 Recorded June 14, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

"Good Golly Miss Molly" is a hit rock and roll song first recorded in 1958 by the American musician Little Richard. The song, a 12-bar blues, was written by John Marascalco and producer Robert "Bumps"Blackwell. Although it was first recorded by Little Richard, Blackwell produced another version by The Valiants, who imitated Little Richard, but sang the song even faster. Although the Valiants' version was released first, Little Richard had the hit. Like all his early hits, it quickly became a rock 'n' roll standard and has subsequently been covered by hundreds of artists. The song is ranked number 94 on the Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.

In the early 1960s the song became a continental hit in Latin America performed by the Mexican band Los Teen Tops, whose lead singer was teen idol Enrique Guzman, and sung in Spanish under the title, "La Plaga"("The Plague"), which actually is a Mexican Spanish slang word referring to "the gang" (as in the "gang one hangs out with"). It was recorded in 1959, and it was the first single of the band. It's considered one of the first rock in Spanish hits.

Almost 30 years later in 1988, it became a hit again for Guzman's daughter,Alejandra (Ale) Guzman, on her debut LP Bye Mama. The British band The Swinging Blue Jeans skirted the UK Top 10 with their revival issued in early 1964 (HMV Pop 1273).

In 1966, the song again became a hit when Mitch Ryder & the Detroit Wheels recorded it in a medley with"Devil with A Blue Dress On", reaching number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100. Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band would make "Detroit Medley" a staple of their concerts' encores in the 1970s and 1980s; one such performance is captured on the 1980 ''No Nukes'' album.

Creedence Clearwater Revival recorded "Miss Molly" in 1969 with slightly changed lyrics. Instead of the result of the gift of a diamond ring being "When she hugs me, her kissin' make me ting-a-ling-a-ling", John Fogerty sang, "Would you pardon me a kissin' and a ting-a-ling-a-ling?". The song was also covered by the Meat Puppets on their album Out My Way. The song was covered on The Crests' first LP album, The Crests Sing All Biggies, in 1960. The song is included on the Jerry Lee Lewis album Live at the Star Club,Hamburg, recorded in 1964. In the feature film King Ralph, John Goodman's title character played the song. The song has also been covered by The Sonics on their album Here Are The Sonics and as well as by Screaming Lord Sutch. The Deep Purple song "Speed King" references the song ("'Good Golly', said Little Miss Molly"). An episode of Hannah Montana is titled "Good Golly Miss Dolly" in a reference to this song.

'Sweet Little Sixteen'' still aroused enough interest in the market, particularly in the UK, the encourage a raid on the back catalogue of another of his rock and roll peers. On this September session in Nashville found him recording Little Richard's ''Good Golly Miss Molly'', of which several ''polished'' alternates were recorded. These are heralded by a blistering, previously unpublished, initial run through which is in turn followed by a truncated take that continues as an informal jam. During the course of these preambles those present, including producer Billy Sherrill, saxophonist Boots Randolph, and the chorus featuring Marijohn Wilkin and three members of The Jordanaires, all assess what is required of them. Despite the congruent sound of the subsequent complete takes, Lewis throws a vocal clue into the first verse of each to help tell them apart. In the first it is in stretching the first ''Good Molly'' to the equivalent of four syllables; in the third, the second line id prefaced with the words''I say'', whereas the issued cut, take 2, is bereft of either embellishment.

If he doesn't embarrass himself on ''Good Golly Miss Molly'', neither does Jerry bring anything particularly original to the date. The drums are crisp, the chorus is restrained, and Jerry takes a pretty spirited 12 bar piano solo. The real trouble is that on his best work, Jerry drives the band. Here, he seems to be trying to keep up with a runaway train. Buddy Harman's single-stroke drum rolls are powering the day and Jerry seems to be hanging on far dear life. His vocal even sounds strained, a quality that was never present on his strongest sides.

13 - Good Golly Miss Molly (1) (Chatter & Take) (2:06) 2015 Sun Unissued
14 - Good Golly Miss Molly (2) (False Start & Rehearsal) (2:55) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Good Golly Miss Molly (3) (Chatter, Take, Chatter) (2:22) 1989
16 - Good Golly Miss Molly (4) (Chatter, False Start, Chatter) (1:29) 2015 Sun Unissued
17 - Good Golly Miss Molly (5) (Slate, Chatter, Take 4) (2:22) 1989
18 - Studio Chatter (snippet of 'Good Golly Miss Molly'') (0;17) 1988
19 - Good Golly Miss Molly (6) (Master Sun 382) (2:19) 1962
(Robert Blackwell-John Marascalco) (Jondora Music–Venice Music)

''I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore)'' (Sun 382) is another fine song by Vic McAlpin. Jerry's treatment takes the song midway toward pop,and the sax adds a strong bluesy feel to the arrangement. Jerry offers a fine piano break here, before launching back into the song's hook. In truth, the track deserved more than the regional attention it garnered at the end of 1962. Only the chorus (which featured Jerry's sister Linda Gail in her disc debut) works to the detriment of the record. When Shelby Singleton bought the Sun catalogue, he issued this track on the flipside of ''Your Lovin' Ways'' (SI-1128). Again it stiffed. Still believing in its potential, Singleton again reissued it in 1973;this time he stripped off most of the original backing track and added a new sound, led by the fine guitarist Little Jimmy Dempsey. Unfortunately, the results barely justified the effort.

20 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:14) 2015 Sun Unissued
21 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (2) (Slate & Take 2) (2:13) 1988
22 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (3) (Master Sun 382) (2:13) 1962
(Vic McAlpin-Tommy Certain) (Tree Music)

On the same occasion Jerry Lee Lewis recalled a few words of the refrain of an old southern song that harked back to the civil war era, ''My Pretty Quadroon'', and managed to stretch it out to a near three minute mid-tempo rock song; perhaps due to its overt ''political incorrectness'' it was destined to remain unheard until the release of a latter-day Sun LP in the Netherlands in January 1974, called ''Jerry Lee Lewis - Collectors Edition''.

23 - My Pretty Squadron (2:53) 1974
(Mary Dodge-Fred Howard-Nat Vincent) (Copyright Control)

Of more potential interest from a commercial point of view was the decision to reprise ''Waiting For A Train'' . Another five, possibly many more takes of the displaced hobo's tale of woe were recorded. None improved markedly upon the results of the earlier Memphis session, although the presence of the saxophone and vocal chorus in lieu of the organ heard formerly gave rise to a very singular ambiance. Jerry Lee's familiarity with the song encouraged a casual approach to the lyrics which led to several clues becoming manifest to help tell the alternates apart, markedly in the second verse where, in reflecting on the address to the brakeman, he suggests variously that ''I had to make a line of talk''; or that it was ''just to make a line of talk''; or ''just to make a little line of talk''. At times the illustrious backing vocalists are rather more to the fore though the surest way to confirm distinctions across the piece is to focus on Lewis's concluding yodel on each performance. Jerry Lee's fondness for the song is apparent throughout although none of the recordings he left behind at Sun quite match up to the more mature sounding reading on a Smash album, the release of which predated the Sun International single by some nine months.

24 - Waiting For A Train (2.1) (Take 1 & Chatter) (1:58) 1989
25 - Waiting For A Train (2.2) (Slate, Take 2, Chatter) (1:57) 2015 Sun Unissued
26 - Waiting For A Train (2.3) (Slate, False Start, Take 4) (2:10) 1987
27 - Waiting For A Train (2.4) (Back Vocal Tune, Slate, Take 5) (1:56) 1988
28 - Waiting For A Train (2.5) (Slate #6 & False Start) (0:33) 2015 Sun Unissued
29 - Waiting For A Train (2.6) (Chatter & Take 6) (1:52) 2015 Sun Unissued
30 - Waiting For A Train (2.7) (Chatter, False Start, Slate #9) (0:31) 2015 Sun Unissued
31 - Waiting For A Train (2.8) (1:46) 1970SI-1119
(Jimmie Rodgers) (Peer International)

13-31 Recorded September 11, 1962 at Phillips Recording Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Kelton Herston (guitar), Fred Carter (guitar),
Buddy Harmon (drums), Floyd Chance (bass), Marijohn Wilkin, Helen Chace,
Gordon Stoker, Neal Matthews, Ray Walker (vocal chorus)
Producer - Billy Sherrill

''Seasons Of My Heart'' won't win any awards for Jerry's finest hour at Sun. Just as Hank Williams was saddled with a wife, Miz Audrey, who wanted to sing – but couldn't, so Jerry Lee was saddled with a little sister who wanted desperately to record – but shouldn't have. Jerry's contract was running out at Sun and Sam Phillips was undoubtedly doing anything within reason to keep Jerry happy. This session was part of that price. Jerry is a song stylist. That means he takes enormous liberties with melody, lyric and phrasing. Why would Linda Gail, or anyone for that matter, think they could keep up with him?

''Seasons Of My Heart'' won't win any awards for Jerry's finest hour at Sun. Just as Hank Williams was saddled with a wife, Miz Audrey, who wanted to sing – but couldn't, so Jerry Lee was saddled with a little sister who wanted desperately to record – but shouldn't have. Jerry's contract was running out at Sun and Sam Phillips was undoubtedly doing anything within reason to keep Jerry happy. This session was part of that price. Jerry is a song stylist. That means he takes enormous liberties with melody, lyric and phrasing. Why would Linda Gail, or anyone for that matter, think they could keep up with him?

Jerry Lee Lewis re-cut ''Seasons Of My Heart'' a couple of years later for his ''Country Songs For City Folks'' album, and although he in advisably used a harpsichord instead of a proper piano, it is still preferable due to the lack of Linda’s harmony vocals.

''Season Of My Heart" is a song written by George Jones and Darrell Edwards. The song was released as the b-side to the number 4 hit "Why Baby Why" in 1955. The song was also recorded by Johnny Cash and, released in 1960, it became a number 10 hit. The song was one of Jones' best early ballads, included on many of his early studio and compilation albums with Starday and Mercury Records in the late 1950s. The song was even included on his debut 1957 album "The Grand Ole Opry's New Star", which was Starday's first album release in the label's history.

"Seasons of My Heart" originally appeared as the B-side to George Jones' first chart hit "Why Baby Why" in 1955. The imagery-laden song was an early showcase of Jones' abilities as a balladeer, although he sang in much higher during this period than he would later in his career. Former Starday Records president Don Pierce later explained to Jones biographer Bob Allen, "Pappy realized George's strength as a balladeer long before I did. He felt that ''Seasons Of My Heart'' was a big song. I knew that, in those days, it took much longer to sell a ballad, because it had to make it on the radio first...I also knew that an upbeat song like 'Why, Baby Why' would be easier to sell directly to the jukebox distributors for the beer-drinkin' trade''.

Other significant recordings: Johnny Cash recorded the song for his 1960 album "Now, There Was A Song!". Kitty Wells recorded the song as a title track to her 1960 album. Willie Nelson recorded the song for his 1966 album "Country Favorites-Willie Nelson Style".

32 - Seasons Of My Heart (Slate & Master Take 1 Sun 384) (3:03) 1963
(George Jones-Darrell Edwards) (Starday Music)

In March 1963, with Jerry Lee Lewis's interest purported to be on the wane in anticipation of his contract with Sun ending the following September, he treated his fifteen-year-old sister Linda Gail to a day out in the studio to study the recording of yet another attempt to make a hit out of an rhythm and blues song, this time it was Big Joe Turner's ''Teenage Letter'' that got the Lewis treatment. Not untypically most of the original lyrics were cast aside, with Jerry Lee inventing a few of his own, based on some simple maths, and then just hollering his way through a couple of minutes in competition with the saxophone. Released as Sun 384, which proved to be his penultimate original Sun single, it went nowhere. On the flip they placed a duet with Linda Gail, ''Seasons Of My Heart'', it didn't help.

This is the last single Jerry Lee Lewis released before leaving Sun. As ''Teenage Letter'' reveals, he certainly went out having a good time. Blues shouter Joe Turner, whose teenage years were over back in the 1930s, recorded this song at the height of his success with Atlantic Records. It was written by Renald Richard, the co-writer of ''I Got A Woman'', and it's a trite song by any reckoning. Only the tag line ''I'm gonna prove it in my own way'' gave Jerry something he could get his teeth into.

There's no telling how many times he leaned into the microphone and leered ''Let me prove it to you, darlin'''. Jerry's backing here includes members of the Four Upsetters. Saxman Luke Wright starts honking like he was trying up upstage Illinois Jacquet, but settles quickly for the Boots Randolph/King Curtis style.

33 - Teenage Letter (Slate, False Start, Master Take 2 Sun 384) (2:31) 1963
(Renald J. Richard) (Progressive Music)

32-33 Recorded March 11, 1963 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Linda Gail Lewis (duet vocal 32), Scotty Moore (guitar),
W.R. Felts (organ), Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb (bass),
Luke Wright (saxophone)
Producer - Scotty Moore

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 15 Contains 1963

In August 1963 Jerry Lee Lewis returned to 639 Madison Avenue for the last time as an artist contracted to the Sun Record Company. The products of the first of two days in the studio included a contrasting pair of readings of Hoagy Carmichael's ''Hong Kong Blues'' and a duo of pop-country songs, ''Love On Broadway'' and ''Your Lovin' Ways'', both of which would emerge on Sun International records.

1 - Your Lovin' Ways (Slate & Take 8) (2:46) 1971
(Alton Harkins-Robert Chilton) (Knox Music Incorporated

A fair amount of attention was also devoted to a rock number ''Just Who Is The Blame''. Three takes of this song remain, one of which is easily distinguishable courtesy of its fast pace. Jerry Lee's right hand imprints trademarks on the other two; in Take 1 it's the old stand-by, a glissando at 0:23, while he's rather busier in Take 3 with little fills at 0:12 and 0:25. If that fails to convince, simply await hearing his ''telling you right now'' comment immediately prior to the piano break in the first recording.

2 - Just Who Is To Blame (1) (False Start & Take) (2:38) 1975
3 - Just Who Is To Blame (2) (Slate & Take 12) (2:44) 1974
4 - Just Who Is To Blame (3) (2:35) 1989
(Traditional-Jerry Lee Lewis) (Sun Entertainment)

Jerry Lee Lewis' "Hong Kong Blues" is a popular song composed by American songwriter Hoagy Carmichael in 1939. It was featured in the 1943 film ''To Have And Have Not'', an adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's novel by the same name. Former Beatle George Harrison covered the tune on his 1981 album, Somewhere in England. Also, the Quebecer Dédé Fortin presented his cover of Hong Kong Blues with Les Colocs on their album Atrocetomique.

5 - Hong Kong Blues (1) (Slate & Take 2) (2:18) 1974
6 - Hong Kong Blues (2) (Slate #4 & False Start) (0:21) 2015 Sun Unissued
7 - Hong Kong Blues (3) (Take 4) (2:30) 1989
(Hoagy Carmichael) (Chappell Music)

8 - Love On Broadway (Chatter & Take) (2:31) 1971 SI-1125
(Ronnie Self-Dub Allbritten) (Champion Music Corporation)

1-8 Recorded August 27, 1963 Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Roland Janes (guitar), W.R. Felts (organ),
Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb or Herman Hawkins (bass),
Luke Wright (saxophone on 2-4), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Sam Phillips

At the time, few could have predicted that Jerry Lee Lewis' final session for Sun on August 28, would turn out to be the single most productive day's work in terms of chart success, garnering three top ten country hits. The recordings concerned were, of course, to lay dormant for six years until the time came to capitalise on Jerry Lee's comeback as a major country star. In the late 1960s on Smash Records. It's tempting to speculate that ''Invitation To Your Party'', ''One Minute Past Eternity'' and ''I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye'' had been released and promoted by Sam Phillips in 1963, Jerry Lee might have been spared his locust years. The reality is that his first single on Smash, ''Pen And Paper'', released in October that year, which bore more than a passing resemblance to these August 28 recordings, failed to stir up any interest and there 's no reason to suppose that in the circumstances of the day of this Sun material would have fared ant better. Perhaps it was simple ahead of its time. It all nonetheless amounted to a veritable treasure-trove that Shelby Singleton was not shy of exploiting in the wake of Jerry Lee's breakthrough in 1968 with the much more penetrating hard country sound of ''Another Place, Another Time'' and ''What's Made Milwaukee Famous''. What is most surprising is that until the release of this set, so much of the treasure remained buried; finally Bear Family has unearthed the remaining gems.

The most subtle of variations need to be spotlighted to disentangle the two recordings of ''One Minute Past Eternity'' which commence with the well known ''violin'' introductions. Concentrate on Jerry Lee's delivery of the third line of the first verse and monitor the slight hesitancy preceding the works ''when will I want to be free'' in the take which concludes the sequence. This recording was originally released on a Sun International 45rpm in 1969, at the same time as the more familiar recording that debuted on LP 108 ''The Golden Cream Of The Country''. There's also an easily overlooked quirk in Lewis's playing towards the conclusion of each of the two.

The third, previously unreleased, take of ''One Minute Past Eternity'' meeds no detailed explanation, featuring as it does the introduction performed by one of the backing singers. Lest it be imagined that this was an alteration wrought by editing and overdubbing, listen also to differences in Jerry Lee's own vocal, when compared to the other two recordings, and some noticeably more muscular keyboard work. The only real mystery is why there has been an interval of some 45 years between the coincidental releases of the two very similar violin intro takes and this isolated example of a rather different style, especially as it has lain undisturbed for decades in a clearly labelled tape box making it plain that both the ''violin'' and ''vocal'' introduction could be found therein.

"One Minute Past Eternity" is the title of a song written by William E. Taylor and Stanley Kesler, and performed by Jerry Lee Lewis. It was released in December 1969 as the second and final single from the album, ''The Golden Cream of the Country'' (Sun International Sun-108). The song peaked at number 2 on both the U.S. Billboard Hot Country Singles chart and the Canadian RPM Country Tracks chart.

9 - One Minute Past Eternity (1) (Slate & Take 12) (2:16) 2015 Sun Unissued
10 - One Minute Past Eternity (2) (2:03) 1969
11 - One Minute Past Eternity (3) (2:04) 1969 SI-1107
(Bill Taylor-Stan Kesler) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated-Gold Dust Music)

Few words need to be devoted to the fourteen minutes or so of tape featuring eight and/or nine intermittently successful attempts to record ''Invitation To Your Party'', which presents the ultimate ''fly-on-the-wall'' experience of Lewis at work. This sequence affords a fascinating insight into the studio environment and the interplay between technicians and the musician and singers, all of whom seem to be taking delight in exercise. The informality of the recording contrasts with the very deliberate consummation of the vocal overdub on ''Baby Baby Bye Bye'' in January 1960, albeit it makes apparent the perils associated with recording everything in real time.

"Invitation to Your Party" is written by Bill Taylor, and is a single for Jerry Lee Lewis for Sun International. Released in July 1969, it was the first single (Sun SI-1101) taken from his album ''The Golden Cream of the Country'' (Sun International Sun 108). The song peaked at number 6 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart. It also reached number 1 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada. Note: In a later era, Bill Taylor was in the mid-1950s a member of the Clyde Leoppard's Snearly Ranch Boys, went on to become part of Jerry Lee Lewis's touring group and he wrote a fair number of filler songs on some of Jerry Lee's later albums, as well as some hits like ''There Must Be More To Love Than This'' and ''Invitation To Your Party''. Taylor went to Texas from Memphis, working with R.D. Hendon and Jimmy Heap, before returning to work with Jerry Lee Lewis. Smokey Joe Baugh and Buddy Holobaugh also went to Texas, but lapsed into obscurity. Clyde Leoppard was last seen serving 99 cents lunches at a greasy spoon behind the Greyhound terminal in Memphis before his little operation fell a victim to urban renewal and he retired to Mississippi. Composer and steel guitar player Stan Kesler went on to run his own studio and record labels after working for Sam Phillips as resident engineer and producer at the Phillips Recording Studio in Memphis, and for a time he took his studio career to Nashville, where he too worked with Jerry Lee Lewis. As a producer, his hits included Sam the Sham's ''Woolly Bully''.

12 - Invitation To Your Party (1) (Slate #2 & False Start) (0:38) 1989
13 - Invitation To Your Party (2) (Take 2) (1:56) 1989
14 - Invitation To Your Party (3) (Slate, Chatter & Chords) (0:24) 2015 Sun Unissued
15 - Invitation To Your Party (4) (1:58) 2015 Sun Unissued
16 - Invitation To Your Party (5) (Slate #5, 2 False Starts, Slate #6) (1:32) 2015 Sun Unissued
17 - Invitation To Your Party (6) (Take 6) (1:57) 2015 Sun Unissued
18 - Invitation To Your Party (7) (Slate & Take 7) (2:11) 2015 Sun Unissued
19 - Invitation To Your Party (8) (Slate #8, False Start, Chatter) (1:17) 2015 Sun Unissued
20 - Invitation To Your Party (9) (1:55) 1969 SI-1101
(Bill Taylor) (Knox Music Incorporated-Gold Dust Music)

Jerry Lee often stated his dislike for the practice of overdubbing and the merits of the ''live'' modus operandi are exemplified in an unreleased alternate of ''I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye''. The songs, be it in the version known to fans for more that four decades or in this equally accomplished new guise, provides a fitting and soulful conclusion to the first phase of Lewis's long recording career, being as it was a product of his final day's work at Sun. It has been suggested by some commentators that much of the content of ''I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye'' should serve as a metaphor for the failure of his relationship with Sam Phillips, yet the mood captured in the studio during the extended session on August 28, 1963, now disclosed comprehensively for the first time, refutes that notion. On thing is for sure; in being true to the words of the song's title, Lewis was back in Phillips' own studio in Nashville less than a month later, re-recording his landmark hits from 1957 and 1958 for his new paymasters, Smash Records.

21 - I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye (1) (Slate #1, False Start, Take 1, Chatter) (3:09) 2015 Sun Unissued
22 - I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye (2) (2:32) 1970 SI-1115
(Don Robertson) (Knox Music Incorporated)

It is also now possible to be entertained by the full account of Jerry Lee and others working together on ''Carry Me Back To Old Virginia'' as they vary the tempo through five takes. Each successive performance embodies at least one discrete signature; amongst them the third take involves a change of pace frowned upon by Sam Phillips, while the next stands out by virtue not only of the false starts but some further muddling of the lyrics ahead of the piano break. The pick of these was issued as a single, Sun 396, in 1965; an unconvincing venture aimed at deriving some income from these sessions some two years after Jerry Lee's departure from the fold.

Note: "Carry Me Back To Old Virginny" is a song which was written by James A. Bland (1854-1911), an African American minstrel who wrote over 700 folk songs. It is was an adaption by Bland of the traditional "Carry Me Back To Ole Virginny" popular since the 1840's and frequently sung by Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War. Bland's version, the most well known, was adapted in 1878 when many of the newly freed slaves were struggling to find work. The song has become controversial in modern times.

A third reworded version was Virginia's state song from 1940 until 1997, using the word "Virginia" instead of "Virginny''. In 1997, it was retired on the grounds that the lyrics were considered offensive to African Americans. On January 28, 1997, the Virginia Senate voted to designate "Carry Me Back To Old Virginia" as state song emeritus and a study committee initiated a contest for writing a new state song. The Virginia General Assembly suspended the contest on January 5, 2000 and recently reinstated it. There are currently eight candidates.

In January 2006, a state Senate panel voted to designate "Shenandoah" as the "interim official state song''. On March 1, 2006, the House Rules Committee of the General Assembly voted down bill SB682, which would have made "Shenandoah" the official state song.

James Bland himself was an educated black man born in Queens, New York, and educated at Howard University. His adaption of "Carry Me Back," however, is written from the perspective of a nostalgic former slave. Defenders of the song argue that "Carry Me Back To Old Virginny" articulates and perhaps satirizes the feelings of betrayal and abandonment white Southerners felt after Emancipation. Like minstrel music of the same era, the song was written in dialect, from a black point of view, and expressed the feelings some whites wished blacks to feel; in this case, nostalgia for days of slavery. Others argue the song was written to express difficulties and discrimination facing free blacks in the North which perhaps were bitter enough to make slavery an ironically appealing contrast. These defenders argue that minstrel's songs were never written to be taken literally but were sly and humorous. The slightly less explicit "Old Folks At Home," still the state song of Florida with important modifications, carries a similar message.

''Carry Me Back To Old Virginia'' the single (Sun 396) is another story, however. This was the only track originally issued from Jerry Lee's final Sun session. Jerry himself was already long gone and recording for Smash Records by the time Sun 396 hit the streets in March, 1965. ''Carry Me Back'' was literally the last thing Jerry Lee recorded for Sun Records, and it's a finely crafted piece of work featuring both Roland Janes and Scotty Moore on guitar. Immediately before this final take, Sam Phillips was captured on tape saying, ''We're broke and we're out of tape so this'll have to be the last one''. Undaunted as usual, Jerry Lee replies ''Ah ha, then let's get her!'' and proceeds to do just that. The track begins with Jerry's count off and a surprising 12 bar instrumental lead-in. Sam had been trying, with varying degrees of success, to slow the tempo over the last several takes and finally has his way here. The backbeat is still relatively heavy on this mid-tempo offering, and the guitar plays a strong counter rhythm. The restrained chorus gives the proceedings a very churchy feel. In fact, this is a very southern sounding record, capped by Jerry's exclamations at the close. ''I'm bringing it on in'' are the final words he spoke (or sang) into a Sun microphone. By any account, Jerry rode off into the Sun-set just about as impressively and confidently as he came in.

23 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:26) 2015 Sun Unissued
24 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (2) (False Start, Slate, Take 2) (2:39) 1989 FS 2015 Sun Unissued
25 - Studio Chatter (Fragment, Slate #3) 0:32) 2015 Sun Unissued
26 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (3) (Take 3) (2:23) 2015 Sun Unissued
27 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (4) (Chatter, Slate #4, False Start, Chatter) (1:24) 1989
28 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (5) (Take 4) (2:23) 1989
29 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (6) (Slate #5, Chatter, False Start, Slate #6, False Start, Chatter) (1:45) 2015 Sun Unissued
30 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (7) (Extended Master Sun 396) (2:32) 1965
(James Bland) (Hal Leonard Corporation)

9-30 Recorded August 28, 1963 Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Roland Janes (guitar), W.R. Felts (organ),
Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb or Herman Hawkins (bass), Anne Oldham,
Noel Gilbert, Joan Gilbert, Milton Friedsland (strings) arranged by Vinnie Trauth,
Chorus led by Hurshel Wayne Wiginton.
Producer - Sam Phillips

Stereo Tracks 1960-1962

31 - The Wild Side Of Life (Stereo) (2:47) 1974
(Arlie A. Carter-William Warren) (Acuff Rose Music)

32 - Billy Boy (Stereo) (2:19) 1972
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

33 - My Bonnie (Stereo) (Slate & Take 4) (2:41) 1989
(Charles Edward Stuart) (Sony-ATV Music Publishing)

34 - Hang Up My Rock And Roll Shoes (Stereo) (Master) (2:34) 1969
(Chuck Willis) (Rush Music)

35 - John Henry (stereo) (Extended Master) (2:34) 1970
(Traditional Arranged by Jerry Lee Lewis) (Knox Music Incorporated)

36 - What'd I Say (Stereo 2) (3:25) 1989
(Ray Charles) (Unichappel Music Incorporated)

37 - C. C. Rider (Stereo 1) (2:53) 1969
(Chuck Willis) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

31-37 Recorded June 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums),
Leo Ladner (bass), Martin Willis or Ace Cannon (saxophone)
Producer - Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

> Page Up < 

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 16 Contains Stereo Tracks 1960-1962

1 - When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again (1 Stereo) (2:34) 1989
2 - When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again (2 Stereo) (2:19) 1982
(Wiley Walker-Gene Sullivan) (Peer Music International Corporation)

3 - No More Than I Get (Stereo) (2:24) 1989
(Stan Kesler) (Copyright Control)

4 - When I Get Paid (Stereo) (Master) (3:27) 1989
(Harold Shedd-York Wilburn) (Bluff City–Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

5 - Love Made A Fool Of Me (Stereo) (Master) (2:31) 1989
(Harold Shedd-York Wilburn) (Bluff City–Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

1-5 Recorded October 13, 1960 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal) Larry Muhoberac (piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Jimmy M. Van Eaton (drums), Billy Riley (bass), Fred Ford, Ronnie Capone,
Robert Alexius (horns), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Charles Underwood or Scotty Moore

6 - I Forgot To Remember To Forget (Stereo 2) (2:12) 1974
(Charlie Feathers-Stanley Kesler) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

7 - Cold Cold Heart (Stereo 2) (Master) (3:05) 1969
(Hank Williams) (Acuff Rose Music Incorporated)

8 - Livin' Lovin' Wreck (Stereo) (Master) (2:03) 1989
(Otis Blackwell) (Sito Music Incorporated)

9 - What'd I Say (Stereo 3) (Master) (2:25) 1989
(Ray Charles) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

6-9 Recorded February 9, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Hank Garland (guitar), Kelton Herston (guitar),
Buddy Harmon (drums), Bob Moore (bass), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Billy Sherrill

10 - It Won't Happen With Me (Stereo 2) (Master) (3:00) 1989
(Ray Evans) (Knox Music Incorporated)

11 - C. C. Rider (Stereo 2) 2:26) 1989
(Chuck Willis) (Progressive Music Incorporated)

12 - I Love You Because (Stereo 2) (1:53) 1989
(Leon Payne) (Acuff Rose Music Publishing)

13 - Save The Last Dance For Me (Stereo) (Master) (1:52) 1989
(Doc Pomus-Mort Schuman) (Rumbalero Music)

10-13 Recorded June 12, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Marvin Hughes (piano on some tracks),
Wayne Moss (guitar), Kelton Herston (guitar), Buddy Harmon (drums),
Bob Moore (bass), Unknown (organ) Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Probably Billy Sherrill

14 - Lewis Workout (Stereo) (3:13) 1989
(Jerry Lee Lewis) (Sun Entertainment)

15 - Hello Josephine (Stereo 1) (Slate & Master Take 1) (1:48) 1989
(Dave Bartholomew-Antoine ''Fats'' Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

16 - High Powered Woman (Stereo 1) (2:03) 1977
(Sonny Terry) (Copyright Control)

17 - My Blue Heaven (Stereo 2.1) (2:00) 1989
18 - My Blue Heaven (Stereo 2.2) (2:36) 1989
(Walter Donaldson-George Whiting) (George Whiting Music-Donaldson Music)

19 - Sweet Little Sixteen (Stereo 1) (2:41) 1989
(Chuck Berry) (Arc Music)

14-19 Recorded June 14, 1961 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal except 10 and piano), Brad Suggs, (guitar), Gene Chrisman (drums),
Jay W. Brown (bass), Johnny ''Ace'' Cannon (saxophone)
Producer – Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

20 - Ramblin' Rose (Stereo 1) (Extended Master) (3:21) 1989
21 - Ramblin' Rose (Stereo 2) (2:54) 1969
(Fred B. Burch-Marijohn Wilkin) (Cedar Wood Music)

22 - Money (Stereo) (Master) (2:40) 1989
(Janie Bradford-Berry Gordy Jr.) (Jobett Music)

23 - Rockin' The Boat Of Love (Stereo) (2:42) 1977
(Carl Mann) (Sun Entertainment)

20-23 Recorded September 21, 1961 at Sam Phillips Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Wayne Moss (guitar), Jerry Kennedy (guitar),
Jerry Tuttle (organ), Buddy Harmon (drums), Bob Moore (bass), Cam Mullins,
John Wilkin, Don Sheffield, Bill McElhiney (horns), Jimm Hall, Karls Garvin,
Homer ''Boots'' Randolph (saxophones), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Probably Billy Sherrill

24 - I've Been Twistin' (Stereo 2) (Slate & Take 4) (3:21) 1989
(Herman Parker Jr.) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

25 - Whole Lotta Twistin' Going On (Stereo 3) (3:20) 1989
(David Curley Williams-Sonny David) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

26 - High Powered Woman (Stereo 2) (1:47) 1989
(Sonny Terry) (Copyright Control)

24-26 Recorded January 4, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Brad Suggs (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), R.W. McGee (bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips

27 - Sweet Little Sixteen (Stereo 2.1) (Slate & Take 1) (2:35) 1969
28 - Sweet Little Sixteen (Stereo 2.4) (Master) (2:55) 1989
(Chuck Berry) (Chuck Berry Music–Arc Music)

27-28 Recorded January 5, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

29 - Hello Josephine (Stereo 2) (2:23) 1969
(Dave Bartholomew-Fats Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

30 - Set My Mind At Ease (Stereo 1) (1:43) 1989
31 - Set My Mind At Ease (Stereo 2) (2:05) 2015
(Red West) (Sun Entertainment)

29-31 Recorded January 5, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 17 Contains Stereo Tracks 1962-1963

1 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 11) (Chatter & Take) (1:54) 1989
2 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 12) (1:41) 1989
(Jimmie Rodgers) (Peer International)

3 - How's My Ex Treating You (Stereo 2) (2:05) 1989
(Vic McAlpin) (Tree Music)

4 - Good Rockin' Tonight (Stereo 2) (2:46) 1969
(Roy Brown) (Blue Ridge Music)

5 - Be-Bop-A-Lula (Stereo) (2:27) 1971
(Gene Vincent-Bill Tex Davis) (Hal Leonard Music)

6 - Hello Josephine (Stereo 3) (2:29) 1989
(Dave Bartholomew-Fats Domino) (Bartholomew Music)

1-6 Recorded June 14, 1962 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Roland Janes (guitar), Scotty Moore (guitar),
Al Jackson (drums), Shirley Sisk (organ), Jay W. Brown(bass)
Producer - Sam Phillips and/or Scotty Moore

7 - Good Golly Miss Molly (Stereo 3) (2:17) 1989
8 - Good Golly Miss Molly (Stereo 4) (False Start) (1:10) 2015
9 - Good Golly Miss Molly (Stereo 5) (2:16) 2015
10 - Good Golly Miss Molly (Stereo 6) (Master) (2:20) 1969
(Robert Blackwell-John Marascalco) (Jondora Music–Venice Music)

11 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (Stereo 1) (2:10) 2015
12 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (Stereo 2) (2:08) 2015
13 - I Can't Trust Me (In Your Arms Anymore) (Stereo 3) (Master) (2:15) 1972
(Vic McAlpin-Tommy Certain) (Tree Music)

14 - My Pretty Squadron (Stereo) (2:56) 1977
(Mary Dodge-Fred Howard-Nat Vincent) (Copyright Control)

15 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 2.1 ) (Take 1) (1:52) 2015
16 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 2.2) (Take 2) (1:53) 2015
17 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 2.3) (1:51) 2015
18 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo2.4) (Back Vocal Tune, Slate & Take 5) (1:57) 2015
19 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 2.6) (Take & False Start) (2:02) 2015
20 - Waiting For A Train (Stereo 2.8) (1:48) 1989
Jimmie Rodgers) (Peer International)

7-20 Recorded September 11, 1962 at Phillips Recording Studio, 7th Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Kelton Herston (guitar), Fred Carter (guitar),
Buddy Harmon (drums), Floyd Chance (bass), Marijohn Wilkin, Helen Chace,
Gordon Stoker, Neal Matthews, Ray Walker (vocal chorus)
Producer - Billy Sherrill

21 - Seasons Of My Heart (Stereo) (Master) (3:02) 1989
(George Jones-Darrell Edwards) (Starday Music)

22 - Teenage Letter (Stereo) (False Start & Master Take 2) (2:25) 1989
(Renald J. Richard) (Progressive Music)

21-22 Recorded March 11, 1963 at Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Linda Gail Lewis (duet vocal 32), Scotty Moore (guitar),
W.R. Felts (organ), Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb (bass),
Luke Wright (saxophone)
Producer - Scotty Moore

23 - Your Lovin' Ways (Stereo) (2:41) 1972
(Alton Harkins-Robert Chilton) (Knox Music Incorporated

24 - Just Who Is To Blame (Stereo 1) (2:23) 1989
25 - Just Who Is To Blame (Stereo 2) (2:38) 2015
26 - Just Who Is To Blame (Stereo 3) (2:35) 1989
(Traditional-Jerry Lee Lewis) (Sun Entertainment)

27 - Hong Kong Blues (Stereo 1) (2:11) 1977
28 - Hong Kong Blues (Stereo 3) (False Start & Take 4) (2:43)1989
(Hoagy Carmichael) (Chappell Music)

29 - Love On Broadway (Stereo) (2:30) 1971
(Ronnie Self-Dub Allbritten) (Champion Music Corporation)

23-29 Recorded August 27, 1963 Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Roland Janes (guitar), W.R. Felts (organ),
Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb or Herman Hawkins (bass),
Luke Wright (saxophone on 2-4), Unknown (vocal chorus)
Producer - Sam Phillips

30 - One Minute Past Eternity (Stereo 1) (2:06) 2015
31 - One Minute Past Eternity (Stereo 2) (2:04) 1989
(Bill Taylor-Stan Kesler) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated-Gold Dust Music)

32 - Invitation To Your Party (Stereo 9) (1:55) 1969
(Bill Taylor) (Knox Music Incorporated-Gold Dust Music)

33 - I Can't Seem To Say Goodbye (Stereo 2) (2:34) 1989
(Don Robertson) (Knox Music Incorporated)

34 - Carry Me Back To Old Virginia (Stereo 7) (Master) (2:31) 12989
(James Bland) (Hal Leonard Corporation)

30-34 Recorded August 28, 1963 Sam Phillips Recording Studio, 639 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee
Jerry Lee Lewis (vocal and piano), Scotty Moore (guitar), Roland Janes (guitar), W.R. Felts (organ),
Morris ''Tarp'' Tarrant (drums), George Webb or Herman Hawkins (bass), Anne Oldham,
Noel Gilbert, Joan Gilbert, Milton Friedsland (strings) arranged by Vinnie Trauth,
Chorus led by Hurshel Wayne Wiginton.
Producer - Sam Phillips

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.   

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 
 

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© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

CD 18 Contains Re-Engineered Tracks

1 - Great Balls Of Fire (2.6) (Master Take with Alternate Drum Overdub) (1:51) 2015
(Jack Hammer-Otis Blackwell) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

2 - You Win Again (2d) (Master) (2:56) 1957
(Hank Williams) (Acuff-Rose Music Publishing-Hiriam Music)

3 - High School Confidential (3.8) (Master 3.5 & 3.2 Spliced) (2:31) 1958
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Ron Hargrave) (Hill and Range Music Incorporated)

4 - Fools Like Me (3d) (Master) (2:52) 1958
(Jack Clement-Pee Wee Maddux) (Knox Music Incorporated)

5 - Goodnight Irene (3d) (Master) (2:54) 1958
(Huddie Ledbetter-John Avery Lomax) (Red Balloon Technology)

6 - When The Saints Go Marching In (d) (Master) (2:09) 1958
(Traditional-Jerry Lee Lewis) (Range &Hill Music

7 - It All Depends (1d) (Alternate Overdub) (3:00) 2015
8 - It All Depends (1d) (Master) (3:00) 1958
(Billy Mize) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

9 - Matchbox (1d) (Master) (1:43) 1958
(Carl Perkins) (Knox Music Incorporated)

10 - I'll Make It All Up To You (2.6d) (Guitar Overdub) (3:05) 1983
11 - I'll Make It All Up To You (2.6d) (Master) (3:05) 1958
(Charlie Rich) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

12 - It Hurt Me So (6d) (Master) (2:40) 1958
(Charlie Rich-Bill Justis) (Justis Music)

13 - Let's Talk About Us (2.1d) (Chorus Rehearsal & Alternate Chorus Overdub) (2:38) 1991
14 - Let's Talk About Us (2.1d) (Master) (2:09) 1959
(Otis Blackwell) (Roosevelt Music)

15 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (1.1d) (Master) (1:58) 1960
16 - Baby Baby Bye Bye (2:03) 2015
(Backing Vocals by Gene Lowery Singers) (1.1ds) (Fully Dubbed Master Take 11)
(Hughie Piano Smith-Daniel White) (Knox Music Incorporated)

17 - Old Black Joe (4d) (Master) (2:05) 1960
18 - Old Black Joe (Backing Vocals by Gene Lowery Singers) (4ds) (Fully Dubbed Master Take) (2:11) 2015
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Stephen Foster) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

19 - I've Been Twistin' (3) (Master 1 & 2 Spliced) (3:16) 1962
(Herman Parker Jr.) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

20 - Settin' The Woods On Fire (d) (Instrumental Overdub) (2:26) 1971
(Fred Rose-Ed Nelson Sr.) (Acuff Rose Music Limited)

21 - Break Up (1.8d) (Chorus Overdub) (2:25) 2015
22 - Break Up (2.1d1) (Chat & Overdub #1) (2:30) 2015
23 - Break Up (2.1d2) (False Start to ''Settin' The Woods On Fire'' & Overdub #3) (2:39) 2015
24 - Break Up (2.1d3) (False Start to ''Settin' The Woods On Fire'' & Overdub #5) (2:43) 2015
25 - Break Up (3.5d) (Chorus Overdub & Fragment) (2:52) 2015
(Charlie Rich) Knox Music Incorporated

26 - I'll Make It All Up To You (1.3d) (Chatter & Chorus Overdub) (2:58) 2015
27 - I'll Make It All Up To You (1.5d) (Chorus Overdub) (2:49) 2015
(Charlie Rich) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

28 - Let's Talk About Us (1.5d) (Female Chorus Overdub) (2:00) 2015
(Otis Blackwell) (Roosevelt Music)

29 - High School Confidential (2.2d) (Movie Version) (2:16) 2015
(Jerry Lee Lewis-Ron Hargrave) (Hill and Range Music Incorporated)

30 - The Return Of Jerry Lee (2:34) 1958
(Jack Clement-Barbara Pittman) (Hi-Lo Music Incorporated)

31 - Two unidentified Snippets of Unknown ''Lost Tracks'' (0:10) 2015

© Original Sun Recordings, licensed from Sun Entertainment, Inc.  

For Biography of Jerry Lee Lewis see: > The Sun Biographies <
Jerry Lee Lewis' Sun recordings can be heard on his playlist from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <
 

> Page Up <

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©