SAM PHILLIPS RECORDING STUDIO
639 MADISON AVENUE, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE

SAM PHILLIPS RECORDING STUDIO
319 SEVENTH AVENUE NORTH, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE

Plenty of desks, office space, two recording studios, each its own control room, and an acetate room will be included in the new Sun Record Company, now completion at 639 Madison Avenue. Front designed by Denise Howard by Decor of Denise, is of rough textured terrazzo. Top floor is include penthouse executive offices and a sun and dance deck. The new building will be identified as home of the Sun and Phillips International records by a sign and oversized, multi-colored disks. 

CONTAINS: 1960-1969 SUN SCHEDULE
For sessions and informations click on the available > buttons <
 > Back The Sessions 1950-1969 Schedule <

1960 SESSIONS (1)
< January 1, 1960 to January 31, 1960 <

Studio Session for Thomas Wayne, Early 1960 / Fernwood Records
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, Early 1960 / Demo
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1960 / Beat Records
Studio Session for Carl Simmons, Early 1960 / Hi Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1960 / Sonic Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Billy Riley, 1959/1960 / Hi Records
Studio Session for Rayburn Anthony, January 6, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Bill Johnson, January 14, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, January 21-25, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, Early 1960 / Sun Records 

1960 SESSIONS (2)
> February 1, 1960 to February 28, 1960 <

Studio Session for Brad Suggs, February 3, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Carl Mann, February 22, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Ray Smith, February 23, 1960 / Judd Records
Studio Session for Barbara Pittman, February 24, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Billy Riley, 1960 (1) / Rita Records
Studio Session for Billy Riley, 1960 (2) / Rita Records 

1960 SESSIONS (3)
> March 1, 1960 to March 31, 1960 <

Studio Session for Charlie Rich, March 7, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Paul Richy, March 11, 1960 / Sun Records

- The Old Payola Roll Blues -

Studio Session for Carl Mann, March 14, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Ray Smith, March 15, 1960 / Judd Records
Studio Session for Jeb Stuart, March 16, 1960 / Sun Records

Studio Session for Don Hinton, March 16, 1960 / Sun Records
- Untold Sun Stories - Don Hinton -

Studio Session for Chuck Foster, March 22, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Billy Emerson, March 24, 1960 / Mad Records 

1960 SESSIONS (4)
> April 1, 1960 to April 30, 1960 <

Studio Session for Dickey Lee, April 20, 1963 / Dot Records

1960 SESSIONS (5)
> May 1, 1960 to May 31, 1960 <

Studio Session for Charlie Rich, May 27, 1960 / Sun Records

1960 SESSIONS (6)
> June 1, 1960 to June 30, 1960 <

Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, Probably June 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Sonny Wilson, Summer 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Lance Roberts, Probably June 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Bobbie Jean Barton, June 1, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Ernie Barton, Possible June 1, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jimmy Louis, Summer 1960 / Nita Records 

1960 SESSIONS (7-12) 
 
Studio Session for Graham Forbes & The Trio, Summer 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tracy Pendarvis, Probably July 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Don Scaife, Unknown Date July 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Bill Strenght, July 19, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Brad Suggs, July 20, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Wade Cagle & The Escorts, July 27, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Carl Mann, August 3, 4, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, August 4, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Marion Conrad, September 7, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, September 15, 1960 / MGM Records)
Studio Session for Bobby Crafford, September 23, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, October 13, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, October 24, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, November 23, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Linda Gail Lewis  &
Frankie Jean Lewis, December 13, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Anita Wood, December 28, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tony Rossini, December 28, 1960 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1960 / Fernwood Records
Studio Session for Luke McDaniel, 1960 / Big Howdy Records
Studio Session for Luke McDaniel, Unknown Dates / Stomper Records
Studio Session for Doctor Ross, Probably 1960/1961 / Hi-Q Records
Studio Session for George Jackson, Unknown Date(s) 1960/1967 / Sun Records
 
 

Studio Session for Wally Fowler, Unknown Date 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1961 / Beat Records
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1961 / Sonic Records
Studio Session for Nelson Ray, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jean Dee, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Shirley Sisk, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for George Klein, Early 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, February 9, 1961 / Sun Records (31)
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, February 11, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Teenangels, March 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Harold Dorman, April 14, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Smith, May 4, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Bily Adams, Unknown Date(s) Summer 1961 / HOTB Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates, Unknown Date Summer 1961 / First Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, June 12, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Carl Mann, June 13, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, June 14, 1961 / Sun Record

1961 SESSIONS (7-12)
> July 1, 1961 to December 31, 1961 <

Studio Session for Brad Suggs, August 6, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tony Rossini, August 6, 1961 / Sun Records

Studio Session for Memphis Willie B., August 12, 1961 (1) / Prestige Records
Studio Session for Memphis Willie B., August 12, 1961 (2) / Prestige Records
- The Story Told By Samuel B. Charters -

Studio Session for Mikki Wilcox, August 1961 / Sun Records

Studio Session for Don Hosea, August 29, 1961 / Sun Records
- Don Hosea - Untold Sun Stories -

Studio Session for Freddie North, Probably 1961 / Sun Records
- Untold Sun Stories - Freddie North -

Studio Session for Bobby Wood, September 15, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Harold Dorman, September 21, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, September 21, 1961 / Sun Records (34)
Studio Session for Ray Smith, October 24, 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jeb Stuart, Late 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Rayburn Anthony, Fall 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tony Austin, Unknown Date(s) 1961 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, Fall 1961 / Zone Records

Studio Session for The Prisonaires, Various Dates Probably 1961 / Excello Records
- The Siskin Tapes -
- Don't Say Tomorrow -
- World Of Make Belief -

Studio Session for Charlie Feathers, 1961/1962 / Holiday Inn Records

1962 SESSIONS (1-6)
> January 1, 1962 to June 30, 1962 <

Studio Session for The Blackwood Brothers, Unknown Date(s) 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1962 / Arlen Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1962 / Hi Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates & Billy Adams, Early 1962 / HOTB Records
Studio Session for Jeb Stuart, Early 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jeb Stuart, Unknown Date(s) / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, January 4, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Elmo Lewis, January 5, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, January 5, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, January 17, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Eddie Bond, January 29, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Eddie Bond, January 29, February 13, 1962 / Sun Records 

Studio Session for Thomas Wayne, February 15, 1962 / Sun Records
- The Tragedy - 

Studio Session for Harold Dorman, March 12, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for David Wilkins, March 12, 1962 (1) / Sun Records
Studio Session for David Wilkins, Unknown Date(s) (2) / Sun Records
Studio Session for Frank Ballard with Phillip Reynolds Band, March 18, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Frank Ballard with Phillip Reynolds Band, Unknown Dates 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, March 20, 1962 / Sun Records 

Studio Session for Carl Mann, March 20, 1962 / Sun Records
- Carl Mann Speaks - 

Studio Session for Carl Mann, March 30, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Evans Family, Unknown Date April 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Evans Family, Unknown Date(s) / Sun Records
Studio Session for Frank Frost with The Night Hawks, April 7, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Frank Frost with The Night Hawks, April 10, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Frank Frost with The Night Hawks, April 28, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Quintones, April 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Brother James Anderson, May 12, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Brother James Anderson, Unknown Date(s) / Sun Records
Studio Session for Brad Suggs, May 18, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, June 14, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tony Rossini, June 23, 1962 / Sun Records

1962 SESSIONS (7-12)
> July 1, 1962 to December 31, 1962 <

Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Summer 1962 / Renay Records
Studio Session for Charlie Rich, August 9, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, September 11, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Summer 1962 (1) / Renay Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Fall 1962 (2) / Renay Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Fall 1962 (3) / Renay Records
Studio Session for David Houston, Late 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Mack Allen Smith, 1962 / Vee Eight Records
Studio Session for Elmo Lewis, December 28, 1962 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Doctor Ross, Probably 1962/1963 / Hi-Q Records 

1963 SESSIONS (1-6)
> January 1, 1963 to June 30, 1963 <

Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Early 1963 / Renay Recordshttp://www.706unionavenue.nl/74125258
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1963 (1) / Demo
Studio Session for Hayden Thompson, 1963 (2) / Demo
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1963 / Zone Records
Studio Session for The Four Upsetters, January 15, (1) 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Four Upsetters, January 15, (2) 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis & Linda Gail Lewis, March 11, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, March 1963 / Renay Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates, May 10, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jeanne Newman, June 5, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Tony Rossini, June 10, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Four Upsetters, June 30, 1963 / Sun Records 

1963 SESSIONS (7-12)
> July 1, 1963 to December 31, 1963 <

Studio Session for The Four Upsetters, July 12, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Mid 1963 / Renay Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, August 27, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, August 28, 1963 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Billy Adams, December 28, 1963 / Sun Records 

1964 SESSIONS (1-6)
> January 1, 1964 to June 30, 1964 <

Studio Session for Narvel Felts, January 1964 / Ara Records
Studio Session for Narvel Felts, Spring 1964 / Ara Records
Studio Session for The New Beale Street Sheiks, January 1965 / Southtown Records
Studio Session for Scotty Moore, Unknown Date February/March 1964 / Epic Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates & Billy Adams, April 6, 1964 / Sun Records 

1964 SESSIONS (7-12)
> July 1, 1964 to December 31, 1964 < 

Studio Session for Billy Adams, September 21, 1964 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Vance Yates, September 23, 1964 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Randy & The Radiants, October 17, 1964 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Mack Allen Smith, 1964 / Statue Records 

1965 SESSIONS (1-12)
> January 1, 1965 to December 31, 1965 <

Studio Session for Narvel Felts, 1965 / Renay Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1965 / Zone Records
Studio Session for Unknown Artist, April 8, 1965
Studio Session for Arbee Stidham, May 25, 1965 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Randy & The Radiants, September 16, 1965 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Randy & The Radiants, Unknown Date(s) 1964/1965 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Billy Adams & Dane Stinit, December 5, 1965 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Little Richard, December 17, 1965 and/or January 1966 / Modern Records
Studio Session for Doctor Ross, Probably 1965/1970 / Fortune Records
Demo Session for The 4, Unknown Date 1964 / Sun Records

 

1966 SESSIONS (1-12)
> January 1, 1966 to December 31, 1966 <

Studio Session for Mack Self, 1966 / Blake Records
Studio Session for Charlie Owens, January 5, 1966 / Birchfield Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, January 5, 1966 / Smash Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, January 6, 1966 / Smash Records
Studio Session for Li'l Smokey Miller, January 9, 1966 / Black Gold Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates & Billy Adams, January 11, 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Jesters, January 22, 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Jesters, Unknown Date(s) 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jimmy Day & The Knights, Probably 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Escapades, Unknown Date January 1966 / Arbet Records
Studio Session for The Escapades, Unknown Date January 1966 / Verve Records
Studio Session for Dane Stinit, January 29, 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jerry Lee Lewis, July 2, 1966 / Smash Records
Studio Session for Dane Stinit, November 26, 1966 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Climates, Late 1966/Early 1967 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Jamie And The Blackhawks, Unknown Date 1966 / MGM Records

1967 SESSIONS (1-12)
> January 1, 1967 to December 31, 1967 <

Studio Session for The Smoke Ring, Unknown Date 1967 / Gold Dust Records
Studio Session for Mack Self, 1967 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Larry Brinkley, October 30, 1967 / Sun Records
Studio Session for The Rockin' Rebellions, November 1967 / Gold Dust Records
Studio Session for Load Of Mischief, Late 1967 / Sun Records
Studio Session for Charlie Feathers, Unknown Dates 1967/1969 / Select-O-Hits 

1968 SESSIONS (1-12)
> January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1968 <

Studio Session for Jerry Dycke, Unknown Date 1968 / Holiday Inn/Sun Records

1969 SESSIONS (1-12)
> January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1969 <

Studio Session for Cliff Jackson, Jellean Delk, Unknown Date Early 1969, Midnight Sun
Studio Session for Bill Yates, Unknown Date Circa 1969 / Pixie Records
Studio Session for Billy Adams, Unknown Date Circa 1969 / Pixie Records
Studio Session for Bill Yates, Unknown Date Circa 1977 / Memphis Country Records 

- Sun Records: The Later Years -
- Sam Phillips -
- Sun Records: An Insiders View-
-Knox Phillips On The Later Years Of Sun Records -

For Biographies of Artists see: > The Sun Biographies <
Sun recordings can be heard on the playlists from 706 Union Avenue Sessions on > YouTube <

© - 706 UNION AVENUE SESSIONS - ©

SUN RECORDS: THE LATER YEARS
By Colin Escott

Although few could have foreseen it, June 1958 was a watershed in the story of Sun Records. During that month Johnny Cash's divorce from Sun became final and Jerry Lee Lewis arrived back from England with a tarnished reputation.

Despite the bad news, Sam Phillips pushed forward. He knew that he had to move from his tiny storefront studio at 706 Union, Memphis. The studio floor itself was too small to accommodate the increasingly large groups. The studio technology was too primitive and there was insufficient space to install new equipment. The office quarters were too cramped to accommodate even the small staff that Phillips employed. Phillips felt that he had outgrown his original surroundings although journalist Edwin Howard, who worked across the street at the Memphis Press Scimitar, recalled that Phillips was also very superstitious about moving. And with good reason.

The new studio, a few city blocks from the old one, was a gutted Midas Muffler shop that had also been a bakery at some point in its life. It opened in late 1959 and its opening was another watershed. It was everything that the old studio was not. It was spacious, state-of-the-art - and soul-less.

Phillips installed a new Ampex 4 track recorder and brought in Charles Underwood as a resident engineer. Scotty Moore was brought over from Fernwood Records to work as a studio manager and cutting engineer. There was a second floor with offices for the Promotion Manager, Cecil Scaife, and the manager of the publishing companies. And then there was the penthouse floor on top of the complex. Sam Phillips finally got his own office with a personalised jukebox and his name emblazoned on the door. There was a bar thoughtfully positioned close-by together with the accounting department. One could walk out into a small garden and sunbathing area on top of the building. Decor was by Decor-by-Denise of Memphis. The entire complex cost over three hundred thousand pre-inflation dollars.

It looked as though Sam Phillips was settling in for continued prosperity in the 1960s. "Woodshed recordings have had it," said Phillips in an interview with Edwin Howard shortly before the official opening. ''You've got to have latitude today - all the electronic devices, built-in high and low frequency equalisation and attenuation, echoes, channel-splitting and metering on everything''.

So what went wrong?

Everyone who went into the new studio to record compared it unfavourably with the old studio. Phillips' instincts as an audio engineer which had served him so well at the old studio, failed him in the new building. The sound was too alive. The tight focussed echo of the old studio had been replaced by a hollow swampy echo that wholly lacked presence. The funkiness of the old studio which had been so conducive to creativity had been replaced by a sterile atmosphere that Cecil Scaife later likened to that of a doctor's office. But the reasons for the decline of Sun Records went much deeper than the audio characteristics of the new studio. The character of the entire industry was changing.

Sun had swept to prominence with some of the most starkly underproduced music ever recorded. ''Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On'' and ''I Walk The Line'' had featured just three instruments and a vocalist. Those productions were going out of vogue. Phillips was frilly aware of that trend. Choruses were becoming commonplace, even on Sun Records, strings were becoming more common, horn sections were also a part of the changing face of rock and roll. In that environment, a Sun record would be indistinguishable from any other contemporary pop record.

The payola investigations were also effecting a subtle change in the industry. As the commission on payola held its hearings across the country, the most worried men were the bosses of the small independent record labels. Most had started in the rhythm and blues market where payola was a fact of life. Leonard Chess used it as a tax deduction. When the market for rhythm and blues product widened, those same men brought their freewheeling approach to the popular record market. Sun was certainly no exception. Jud Phillips had been very adroit at greasing the right palm and knowing precisely what it took to get a record moving off ground zero. He had left Sun back in 1958, at roughly the same that Cash had departed and Jerry Lee Lewis's career headed into its downswing, but those who followed in his footsteps making the rounds of the distributors and dee-jays knew how to take care of their friends.

When the payola investigations started, the industry went into a state of toxic shock. One could argue that it precipitated a move back to safer ground. The major labels, whose act had been somewhat cleaner, started to reassert their pre-eminence and there was a general atmosphere of retrenchment. Six of the Top Ten records from June 1957 had been on independent labels. Just three of the Top Ten in June 1960 were on independent labels. And the cleaner labels signed cleaner artists.

Phillips had founded his business on talent that had literally walked in off the street. Phillips himself gravitated towards the rawness he found in so many of those who stood before him, both black and white. Phillips still gravitated towards the rawness but the marketplace did not. Bill Justis and Jack Clement had started to take a greater role in production. They made records that were closer to mainstream and edged Sun into the changing times.

Country boys were walking through the door but the men to whom Phillips entrusted his productions could see no commercial merit in their rawness and unsophistication. They moved instead towards good looking boys with the pretty sound that followed the national trend. Sun was now following instead of leading.

The fact that Phillips was entrusting his productions in the hands of others bespoke his increasing lack of interest in his record labels. But then after you have discovered two of the most dynamic performers in rock 6 roll and one of the half dozen most influential voices in the history of country music, it must be hard to now what to do for an encore.

Phillips had made a lot of money from rock and roll but he sensibly decided to invest it elsewhere. To invest it back in nurturing pop singers would be akin to winning the lottery and using the winnings to buy lottery tickets. Instead Phillips turned to radio and other investments wholly outside the music industry.

Jim Dickinson, the Memphis producer and musician, sees Phillips' growing lack of involvement as an interruption of the creative flow that cannot be restarted. "Knox Phillips and I did a lot of work once trying to get Sam a session with B.B. King," recalled Dickinson. "We didn't think to ask him first. When we did, he said, 'No.' Knox said, 'You can't just say no. Why not?' Sam said, 'You can't just go to Picasso and ask him to paint a little picture'. That may be presumptuous of Sam but that's the way he saw it. Everything in recording is input and output and when you lose that signal flow, you never get it back. Or, if you do, it's not the same''.

However, not all was doom and gloom during Sun's last years. Phillips' taste for rhythm and blues reasserted itself when he recorded a stellar album by Frank Frost that became an essential statement of raw blues music from the 1960s. Other rhythm and blues based sides by Frank Ballard, Jeb Stuart and others were less artistically viable but still accounted for some fine music.

The Jackson Connection also gave Sun a steady infusion of top talent. Carl Perkins was long gone but Carl Mann was still looming large as the new decade dawned. He was followed by Rayburn Anthony and Tony Austin, both of whom contributed some unique and undervalued music.

Jerry Lee Lewis and Charlie Rich were still there until 1963. Both tried with varying degrees of success to recapture the initial flush of public acclaim. There were some experiments that are best forgotten but, more importantly, some music from their later years that ranks alongside their very finest work. Jerry Lee Lewis gave the old Sun label its last Hot 100 entry as his revival of Sweet Little Sixteen came and went in a flash. However, Jerry's final Sun session would represent a blueprint for the country superstardom that lay five years beyond the end of his last term on Sun.

Two Memphis hitmakers from 1959-1960, Harold Dorman and Thomas Wayne, who eluded Sun on the first go-round came into the fold to attempt a resuscitation of their careers. In both cases the ploy failed although some fine music resulted. Ray Smith, who had started on Sun, returned to try and recapture the success of Rockin' Little Little Angel. Again, the results were commercially disappointing.

Sun's involvement with country music which extended from the very dawn of the label continued into the 1960s. The music may have lacked the hillbilly vitality of much of the music that Phillips recorded in the early and mid-1950s but then the complexion of country music had changed a great deal since those far-off days.

By the end of Sun Records' existence as an independent Memphis-based label in early 1967, two factors were impossible to ignore. The first was the British invasion and the second was the nascent soul music explosion. Sun made belated gestures towards both. The British invasion owed much to Sun Records. Virtually all of the guitarists in the first wave of British groups had learned to play from Chuck Berry and Carl Perkins; and the acclaim accorded Jerry Lee Lewis on his second and third British tours in 1962 and 1963 showed the profound influence that he still exerted upon the way in which the Europeans understood and played rock music. The Yardbirds even came to the fountainhead and recorded a session in Memphis with Sam Phillips behind the board.

Phillips' son, Jerry, played in a group that seemed to owe more to the British interpretation of the Memphis heritage than to the heritage itself. The Jesters were a loose and sometimes musically incompatible aggregation that comprised too many disparate influences but nevertheless managed to come up with one genuinely magnificent record.

There were other one-shot artists who also showed some of the fire that had given the name 'Sun Records' such a mythic quality. Their conspicuous lack of success seems to imply that the marketplace lacked the ears or the willingness to hear. But perhaps Sun Records' growing lack of interest in promotion and their steadily shrinking distribution network doomed some records that were indeed genuine contenders.

And that is the mise en scéne for the final volume of the SUN RECORDS story. The music shows that there was still much to love on yellow Sun Records as the 1960s wore on. Perhaps more than had been thought. Some of the music may lack the striking originality and blistering quality of the finest music that appeared on Sun but much of the music remained true to its impressive legacy.

 

SAM PHILLIPS
Talking to Martin Hawkins, 9 September 1987

The Studios

"Sun Records moved into the 1960s in a new studio on Madison Avenue in Memphis. Our original premises on Union Avenue were really too small and outdated.

I built the new studio because I just felt that recording technology was improving and that we needed to move along to keep pace technically. Now this did not mean that I personally was abandoning the sound that had been so successful for Sun. The people working for me in the new studio probably did get a little caried away though - and I'm not blaming anybody - with the musical technology at the expense of the basic gut feeling in music. You see, good rock and roll , and that;s all we trying to archieve, that doesn't need 15 pieces all the time. We needed to record it the best way we could, technically, but we didn't need to have the technology make the music which is what increasingly happened in the music industry through the 1960s.

The new studio itself didn't have anything to do with the denise of Sun Records from its former prominent place in the music charts. The studio was fine. The running down of Sun was really a story of two parts. First , it was a tale of one man being just two damn busy to keep going at the same level of success. Then too it was to do with great changes in the music business.

As far as my time, see I was about two years planning and building that new studio and I had to hand over the day to day running of the other aspect to other people. Plus, I was more and more involved with other things. I had two radio stations and I had publishing and other business interest too. I was strung out across too many business commitments.

Then, too, I was building a studio and a sub office of Sun in Nashville at that time. Basically, the reason Sun, in my opinion, did not become a quote unquote 'major label' was that I preferred to invest my time in other things than to hook up in the record business with any of the major corporations. I just knew that I couldn't do the job the way I wanted to do it as part of the big company, and I did have several offers in those days.

In the 1960s things were changing rapidly and drastically as far as the distribution set-up went in the USA. Most top-selling artists were lured away from small companies during the later part of the 1950s, as with Sun, and a number of the indie labels themselves were being bought out by a major label corporation. I could see what was coming about and I wanted no part of it. It is not my way to work for somebody.

I carried on recording in a small way through the 1960s. I know that there was a real world out there that was saying hey, if you want to be somebody and be a major forte the the music business, you have to fall in with a major corporation to ensure you get your records on the street. A lot of the indepedented record distributors were caving in under pressure and being taken over by the majors and I just did not like that. I'm not saying it was wrong or anything - I'm just saying that my temperament and my personality and everything gave me just no interest In being a part of that.

As I said, I continued to be personally involved with recording throughout the 1960s but on a smaller scale. I supervised sessions throughout the early part of that decade though I had more people to assist with engineering and arrangements than back in the old studio.

The administrative aspect of it had become so time-consuming by about 1958, once Sun really began to sell records, that I just had to have some help. I tried to keep control of everything as long as I could because that is the way I work, but it just wasn't practical.

Bill Fitzgerald was General Manager of Sun Records from about 1959, certainly In the last two years of the old studio. We had promotional people Barbara Barnes was a very good promo lady and was with us some time before she went back to teaching. Then I had various people in charge of sales and so on Cecil Scaife, my brother Jud for a time. All these people played a part in keeping Sun Records on top at the time.

In the studio, Bill Justis and Jack Clement were the only helpers for a long time. Then after they left sometime toward the end of 1958, I had several other engineers and arrangers. Ernie Barton worked for me a while although we never were too successful with Erie's arrangements – he was inclined toward a too full sound, strings and all. Later on Charlie Underwood and Scotty Moore worked the Madison Avenue studio. Toward the last few years of Sun my son Knox Phillips started looking after the studio and he really recorded the most of the things that came out on Sun at the last. Of course, he was a younger man and he had new ideas. He wanted a much bigger sound than me, but he is an excellent producer and many of the things he did were good.

As far as the Nashville studio, we ran that between 1961 and 1964 and I always supervised recordings over there as far as I could.

I think that of all the people that worked for me back then, Billy Sherrill who was the engineer in the Nashville studio had a pretty good basic feel for what I wanted. On top of that he was a really excellent musician. Now Billy was aware that things were changing in music and he had a tendence to arrange things a little more than was my way. There's not necessarity anything wrong with that but the musicians I put together in a studio always had to have a little freedom so they could be confident about what they were doing but fresh-sounding at the same time.

I opened up in Nashville because I felt that Nashville could be a good centre for not only country music, but for the range of music we were recording. I was at the same time trying to bring in there a new kind of influence in the recording business. I told the Musician Union over there that I needed to bring my people in, but my musicians had a kinda hard time to get in the Union over there. That was one problem we faced. But the bottom line was my time. I was never able to make myself have the confidence in other people. I knew they were talented people and Billy Sherrill has proven that. He was very knowledgeable about what I wanted to do and he was a great mixer though often it just didn't come out the way I knew it could have. We tried to bring in a little of a new concept over there but I just didn't stay with it personally long enough to usher it in frilly. There was so much opposition from the people in Nashville.

The first sessions we did on Jerry Lee Lewis and Charlie Rich in Nashville turned out real well. I thought although it was never quite as authentic as the Memphis studio. The two studios were very comparable as far as equipment and so on. The musicians we used from Nashville were entirely different though. They were ''real'' musicians and the problem is that musicians often care too much about how they sound as an individual, rather than how the whole thing turns out as far as style and feel and sound.

Billy Sherrill always wanted to record Jerry Lee Lewis but I never would let him. I didn't think anyone else would get the backbeat and the accents that I felt were necessary for Lewis to record well.

Vinnie Trauth worked for me for some time in the 1960s. He was a well trained musician and a damn fine arranger. He had the capability I thought to do really well, the potential. He had been working at the Pepper jingle studio here in Memphis and I was impressed with his work and took him from there. Vinnie was a very talented man, the kind of guy you love to work with. His mind was very open to me. He was a good 'ol coonass from Louisiana and he didn't just have talent but also a little down to earth realism. You've got to have imaginative people around you but you need that basic sense that stops people getting carried away. Vinnie produced many sessions in Memphis in the 1960s and it's just a shame that I didn't spend enough time with him for us to complement each other fully.

The Musicians

Carl Mann was a very laid-back kind of boy and his style did not really suit me yet I liked his music and that was why we took a chance on him. He came in with a guitar player named Eddie Bush who had a very unusual style of playing. That guitar was integral to my liking of the Mann band.

I saw a place in the market for Frank Frost even though it was the most bluesy thing I had recorded in years. By the 1960s there were more radio stations that could expose the blues to the white audience than there had been earlier, and although rock music had gone in other directions I felt that there was a chance of going against the odds and producing down home solid blues that would still get played bought have been a very
big artist. My long time friend from Nashville, John ., the DJ, rang me and told me that the on Frank Frost was the best record that he a ever heard. And John R .was a big name, he didn't have any reason to call me and just say that.

Brother James Anderson was a black minister that Knox recorded. He put the idea to me and I conceded that we would try out a gospel record because my mind went back full circle. Not to start up the old sounds again, but I have such a feeling for the blues and spirituals that I felt we needed to move back towards the origins of our music. The rock world had moved on so far in other directions at that time.

The Climates were four black boys from here in Memphis. Knox cut the sessions on them for Sun and Holiday Inn. They were a very talented group, just vocalists. We put a studio band with them, a fine band with I think Tommy Cogbill and his group.

Billy Adams was an artist I recorded for Sun. He was really a novelty type of act who worked at the Old Hideaway Club. He liked to sing old rhythm and blues things, but he was not an original. Now Bill Yates was a different altogether. Bill worked often with Billy Adams but he had an awful lot of soul in his voice. He was probably as versatile, without being a copyist, as any artist I worked with. He had a lot of merit and it is a real shame that we were not able to get a hit for him. He was a man who made you want to listen when he opened his mouth to sing, and he played the piano like it should be played, he was a talent.

If I recall rightly I cut Rayburn Anthony in the old studio and in the new one. We tried out several things, even some old Tin Pan Alley type things. Rayburn had a Carl Mann sort of approach though maybe a better voice. I never felt that we got anywhere near what we were looking for on Rayburn. We went down the wrong road with him probably.

Ray Smith was a hell of a talent. He was an artist that really should have made it and stayed up there. When he came back to Sun for a second period, I recorded a song called ''Candy Doll'' which was quite good but maybe was a little too close to Roy Orbison's ''Candy Man''. But ''Travellin' Salesman'' was the record that should have done it for Ray. I cut that one in Nashville and I was very proud of that. It should have been a big hit. In earlier days I would have stayed on it longer, pushing it till it hit. By the time that record came out I had less time and the independent distributors we used were just not strong enough to really make it happen.

The Eddie Bond gospel album was something I picked up. It was not recorded by me, but by Jack Clement. Jack had the Echo Studio on Manassas Avenue and he and Stan Kesler came to me with those tapes. Now I never had seen the merit in Eddie Bond as a recording artist - he was a good DJ and a great showman on stage - and I still feel that way. For some reason Jack put the deal to me and I decided to go along with it. It did surprisingly well locally due to Eddie's contacts and radio show but I don't think it was really ever going anywere.

Dane Stinit's big problem was that he sounded so much like Johnny Cash. That's a strike against you, right there, before you start to record. He was a Cash fan, and so am I, so I took the chance that I could do something with that limited kind of sound that Johnny himself was no longer doing. That was why I went into that venture. I knew we'd be accused of copying but that really wasn't what it was about. It was a statement about the roots of country music but I guess it didn't really seem to come off''.

SUN RECORDS : AN INSIDERS VIEW
Cecil Scaife in conversation with Colin Escott

Cecil Scaife has enjoyed a thirty year career behind the scenes in the record business. He has worked for Hi, Sun, Columbia/CBS and his own labels and, looking out over the Columbia River, from his palatial house in the suburbs of Nashville, he can look back on a good measure of success.

Scaife originally saw his future in the movie industry. Born in Helena, Arkansas, he was spotted on a talent search and despatched to Tinsel Town. With thirty five years hindsight, Scaife wishes that he had stayed but the movie industry seemed to be in a terminal decline. Paramount, the studio who had brought him out to the West Coast, was putting new productions on hold and filming its remaining commitments in 3-D.

After another brief sent as a protégé of M.GM., which saw Scaife go to New York and act in a couple of off-Broadway productions, he returned to Memphis and became the first frill-time employee of Hi Records. At that point, Hi were just on the point of opening their tiny operation out of a house that Poplar Tunes and Hi Records boss Joe Cuoghi had leased on Poplar Ave. It also contained the first Hi studio which was, as Scaife noted, a ''prehistoric set-up''.

Scaife worked on getting Carl McVoy off the ground and then received a phone call in the wee hours of the morning.

On Joining Sun

"I was back in Helena. Sam phoned me and asked me what I was doing. It was about two o'clock in the morning and of course I was sleeping. Sam asked' me if I wanted to come up to Memphis and talk to him about joining Sun. He was wanting to make a fast move because Jud had just left. That night I went to Memphis and had dinner with Sam and Sally Wilbourn out at the Embers. I could see that Hi wasn't going to get off the ground immediately so I went with Sun''.

"I started right away making the rounds of the radio stations and distributors. We usually tried to have different distributors for Sun and Phillips International in most centers because we felt that we got better promotional coverage that way. We worked local sock hops and local television shows that featured rock and roll artists. It was an exciting time to join the record business''.

On Jerry Lee Lewis

"Just after I joined Sam, it was my awesome task to try and take Jerry's image and get a new direction for him. The press was making mincemeat out of him. At that time he had his hair peroxided blonde and it was extra long. That was the image that the cartoonists caricatured. He would be holding his wife's hand in these cartoons like she was five years old. Holding a teddy bear, you know. 'I had a very serious talk with Jerry regarding his image. We went next door to Taylor's restaurant and sat down in a booth. Jerry had one of his pickers with him. He always had someone with him. You could rarely get him one-on-one. I told him what I thought we should do in as much detail as I thought he could absorb in one sitting. What I wanted was to get him out of the typical rock and roll regalia. Ive League was in. I wanted him to get a crewcut. I wanted to have a press conference and invite key members of the press and announce that he was somewhat remorseful. He would take on an adult image''.

''We discussed it for over an hour. Jerry was very polite and listened. He would not every once in a while, but he kept looking at his watch. Finally, he shook it like it wasn't working and he looked at his buddy across the table and said, 'What time is it'? The guy said, 'It's five before one' Jerry said, 'Oh! The double feature starts at the Strand in five minutes. It's Return of the Werewolf and The Bride of Frankenstein meets Godzilla'! Then he jumped up and left the table. That was the last time we discussed Jerry's image''.

''I remember I later cut a terrific version of ''Will The Circle Be Unbroken'' with Jerry but Sam wouldn't let me release it. Jerry was a phenomenal entertainer. When he came to Memphis we'd go into the studio and, while we were going over material, he would play to you as if you were 10,000 people. He would sit there and entertain you. He had this innate ability to perform''.

On Charlie Rich

''The truth was that it wasn't in Charlie's nature to perform. He was a great talent but had a hard time recognising his talent and believing in himself. He only believed in himself as a writer. He would tighten up when he was singing and try to sing higher than he could have but the problems really began when you got him out of the studio and on the road. He could make a front man like me a little nervous''.

''Charlie was a good looking guy and, on promo trips, people would mistake him for Elvis Presley. He had that look. He looked like a star and he could have been a star then if he'd had the desire. He was so shy, though. I remember one time we were on the Dick Clark show out of New York. We were trying to break ''Lonely Weekends''. Charlie was a nervous wreck and perspiring something awful. I said, 'Charlie, all you gotta do is just sit here and lip sync it. The mike's dead. Dick Clark tried to interview him and Charlie just clammed up. Dick would ask a question and then have to answer it. I thought that this was the end of us with Dick Clark but Dick helped us with other artists''.

On Carl Mann

''You know, the last two hits of any size on Sun came out of the old studio, ''Lonely Weekends'' and ''Mona Lisa''. And ''Mona Lisa'' was my baby''.

''Before Jack or Bill got canned, they had invited this group from Jackson. I think Rayburn Anthony was supposed to be the front man. Anyway, his car blew up on him so we just had the backing group: Carl Mann, Eddie Bush and W.S. Holland. We waited a couple of hours and the musicians decided that they would entertain themselves. Carl did a beat arrangement of ''Mona Lisa'' which was one of my favourite songs. He was playing it on the piano and faking a lot of it, playing with two fingers on his left hand and three on his right. I turned the machine on and I remember thinking, 'This ole boy has the potential of cutting a hit if we can get it right''.

''I couldn't wait for Sam to hear ''Mona Lisa'', but he wasn't interested in it Weeks and months went by and Conway Twitty was on his way into town and called me to see if I had any material for him to record sitting in our publishing catalogues. He was coming off ''It's Only Make Believe'' and I had helped to get that song off the ground when I was on the road because we had been friends back in Helena. I spread the word and even handed out records. I told Conway when he came in that we didn't have anything that we owned but we had an arrangement on ''Mona Lisa'' that sounded good I played him Carl's arrangement and he got real excited. He said, 'I don't believe you're give this to me'. I said, 'You can borrow arrangement if you put it on an LP. I still have hopes of putting it out on Carl as a single''.

''MGM put it out on the LP and then pulled an EP from the album. It started hitting the charts in Minneapolis and it was doing good in the mid-West I took the charts to Sam and said, 'We're losing a hit'. Sam said, 'l don't put out mediocre product'. I thought on that for a while and then there was a dee-jay convention coming up in Miami. I just hated to lose the record and see Conway get the credit. I said, 'Sam, unless you tell me not to put out Carl's version of ''Mona Lisa'', I'm gonna put it out and do a promo number down in Miami that everyone will remember'. So I went to Miami and hired a model to stand in the hotel lobby with a sash saying, Ask Me About Mona Lisa'. She was handing out promo copies, too. She got the attention. Then I persuaded Sam to let me put an ad in Billboard with that same girl. I was telling everyone that Carl had the original version even though Conway's had come out''.

''I took Carl on a whirlwind promo tour through Atlanta, Charlotte, Baltimore and New York Dick Biondi was in Buffalo at that time on a 50,000 watt station and Dick called me when I got back. He was gonna lay on it 'til he broke it. And he did. It became one of the last really big hits on Sun".

On Sun Studios

''We had problems at 639 Madison from day one. For a start, the roof leaked because the building had a number of flat roofs. Every time it rained, I'd have to go over there with buckets and mops. It delayed the opening for six months. Then the room wasn't tuned properly. I took some Nashville guys over there to record and they walked out. The sound was too hot. Too alive. It didn't have the range that the old studio had. The board was never right either. It was awful hard to create there. 706 Union had a terrific atmosphere. A creative atmosphere. There was a naturalness about it and you felt up when you walked in the new studio had a sterile atmosphere. It was like a doctors office. It was too state-of-the-art''.

''Soon after we opened the new studio Memphis, Sam got the idea to build one in Nashville. Memphis was slowing down as a recording centre and Nashville was really starting to happen. Sam visited Nashville one time and he was looking for a publishing office because Frances Preston at BMI was encouraging him to open up an arm of his publishing business in town. He was looking for office space in the old Cumberland Lodge Building which was a Masonic temple. It had wood floors and walls and high ceilings. It was a perfect ambient hall for back then when the character of the room made the difference. Sam saw the room and loved it''.

''I was down in Palm Beach, Florida looking after Sam's all-girl radio station down there, He called me and said, 'Cec, I've found this room. It's be great for a studio. If you'll come and run the operation, I'll buy it' I hopped on a plane, came and looked at it and we made arrangements for me to move to Nashville and manage the studio. Billy SherrilL - would be the engineer. Kelso Herstom the session guitarist, would run the publishing companies from an office in the same building''.

''At that time the Cumberland Lodge Building was considered to be the music building. Mercury, the Wilburn Bothers, Tree and some other publishers were all there. I remember that the Wilburns brought Loretta Lynn there when she first came to Nashville. She practised walking on high heels on the marble floors outside our office. The Sun studio did a lot of demo work for Tree and a lot of publishers. We did a lot of custom work too. I remember Fats Domino came in there. I went out and bought him the biggest cowboy hat I could find when I heard he was coming in to record. His face lit up when he saw it. He tried it on and it fit perfectly. He said, 'Lawd almighty, how did you know my size?' I said, 'Fats, I just got the biggest one I could find''.

"I don't really know why Sam sold the studio. I know it had one problem that we couldn't correct - and that was the parking problem. WSM, the Capitol building and a lot of other companies were nearby and you just couldn't find a place to park there. When Sam was ready to sell, he called me and asked if I would be interested in buying it. I had left Sun by that time and was out on my own. I gassed and Fred Foster at Monument bought it''.

On Sam Phillips

''Sam's interest was really in radio during that time, I believe. Most of the time when we would meet, he would talk about the stations he was buying or applying for or expanding or enlarging the wattage or something. For some reason, his interest in the music business had diminished''.

''I know that he was concerned that sessions were getting more expensive and that was part of the reason that he canned Bill Justis and Jack Clement, I believe. He didn't want them to run up a budget on recording. Jack could be pretty close with a buck but Bill was a schooled musician and often brought in horns and voices. I think Sam had become disenchanted with the direction those two had been taking, especially the money spinning. The record sales weren't justifying it Sam also demanded loyalty and the official reason for their dismissal was ''insubordination'', I believe''.

"I think he also detested the expense involved in putting out albums. And he never really believed in them. I remember him saying, 'You're giving away all your singles.' It took a lot of persistence to get Sam to put out an album''.

''I learned a lot from Sam, though he was very astute man He had a lot of insight. He understood humanity and human nature. It was just demoralising to work there toward the end. It was an uphill battle. I had no budget to remote. Sam's thought was, 'If they happen - fine; if they don't - fine'. There was no honest effort in going to, say, Nashville or New York and getting songs together for a recording session''.

On Leaving Sun

''I had no reason to leave Sam except I couldn't make any money. I didn't own a piece of the company but I had a percentage of the profits, which were going steadily down. We parted on good terms. He actually paid me a backhanded compliment when I left. No, I guess it was a real compliment. Billboard asked him who he was going to get to replace me. He said, 'You don't replace Cecil Scaife.' I didn't realise he cared 'til I left".

Source: Cecil Scaife interviewed by Colin Escott, June 12, 1987

KNOX PHILLIPS ON THE LATER YEARS OF SUN RECORDS
By Colin Escott

As the 1960s wore on and both Jerry Lee Lewis and Charlie Rich departed for the greener climate at Mercury, Sam Phillips gradually lost interest in Sun Records. Much of the day-by-day activity of the label devolved to general manager Bill Fitzgerald and Sam's older son Knox. By the mid-1960s Knox was approaching the business of making records with much the same enthusiasm that his father had shown fifteen years earlier.

On working at Sun Records

''I started off shipping out promo copies. Even though we hadn't had a hit of any size since ''What'd I Say'' we still sampled 3500-4000 disc jockeys, distributors etc. We had a hand cranked stencil machine with all their addresses and one of my first jobs at the new studio was to ship out these samples records. At night they would often cut sessions and I used to keep the log on the tape boxes and so on''.

''Then, while I was at Southwestern (Vocational and Technical College), I started experimenting with the equipment and I just set out to find some artists who would experiment with me. I didn't have a tremendous amount of technical knowledge and most of it was self-taught. I just wanted something really strange because I had been raised on Jerry Lee Lewis sessions and drunk Charlie Rich sessions. I started experimenting with Randy and The Radiants and then ,later, with the Jesters, Jimmy Day and the Nights, Bob Simon and so on''.

On the studio equipment

''We had a four track machine and then we installed a three track machine because Scotty Moore wanted to be compatible with the studios in Nashville which were all working to three track, in those days. There were also two single track monaural machine in tandem with the multi-track and Sam would always regard what he got on the single track as the mix''.

''The console was arranged like a 'V'. It was very futuristic. I never had much to do with the equipment in Nashville. I know that it was sold along with the studio but we later got some of it back and used it in the Trace Studio that Sam opened with Ray Harris in Tupelo''.

On The Reasons For Sun Records' Demise

''The basic reason I believe was that Sam wasn't going to gamble the money promoting records any more. He had seen some of his friends go broke, such as the people who ran Vee-Jay, and he became just a little too conservative when the Memphis music industry really took off in the mid-1960s. That's a pity because the independent distribution network was still fairly strong. We would sample each record everywhere and we would test market most of them in a specific area. Bill Fitzgerald would hire independent guys in these markets to promote records – and we still had some records that sold strongly on a regional level. The problem was that there wasn't a commitment of spirit''.

Knox Phillips on the end of Sun Records

''There wasn't a moment when we said, ÓK, that's the last record we put out on Sun'. I just wanted to get some money behind something and then the Holiday Inn deal came along and that was the tacit end of Sun Records. I thought that if I produced something for Holiday Inn that there would at least become cash behind it''.

''I personally pushed the idea of selling the Sun Records catalogue. I know that Shelby had approached Sam back when he was working for Mercury. I remember that it went so far that Irving Green (Mercury president) came down but nothing ever happened. Sam didn't see it as a major priority. I know that Columbia talked to him, probably because they wanted the Johnny Cash masters, and Jerry Wexler came down from Atlantic. We also talked at some length to Chess. I knew Marshall Chess because he was my generation. I told Sam he should go with Chess. Marshall came down to see us with Eddie Braddock but, once again, it didn't get finalized''.

''I know that Sam had higher offers for Sun Records than Shelby's offer but he knew that Shelby would work the catalogue and would keep the Sun logo alive. I was all in favour of it at first because Shelby was hot in those days. I placed quite a few masters with Shelby immediately after we signed the deal. We produced some great records and those were great times. We had big hits with the Gentrys and that Cliff Jackson record should have been a monster. There were signs that it was going to break and then it just unaccountably died. That could have been a very profitable deal for Shelby and I both but it fell apart unfortunately''.

Knox Phillips interviewed by Colin Escott, December 10, 1987

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